Biology Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Samia Joint Mock Examination 2021/2022

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INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES:

  1. Write your NAME and INDEX NUMBER in the spaces provided above.
  2. Sign and write the date of the examination in the spaces provided above.
  3. ALL answers must be written in the spaces provided.
  4. Additional pages must not be inserted.
  5. Candidates should check the question paper to ascertain that all the pages are printed as indicated and that no questions are missing.
  6. Candidates should answer all questions in English.
  1. State the significance of the following characteristics of living organisms. (2marks)
    1. Irritability
    2. Reproduction
  2. The scientific name lantana camara refers to a green herbaceous plant. Other related plants include lantana trifoliate and vitex trifoliate. From the list, identify the plants belonging to the same genus. (2marks)
  3. Which cell organelle will be abundant in: (2marks)
    1. Skeletal muscle cell
    2. Palisade cell
  4. An experiment was set up as shown below. The set up was left for 30 minutes.
    1
    1. State the observations made after 30 minutes. (1mark)
    2. Explain the observations made in (i) above. (3marks)
  5. The diagram below represents a section though a human tooth
    2
    1.      
      1. Name the type of tooth shown ( 1 mark)
      2. Give a reason for your answer in (a) (i) above (1 mark)
    2. State the functions of the structures found in part labeled J (2 marks)
  6. Describe what happens during the light stage of photosynthesis (3 marks)
  7. The diagram below represents part of the phloem tissue.
    3
    1. Name the structures labeled R, S and a cell labeled T(3amrks)
      R………………………………………………………………………………………............
      S……………………………………………………………………………………..................
      Cell T………………………………………………………………………………..................
    2. State the function of the structure labeled S. (1mark)
  8.      
    1. What prevents blood in veins from flowing backwards? (1mark)
    2. State two ways in which the red blood cells are adapted to their functions. (2marks)
  9. Differentiate between Active immunity and Passive immunity. (2marks)
  10. State three gaseous exchange structures in terrestrial plants. (3marks)
  11. Give two reasons why accumulation of lactic acid during vigorous exercise leads to an increase in heart beat. (2marks)
  12. The diagram below illustrates part of a Nephron from a mammalian kidney.
    4
    1. Name the fluid in the part labeled Q (1mark)
    2. Identify the process responsible for the formation of the fluid named in (a) above. (1mark)
    3. Which two hormones exert their effects in the Nephron? (2marks)
  13. Give one economic importance of the following plant excretory product. (1mark)
    1. Tannins
  14. The diagram below represents a living organism.
    5
    1. Name the structures labeled A and C (2marks)
      A…………………………………………. C………………………………………..
    2. Identify the kingdom of the above organism. (1mark)
    3. Give a reason for your answer in (b) above (1mark)
  15. Name the phylum, whose members posses a notochord. (1mark)
  16. Define the following terms: - (3marks)
    1. Ecological niche
    2. Habitat
    3. Carrying capacity
  17. The figure below shows the amount of DDT at different levels in a food chain in a lake.
    6
    1. At what trophic level is DDT most likely to have the highest marked effect? (1mark)
    2. Suggest two ways in which the birds might have come into contact with DDT (2marks)
    3. Extract and write down a food chain from the above figure. (1mark)
  18. Study the diagram below and use it to answer the questions that follow:
    7
    1. Name the part labeled E (1mark)
    2. What are the functions of the part labeled A? (2marks)
  19. Explain how the following factors hinder self-pollination in plants. (2marks)
    1. Protogyny
    2. Dioecism
  20.      
    1. Name the part of the flower that develops into each of the following (2marks)
      1. Seed coat.
      2. Seed
    2. State two environmental conditions that can cause seed dormancy (2marks)
    3. State two ways of breaking seed dormancy (2marks)
    4. Give one role of water in germination(1mark)
  21. Define the following terms as used in genetics. (3marks)
    1. Alleles
    2. Gene mutation
    3. Discontinuous variation
  22. State two sex-linked traits located on the Y- chromosome (2marks)
  23. State three limitations of using fossil records as an evidence for organic evolution (3marks)
  24. State three types of neurons (3marks)
  25. Define the following types of responses (3marks)
    1. Phototropism
    2. Chemotaxis
    3. Thigmotropism
  26. Differentiate between support and movement (2marks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1. State the significance of the following characteristics of living organisms. (2marks)
    1. Irritability
      • Enables an organism to move away from hostile environment/unfavorable stimuli
      • Enables an organism detect changes in their environment
    2. Reproduction
      • Ensures continuity of the species(organism)
  2. The scientific name lantana camara refers to a green herbaceous plant. Other related plants include lantana trifoliate and vitex trifoliate. From the list, identify the plants belonging to the same genus. (2marks)
    Lantana amara;
    Lantana trifoliate;
    (Underline separately)
  3. Which cell organelle will be abundant in: (2marks)
    1. Skeletal muscle cell
      Mitochondrion
    2. Palisade cell
      Chloroplast
  4. An experiment was set up as shown below. The set up was left for 30 minutes.
    1
    1. State the observations made after 30 minutes. (1mark)
      Visking tubing become swollen/ increased in size/ volume
    2. Explain the observations made in (i) above. (3marks)
      Distilled water in hypotonic; while sucrose solution is hypertonic; distilled water moved into the semipermeable visking through the process of osmosis
  5. The diagram below represents a section though a human tooth
    2
    1.      
      1. Name the type of tooth shown ( 1 mark)
        Premolar
      2. Give a reason for your answer in (a) (i) above (1 mark)
        Has two roots/ presence of two roots
    2. State the functions of the structures found in part labeled J (2 marks)
      1. Nerves - detect heat, cold and pain
      2. Blood capillaries - nutrients & oxygen to the living tunes of the dentine and removes waste products
  6. Describe what happens during the light stage of photosynthesis (3 marks)
    Chlorophyll molecules absorb light energies which is used to split water molecules into oxygen atoms, and hydrogen ions; a process called photosynthesis
  7. The diagram below represents part of the phloem tissue.
    3
    1. Name the structures labeled R, S and a cell labeled T(3amrks)
      R - Siere pore/plate
      S - Cytoplasmic strands
      Cell T - Companion cell
    2. State the function of the structure labeled S. (1mark)
      Trannslocations
  8.      
    1. What prevents blood in veins from flowing backwards? (1mark)
      Valves
    2. State two ways in which the red blood cells are adapted to their functions. (2marks)
      • Lacks a nucleus to create room for packaging more haemoglobin
      • Contains haemoglobin which has a high affinity for oxygen
      • Contains enzyme carbonic anhydrase that ensures temperature of CO2
  9. Differentiate between Active immunity and Passive immunity. (2marks)
    Active immunity is the form of acquired immunity in which the body produces its own antibodies against infections while passive immunity is the form of acquired immunity in which an individual is protected against infections by receiving antibodies
  10. State three gaseous exchange structures in terrestrial plants. (3marks)
    • Stomata
    • Lenticels
    • Pneumatophores
  11. Give two reasons why accumulation of lactic acid during vigorous exercise leads to an increase in heart beat. (2marks)
    • Lactic acid is toxic to tissues and must be removed from muscles to liver
    • To increase supply of oxygen to tissues
  12. The diagram below illustrates part of a Nephron from a mammalian kidney.
    4
    1. Name the fluid in the part labeled Q (1mark)
      Glomerular filtrate
    2. Identify the process responsible for the formation of the fluid named in (a) above. (1mark)
      Ultrafiltration
    3. Which two hormones exert their effects in the Nephron? (2marks)
      • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
      • Aldosterone
  13. Give one economic importance of the following plant excretory product. (1mark)
    1. Tannins
      • Treatment of leather
      • Sprinkled on red hot pots to give them attractive colour patterns
  14. The diagram below represents a living organism.
    5
    1. Name the structures labeled A and C (2marks)
      A - Cilia
      C - Contractile Vacuole
    2. Identify the kingdom of the above organism. (1mark)
      Protoctista
    3. Give a reason for your answer in (b) above (1mark)
      • Unicellular organism
      • Single-celled with a membrane bound nucleus and several other membrane bound organelles
  15. Name the phylum, whose members posses a notochord. (1mark)
    Chordata
  16. Define the following terms: - (3marks)
    1. Ecological niche
      The position that an organic ossupies in a habitat
    2. Habitat
      A specific locality with a particular set at conditions where an organism lives
    3. Carrying capacity
      The maximum number of organisms an area can comfortably support, without depletion of the available resources
  17. The figure below shows the amount of DDT at different levels in a food chain in a lake.
    6
    1. At what trophic level is DDT most likely to have the highest marked effect? (1mark)
      Tertiary consumers
    2. Suggest two ways in which the birds might have come into contact with DDT (2marks)
      • Through feeding on both types of fish
      • Through taking water
    3. Extract and write down a food chain from the above figure. (1mark)
      Water → Small fish → Large fish → Bird
  18. Study the diagram below and use it to answer the questions that follow:
    7
    1. Name the part labeled E (1mark)
      Vulva
    2. What are the functions of the part labeled A? (2marks)
      • Conduction of the ora released by the ovary to the uterus
      • Where fertilization occurs
  19. Explain how the following factors hinder self-pollination in plants. (2marks)
    1. Protogyny
      Is a condition in some flowers where the stamens ripen faster/ earlier and others shed pollein grains before the stigma is mature enough to receive them
    2. Dioecism
      Is a condition in some flowers
  20.      
    1. Name the part of the flower that develops into each of the following (2marks)
      1. Seed coat.
        Integuments
      2. Seed
        Ovule
    2. State two environmental conditions that can cause seed dormancy (2marks)
      • Absence of water
      • Unsuitable temperature
      • Lack of oxygen
      • Lack of light
    3. State two ways of breaking seed dormancy (2marks)
      • Scarification - i.e the scarcity to make impermeable seed coat permeable
      • Increase in concentration of hormones e.g gibberellins to stimulate germination
      • Favorable environmental factors e.g water, O2 , suitable temperature
    4. Give one role of water in germination(1mark)
      • Activates enzymes and provides the medium for enzymes to act and break down the stored food into soluble form
      • Hydrolyses & dissolves the food materials and is also the medium of transport of dissolved food substances
  21. Define the following terms as used in genetics. (3marks)
    1. Alleles
      Are alternative forms of the same gene that controls the development of a pair of contrasting traits
    2. Gene mutation
      Refers to the change in the chemical structure of a gene
    3. Discontinuous variation
      Is a type of variation where there are definite district groups of individuals with no intermediate forms
  22. State two sex-linked traits located on the Y- chromosome (2marks)
    • Tuff of hair on the ear and in the nose
    • Premature baldness
  23. State three limitations of using fossil records as an evidence for organic evolution (3marks)
    1. There are several missing fossil redords/missing links
    2. Distortion of parts during sedimentation which may give wrong impression of the structure
    3. Destruction of fossils by geological activities e.g. earthquakes, faulting, uplifting & mass movement
  24. State three types of neurons (3marks)
    • Sensory neurones
    • Motor neurones
    • Relay neurones
  25. Define the following types of responses (3marks)
    1. Phototropism
      A growth curvature in response to the direction and intensity of light
    2. Chemotaxis
      A response to variation in chemical substances
    3. Thigmotropism
      A growth curvature in response to contact with a solid object
  26. Differentiate between support and movement (2marks)
    • Support - Is the ability of organisms to bear weigtht and maintain their body forms
    • Movement - Is the displacement of parts of the body of an organism e.g growth movements in plants and limbs of animals

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