History Paper 2 Questions and Answers - MECS Cluster Joint Mock Exams 2021/2022

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HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
PAPER 2

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  • Answer all question in section A
  • Choose any THREE questions in section B and any TWO questions in section C

SECTION A

  1. Identify the form of government where people vote in their leaders regularly. (1mk)
  2. State one distinct characteristics of Homo erectus. (1mk)
  3. Mention two crops grown by farmers in the Nile valley by 5000 BC. (2mks)
  4. Identify one type of trade. (1mk)
  5. Why is the camel referred to as the ship of the desert? (2mks)
  6. State two characteristics of industrial revolution in Britain. (2mks)
  7. State one disadvantage of smoke signals as a means of communication (1mk)
  8. State the Role of religion in the growth of Athens. (1mk)
  9. Give the functions of the Lukiiko (2mks)
  10. State two peaceful methods used by Europeans to acquire colonies in Africa. (2mks)
  11. Name the person who declared Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Zimbabwe (1mk)
  12. Outline two ways the nationalists in Ghana used in their struggle for independence. (2mks)
  13. Identify the immediate cause of the Second World War. (1mk)
  14. Give one agreement signed to control the cold war (1mk)
  15. Give two organs of the EAC. (2mks)
  16. Identify the main challenge facing the Democratic Republic of Congo after independence (1mk)
  17. Identify two levels of election in the USA (2mks)

SECTION B (45 MARKS

  1.          
    1. State five ways in which the discovery of fire improved man’s way of life. (5mks)
    2. Explain five remedies to food shortages in Africa. (10mks)
  2.      
    1. State three benefits of the currency trade. (3mks)
    2. Explain factors that undermined Trans-Atlantic trade. (12mks)
  3.     
    1. State three features of macadamized roads. (3mks)
    2.  Explain the positive impact of telecommunication. (12mks)
  4.     
    1. State three responsibilities of the Emirs in the British rule in Northern Nigeria. (3mks)
    2. Explain 6 differences between the British and French systems of colonial administration. (12mks)

SECTION C

  1.         
    1. State three factors that led to the decline of the Shona kingdom in the 19th C. (3mks)
    2. Describe the political organization of the Asante in the 19th C. (12mks)
  2.      
    1. State three social challenges experienced in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) since independence. (3mks)
    2. Explain the measures Tanzania has taken to revive her economy since 1980 (12mks)
  3.        
    1. Outline ways in which one becomes a member of the House of Lords. (3mks)
    2. Explain the functions of the President in India (12mks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1. Identify the form of government where people vote in their leaders regularly. (1mk)
    • Democratic government

  2. State one distinct characteristics of Homo erectus. (1mk)
    • He was upright/bi-feudal/walked on 2 legs.

  3. Mention two crops grown by farmers in the Nile valley by 5000 BC. (2mks)
    • Wheat
    • Barley
    • Flax
    • Beans
    • Cucumbers
    • Onions
    • Lentils
    • Dates
    • Figs
    • Grapes

  4. Identify one type of trade. (1mk)
    • Local trade
    • Regional trade
    • International trade

  5. Why is the camel referred to as the ship of the desert? (2mks)
    • Can go for a long period without food/water
    • Has big, flat feet suitable for walking on sandy and stony deserts.
    • Can eat a variety of vegetation
    • Can carry loads of up to 200kg and still be ridden.
    • Water lost through nostrils is taken back through the mouth
    • It reserves food in its hump
    • Ability to sense desert storms

  6. State two characteristics of industrial revolution in Britain. (2mks)
    • Use of machines instead of human labour
    • Rise of factory system replacing cottage industry
    • Use of new sources of energy
    • Production of goods in large quantities
    • Workers organised in shifts.
    • Application of scientific knowledge in production

  7. State one disadvantage of smoke signals as a means of communication (1mk)
    • One must be on the look out
    • It can be misinterpreted
    • Conveyed limited range of messages
    • Messages could only be sent for short distances
    • Affected by weather-difficult to start fire on wet conditions
    • Not visible on cloudy days

  8. Role of religion in the growth of Athens. (1mk)
    • Its name is derived from goddess Athena
    • Was a centre of worship with a large temple, Parthenon and other temples dedicated to other gods.
    • Its residents mostly were temple staff and priests.
    • Traders sold their wares to the worshipers.
    • Pilgrims would come to worship in Athens from all over the Mediterranean region.

  9. Give the functions of the Lukiiko
    • Advice / help the Kabaka in general administration
    • Approve expenditure
    • Make laws in the kingdom.

  10. State two peaceful methods used by Europeans to acquire colonies in Africa. (2mks)
    • Treaty making/signing
    • Use of treachery/luring of chiefs
    • Collaboration
    • Use of missionaries

  11. Name the person who declared Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Zimbabwe (1mk)
    • Ian smith

  12. Outline two ways the nationalists in Ghana used in their struggle for independence. (2mks)
    • Public rallies
    • Trade unions
    • Protests and demonstrations
    • Wrote publications e.g Accra evening news/media
    • International forums e.g. Pan Africanism
    • Constitutional negotiations.

  13. The immediate cause of the Second World War. (1mk)
    • Germany invasion of Poland on 1st September 1939

  14. Give one agreement signed to control the cold war (1mk)
    • Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty – START
    • Strategic Arms Limitation Talks - SALT

  15. Give two organs of the EAC. (2mks)
    • The summit
    • The council of ministers
    • The co-ordinating committee
    • The sectoral committee
    • The E.A court of justice
    • The EA legislature assembly
    • The secretariat

  16. Identify the main challenge facing the Democratic Republic of Congo after independence (1mk)
    • Political turmoil/ civil wars

  17. Identify two levels of election in the USA (2mks)
    • Election of state Governors
    • Election of the President
    • Election of the senators
    • Election of the members of the house of Representatives

  18.           
    1. State five ways in which the discovery of fire improved man’s way of life. (5mks)
      • man could warm himself at night and during the cold spells
      • it provided him with light at night enabling him to work continuously
      • it enabled him to cook roots and roast meat
      • it enabled him hunt easily
      • it provided him with security from dangerous animals.
      • It enabled him harden his tools making them more effective
      • It enabled him to migrate to other regions
      • It enabled communications with those afar.

    2. Explain five remedies to food shortages in Africa. (10mks)
      • Introduce new farming methods such as mechanization and application of scientific principles
      • Reduce taxes on farm inputs to encourage farmers to produce more
      • Invest in agricultural research to develop drought and disease resistant varieties to increase production
      • More land should be reclaimed through irrigation
      • Educate farmers on managing the environment e.g. afforestation, intercropping and terracing.
      • Provide more funds for agricultural development
      • To improve storage facilities to minimize post-harvest losses.
      • Also develop the infrastructure for good s to reach the market/industries.
      • Develop good national food policy.
      • Reduce civil strife. 

  19.       
    1. State three benefits of the currency trade. (3mks)
      • money can be stored over long period without losing its value
      • currency can be divided into smaller units to enable payment of only the agreed price
      • money is lighter hence portable
      • money can be converted into different forms
      • money is a measure of value
      • money is durable thus can be stored for long.

    2. Explain factors that undermined Trans-Atlantic trade. (12mks)
      • The French began producing cheaper sugar for European which reduced demand for slaves.
      • USA attained political independence which deprived the British of profits made from the slave trade.
      • The industrial revolution in Europe introduced machines which replaced human labour that reduced market for slaves.
      • The Christian missionaries advocated for the abolition of slave trade pressurizing the government to pass laws against slave trade.
      • Influential economists like Adam Smith argued that free labour is more productive than slave labour. This led to the decline of slave trade.
      • American civil war between the North and South where the North was against slavery won the war leading to abolition of slavery.
      • Frequent slave revolts in various states e.g. in Haiti, Jamaica, Antigua and British Guyana
      • Leading Africans e.g. king Nzinga Mbemba of Congo campaigned against slave trade.
      • The French revolution of 1789 spread ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity which challenged the institution of slavery and slave trade.
      • Legitimate trade became more popular than slave trade and eventually replaced it.The need to retain Africans in
      • Africa to produce raw materials for British industries after America defeated them.-( Colonisation)

  20.  
    1. State three features of macadamized roads. (3mks)
      • They were all-weather roads/water proof.
      • They were wide
      • They were durable
      • They were smooth/tarred
      • They were straight.
      • They were well drained.

    2. Explain the positive impact of telecommunication. (12mks)
      • It has enabled people to manage information efficiently i.e. storage for future use.
      • It has led to spread of ideas to different parts of the world making it a global village
      • It has promoted education by transmitting education programmes all over the world.
      • It has promoted entertainment through music, film and sport.
      • It has created employment opportunities thereby raising people’s standard of living
      • It has promoted trade through advertisements and e-banking has made trade transactions easier
      • It has enhanced security through the use of CCTV cameras to detect crime easily
      • It has provided government with revenue through taxation
      • It has promoted water, air, transport and space exploration, weather forecasting and navigation.
      • It has promoted banking through the use of automated teller machines.

  21.         
    1. State three responsibilities of the Emirs in the British rule in Northern Nigeria. (3mks)
      • Collected taxes
      • Recruited labour for public works
      • Headed local government
      • Tried cases in the local customary courts
      • Communicated colonial policies to the people
      • Supervised construction of roads and markets

    2. Explain 6 differences between the British and French systems of colonial administration. (12mks)
      • The British used professional administrators while the French used military officers.
      • British used direct or indirect rule while the French used assimilation and association.
      • The British system did not interfere much with the African culture while assimilation aimed at replacing African culture with French culture.
      • Africans in the British colonies were regarded as subjects but assimilated Africans in the French colonies became French citizens with full rights.
      • The elite in British colonies were subjected to the same harsh rules as the rest of the colonized while in French colonies the assimiles enjoyed privileges
      • The British granted African chiefs alot of powers while the French undermined traditional African rulers.
      • The laws in British colonies were made in respective legislative councils while laws in French colonies were legislated in France.
      • Each British colony was ruled separately by a resident governor while the French colonies were ruled together as a federation and were regarded as overseas provinces of France.
      • The British colonies were not represented in the British parliament but the French colonies elected their representatives to chambers of Deputies in Paris. 

  22.      
    1. State three factors that led to the decline of the Shona kingdom in the 19th C. (3mks)
      • The gold was exhausted which led to decline in revenue from the gold exports.
      • The trade routes which passed through the kingdom were shifted to the Zambezi valley in the north leading to loss of revenue that contributed to its decline
      • With increase in population land for cultivation and pasture declined leading to low production and consequent decline of the kingdom.
      • The Portuguese invaded the shona land during Mwene Mutapa rule thereby undermining the Shona kingdom.
      • Invasion and conquest by the Ndebele who ruled the kingdom upto the time of British invasion.

    2. Describe the political organization of the Asante in the 19th C. (12mks)
      • The Asante empire consisted of three parts i.e. Metropolitan Asante, provincial Asante and the Amatoo states.
      • Metropolitan was directly ruled by the Asantehene (kumasihene)
      • The asantehene ruled with advice from a confederacy/unions council made of kings forming the union. State kings were called Omanhene
      • Each state king swore an oath of allegiance to the Asantehene to give up right of declaring war at will on a fellow king.
      • The Asante had a strong military organization with a structure borrowed from the Akwamu. Military service was compulsory.
      • Asantehene had a golden stool that bound together the states while the omanhene had black stool that was sacred within their territory.
      • Had odwira festival to honour their dead and settle disputes. It involved all states.
      • Officials were appointed on merit and owed their allegiance to the Asantehene. They could be transferred/dismissed at will. They represented the king in conquered provinces and districts.
      • There was a body that levied and supervised tax collection, tolls and death duties. They also supervised state enterprises in trade, mining and ivory collection.

  23.           
    1. State three social challenges experienced in DRC since independence. (3mks)
      • high levels of illiteracy due inadequate access to education
      • poorly developed heath system leading to poor health
      • large influx of refugees from neighbouring countries.
      • Large number of internally displaced persons due to prolonged civil strife/wars.

    2. Explain the measures Tanzania has taken to revive her economy since 1980. (12mks)
      • Since 1980, private enterprise was encouraged after relaxing its economic policies after the failure of ujamaa policy
      • The government started many development projects such as small-scale industries in the rural areas. Textile, cement steel, rocks and trye factory have also been opened.
      • The government embarked on the construction of infrastructure that have linked various industrial centres. Roads, railways
      • Through Arusha declaration agricultural production has been boosted for domestic and export market.
      • The government replaced village co-operative societies with centralised agricultural bodies for marketing of farm produce e.g. national milling corporation, national coffee board
      • The government introduced free universal primary education to produce more skilled manpower and reduce illiteracy.
      • She joined the East African community that has expanded markets for her products
      • Transfer of her capital from Dares salaam to Dodoma has increased economic development in the mainland.
      • Political unity through chama cha mapinduzi has created a conducive environment for the growth of her economy. (12mks) 

  24.        
    1. Outline ways in which one becomes a member of the House of Lords. (3mks)
      • Appointment by the Mornach
      • Through inheritance
      • Appointment by virtue of office e.g judges of the court of appeal, archbishop of Canterbury.

    2. Explain the functions of the President in India (12mks)
      • has powers to make regulations for certain union territories.
      • Appoints the chief minister and lieutenant governor of the national capital territory of New Delhi and governors of states or union territories.
      • Establishes special councils to arbitrate on inter-state disputes
      • Nominates the 12 members of the council of states.
      • Is a member of the legislature.
      • Calls upon the leader of the winning party after elections to form government
      • Assents to bills before they become law
      • Dissolves the lower house of parliaments.
      • He / she is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces.
      • Declares a state of emergency when national security is threatened.
      • Pardons convicted criminals
      • Is a symbol of national unity. (12mks)

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