History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - MECS Cluster Joint Mock Exams 2021/2022

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HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
PAPER 1

SECTION A (25MKS)
Answer all questions in this section

  1. Give the main method used by the archaeologists to gather historical data. (1mk)
  2. State environmental factors that contributed to the migration of the Bantu from their original Homeland. (2mk)
  3. State two similarities in the political organization of the Ameru and the Abagusii during the 19th Century. (2mks)
  4. Identify two archaeological evidence that prove that early visitors came to the East African coast. (2mk)
  5. State one element of a good citizen (1mk)
  6. Give economic factors that promote national unity (2mks)
  7. State one challange facing Nairobi city (1mk)
  8. Identify commissions established by the new constitution of 2010 (2mks)
  9. Give one right of a person with disability (1mk)
  10. Identify one council that was established during colonial period to assist the Governor in administration (1mk)
  11. State two features of missionary education (2mks)
  12. Name the political association formed in Western Kenya before 1939. (1mk)
  13. Mention the main contribution of Wangari Mathai in Kenya’s history (1mk)
  14. Give two non-military functions of the Kenya Army (2mks)
  15. Identify the National philosophy adopted in Kenya at independence. (1mk)
  16. Give two types of land ownership in Kenya. (2mk)
  17. Identify one fund to which collected revenue by the national government is deposited (1mk)

SECTION B
Answer any three questions from this section

  1.                
    1. State five economic activities of the Borana during the pre-colonial period (5marks)
    2. Explain five results of the interaction between the Bantu and the Cushites in the pre-colonial period. (10marks)
  2.         
    1. State five terms of Devonshire White paper of 1923 (5marks)
    2. Explain five methods used by colonial government to promote settler Agriculture. (10marks)
  3.       
    1. State three problems that independent schools and churches faced in colonial Kenya. (3marks)
    2. Explain six roles played by women in the struggle for independence in Kenya. (12marks)
  4.      
    1. Identify three settlement schemes established by the government in independent Kenya (3marks)
    2. Explain the major challenges facing health sector after independence (12marks)

SECTION C
Answer Any Two Questions From This Section

  1.          
    1. Give three conditions that a person should meet to qualify to be a Kenyan citizen by birth. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six social rights of an individual in Kenya (12 marks)
  2.      
    1. List five principles of the rule of law in Kenya. (5marks)
    2. Describe the functions of high court in Kenya (10marks)
  3.      
    1. State five challenges faced by the National Government in its attempt to raise revenue. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five ways in which the government of Kenya controls public finance. (10 marks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1. Give the main method used by the archaeologists to gather historical data. (1 mark)
    • Excavation

  2. State environmental factors that contributed to the migration of the Bantu from their original Homeland. (2mks)
    • Diseases and infection
    • Drought and famine
    • Floods
    • Unreliable rainfall

  3. State two similarities in the political organization of the Ameru and the Abagusii during the 19th Century. (2mks)
    • They both had a council of elders
    • They had age-set system which provided warriors for the community.
    • Had a decentralized system of government

  4. Identify two archaeological evidence that prove that early visitors came to the East African coast. (2mks)
    • Remains of pottery
    • Remains of beads
    • Remains of coins(Roman, Chinese, Greek, Persian)
    • Remain of carbonized seeds
    • Remains of ruins of city states e.g. Gedi, Kilwa
    • Inscriptions of Persian and Portuguese designs.

  5. State one element of a good citizen (1mk)
    • Thrift
    • Integrity
    • Morality
    • Patriotism
    • Nationalism
    • Ethics

  6. Give economic factors that promote national unity (2mks)
    • Trade
    • Usage of one currency
    • Fair distribution of national resources
    • Employment

  7. State one challenge facing Nairobi city (1mks)
    • High crime rates
    • Pollution- air, water, noise, land
    • Traffic congestion
    • Inadequate housing/ emergence of slums
    • Overstretched social amenities
    • Social evils e.g prostitution
    • High unemployment rate

  8. Identify commissions established by the new constitution of 2010 (2mks)
    • The Public Service Commission - Commission on Revenue Allocation
    • The Parliamentary Service Commission - Commission for Higher Education
    • The Judicial Service Commission
    • The Teachers Service Commission
    • The National Police Service Commission
      NB TICK FOR ANY RELEVANT COMMISION

  9. Give one right of a person with disability (1mk)
    • To be treated with dignity and respect
    • To access educational institutions and facilities
    • To reasonable access to all places, public transport and information
    • To use sign language, braille or other appropriate means of communication
    • To access materials &device to overcome constraints arising from the person’s disability.

  10. Identify one council that was established during colonial period to assist the Governor in administration (1mk)
    • Executive Council
    • Advisory Council

  11. State two features of missionary education (2mks)
    • It was elementary – taught basic skills e.g. reading
    • It was industrial/technical teaching simple skills e.g. carpentry/tailoring etc.
    • It was denominational/aimed at teaching doctrines of a particular church

  12. Name the political association formed in Western Kenya before 1939. (1mk)
    • Young Kavirondo Association / Kavirondo Taxpayers welfare Association

  13. Mention the main contribution of Wangari Mathai in Kenya’s history (1mk)
    • The conservation of the environment

  14. Give two non-military functions of the Kenya Army (2 mrks)
    • Road and bridge construction
    • Extinguishing uncontrollable fires in forests and urban areas
    • Locust control
    • Evacuation of the civilian population during natural calamities such as floods/ emergency evacuation.
    • Entertaining the public during national holidays
    • Running some government departments/institutions.
    • In some areas they give medical services.

  15. Identify the National philosophy adopted in Kenya at independence. (1mk)
    • Harambee philosophy

  16. Give two types of land ownership in Kenya. (2mks)
    • Public land
    • Community land
    • Private land

  17. Identify one fund to which collected revenue by the national government is deposited (1mk)
    • The consolidated fund
    • The revenue fund
    • The equalization fund
    • The contingency fund.
  18.              
    1. State five economic activities of the Borana during the pre-colonial period (5mks)
      • They were nomadic pastoralists & kept camels, sheep, cattle, and donkeys
      • They traded with their neighbouring communities
      • They made crafts, sandals, belts, bracelets, pottery, basketry
      • They hunted and gathered for wild animals & fruits
      • Those who lived near rivers & lakes practiced fishing
      • Some practiced iron smelting for weapons
      • Some practiced land cultivation in crops like millet

    2. Explain five results of the interaction between the Bantu and the Cushites in the pre-colonial period.
      • Intermarriages which strengthened relationships between communities
      • Some Bantu adopted Islam from the Cushites.
      • Some Bantu copied some customs of the Cushites such as circumcision and age set systems.
      • The Bantu and Cushites raided each other for cattle which led to loss of property and lives
      • Increased warfare in the region for resources.
      • Cushites attacked the Bantu which led to further migration (e.g. Oromo/galla pushed the Eastern bantu from Shungwaya). Displacement
      • The Cushites and the Bantu exchanged goods which led to the development of trade.
      • Some Cushites were absorbed/assimilated by the Bantu.
        Any 5 x 2 = 10marks

  19.      
    1. State five terms of Devonshire White paper of 1923
      • The Kenya highlands to be exclusively for white settlers
      • The Asians would elect 5 members to the Legco, on a communal roll
      • The European settlers demand for self rule was rejected
      • Racial segregation in all the residential areas plus restriction on immigration was abolished
      • African interests to be given priority before those of the immigrant races if there is a conflict
      • The colonial secretary to exercise strict control over the affairs of the colony
      • A missionary would be nominated to the Legco to represent African interests
      • The settlers had to maintain their representation in the Legco thus still enjoying the upper hand

    2. Explain five methods used by colonial government to promote settler agriculture
      • land alienation from the Africans / creation of reserves / squatters
      • Introduction of hut tax
      • Introduction of the kipande system
      • Africans not allowed to grow cash crops to avoid competition
      • Development of extensive transport and communication network e.g. roads and railways
      • Provision of security for the settlers
      • Provision of credit facilities e.g. loans
      • Formation of cooperatives to help in marketing and processing of the produce e.g. A.F.C
      • Provision of technical assistance e.g. extension officers, agriculture and research stations to Improve on quality of crops and animals 5 x 2 = 10mks
  20.             
    1. State three problems that independent schools and churches faced in colonial Kenya (3mks)
      • Harassment by the colonial government
      • Lacked trained teachers.
      • Inadequate funds
      • Inadequate teaching/ learning facilities
      • Leadership wrangles/ poor leadership
      • Competition from government and mission schools

    2. Explain six roles played by women in the struggle for independence in Kenya. (12mks)
      • Acted as soldiers under Mau Mau e.g. Marshall Muthoni.
      • Organized and coordinated the rural network through which supplies were acquired.
      • Supplied fighters with food, medicine, guns, cloths and ammunition.
      • Composed songs and hymns that motivated fighters and ridiculed home guards and colonial agents.
      • Acted as spies on behalf of Mau Mau fighters by befriending the colonial officials.
      • Women mobilized men to join the movement.
      • Women participated in oath taking ceremonies.
      • Provided moral support.
      • Demanded for release of arrested fighters.
      • Raised funds for supporting political activities.
      • Kept homes intact as men continued with the struggle

  21.         
    1. Identify three settlement schemes established by the government in independent Kenya. (3mks)
      • The Million Acre Scheme
      • The Harambee Scheme
      • The Haraka Scheme
      • The Shirika Scheme

    2. Explain the major challenges facing health sector after independence 12mks
      • Due to fast rising population it stretches medical limits.
      • High rate of accidents and injuries on roads
      • Pollution of environment has increased allergy related ailments
      • Poverty and malnutrition render many people vulnerable to diseases
      • Illegal abortion and early pregnancies endanger the lives of mothers
      • The HIV &AIDS and other diseases i.e diabetes and heart diseases
      • Some cultural practices e.g FGM,
      • Cost sharing policy introduced by the government hinders the poor from accessing health services

  22.           
    1. Give three conditions that a person should meet to qualify to be a Kenyan citizen by birth (3 marks)
      • If the father, mother or both of the person are Kenyan citizens
      • A child found in Kenya who appears to be less than 8 years of age and whose nationality is unknown
      • A former Kenyan citizen by birth who reapplies to regain Kenyan citizenship.

    2. Explain six social rights of an individual in Kenya (12 marks)
      • The right to health care services of reasonable standards
      • Right to housing which are accessible and adequate
      • Right to have adequate food
      • Right to regular supply of water
      • Right to appropriate social security to persons who are unable to support themselves and their dependants
      • Right to accessible formal education in order to promote literacy
      • Right to embrace culture/languages
      • Right to clean environment and sanitations
      • Right to a name/identity
  23.           
    1. List five principles of the rule of law in Kenya.
      • All laws to be prospective and open
      • Law to be stable, not changing too often
      • Making of certain laws to be guided by open, stable, clear and general rules
      • The independence of the judiciary must be guaranteed
      • The principle of natural justice must be adhered to before action is taken
      • Courts to have power to review the implementation of these principles
      • Courts to be easily accessible

    2. Describe the functions of high court in Kenya (10marks)/
      • Has unlimited original and appellate jurisdiction
      • Hear cases involving any amount of money or cases of serious crime.
      • Deals with election petition except presidential election.
      • Exercises general supervision of the subordinate courts
      • Has provisional power-It can correct any irregularities in decision by lower courts
      • Has administered jurisdiction over maritime or naval affair
      • Hear cases regarding inheritance
      • Has unlimited territorial jurisdiction
  24.              
    1. State five/ challenges faced by the National Government in its attempt to raise revenue. (5 marks)
      • High rate of corruption
      • People have negative attitude towards tax payment
      • High interest rates on loans borrowed by the government from the World Bank and other donors.
      • Evasion of taxes by people and organizations
      • High rate of insecurity caused by terror attacks which discourage foreign investors
      • Dishonesty in wealth declaration making it difficult for the government to implore the current taxes
      • Keeping of money in foreign banks by some Kenyans.- PANDORA scandals
      • Capital flight through foreign investors.

    2. Explain five ways in which the government of Kenya controls public finance.(10 marks)
      • Through preparation of the National budget which is approved by the Parliament before any expenditure is undertaken.
      • The cabinet Secretary for finance may stop transfer of funds to a state organ if he / she feels it is being misused.
      • Through the use of public Accounts Committee in which all reports on government ministries are presented for scrutiny and monitoring.
      • The Controller of Budget has the role to oversee the implementation of the budget of the national government
      • Through the use of Auditor General who audits the expenditure of all government corporations.
      • Through the use of Ethics and Anti-Corruption commission which investigate and recommend prosecution of officials who misuse public funds.
      • The Public Procurement and Disposal Act established procedures for acquiring and disposing of obsolete assets and equipment by public bodies.

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