Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Samia Joint Mock Examination 2021/2022

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Instructions:

  1. This paper has three sections A,B and C.
  2. answer all questions in sections A and B.
  3. Answer any two questions in section C.
  1. Name two situations under which irrigation is practiced (1mk)
  2. Give a reason why ranching is an improvised pastoral nomadism (1mk)
  3. State two ways by which a soil of PH 3 can be raised to a PH of 6 (1mk)
  4. Outline two effects of adding organic matter to sandy soil (1mk)
  5. State four functions of young farmers club in schools (2mks)
  6. Distinguish between a perfect and imperfect market. (1mk)
  7. Name four financial documents used in the farm (2mks)
  8. State four factors that determine the depth of planting (2marks)
  9. State four minimum tillage practices (2marks)
  10. Give four ways of improving labour productivity on a farm (2mks).
  11. State four forms of agroforestry .(2mks)
  12. A farmer plants maize on his piece of land measuring 40m by 30m at a seed rate of I seed per hole. If he used a spacing of 75cm by 25cm, Calculate this plant population.(2marks).
  13. State four reasons for conserving forage (2marks)
  14. Give four benefits of a land title deed (2mks)
  15. State four steps of gully formation (2mks)
  16. State two characteristics of a good root stock for grafting (1mk)
  17. State two main causes of silage loses (1mk)
  18. State four aims of land settlement programmes in Kenya (2mks)
  19. Give two factors that influence the stage at which crop is harvested(1mks)

    SECTION B(20MARKS)
  20. The illustrations below represent an experiment to compare the porosity and water holding capacity of three types of soils. Carefully study the experiment and then answer the questions that follow
    1
    1. Identify the soil in each of the funnels labeled (3marks)
      H ………………………………………..
      J…………………………………………
      K…………………………………………..
    2. Which of the three types of soil can be said to have the highest porosity rate?( ½ mk)
    3. Which type of soil would be suitable for planting paddy rice? (½mk)
  21. The diagrams below represent some panicles of varieties of Sorghum crop growing in the field. Study them carefully and answer the questions that follow.
    2
    1. Identify the types of panicles in each of the varieties represented by A,B and C
      Variety A…………………………………………………….(1mark)
      Variety B……………………………………………………..(1mark)
      Variety C………………………………………………………(1mark)
    2. Which of the varieties named in (a) above is less easily damaged by bird pests(1mrk)
    3. The diagram below represents a pest labeled D that infests Sorghum plants during early stages of establishment
      3
      1. Identify the pest (1mark)
      2. State two methods of controlling the pest named in C(i) above (2marks)
  22. Study diagram below and answer questions that follow.
    4
    1. Name the farming practice illustrated above.(1mark)
    2. Give the procedure followed to carry out the practice you have named in (i) above (3marks)
    3. state the importance of carrying out the farming practice named above. (1 mark)
  23. The diagram below shows common weeds, study them and answer the questions that follow.
    5
    1. Identify the weeds J and K. ( 2marks)
      J………………………………………………………………………………..
      K……………………………………………………………………………….
    2. State the effects of weed labeled Jto livestock. (1 mark)
    3. Give one reason why it is difficult to control the weed labeled L? ( 1 mark)

      SECTION C (40 MARKS)

      Answer only two questions in this section in the spaces provided.
  24. Describe the production of onions under the following sub headings
    1. Ecological requirements (4 marks)
    2. Planting (5 marks)
    3. Field practices (4 marks)
    4. Harvesting and marketing (7 marks)
  25.      
    1. Outline eight uses of farm records (8 marks)
    2. Explain the various ways by which a farmer can adjust to risks and uncertainties (6 marks)
    3. State precautions taken when harvesting pyrethrum (6mks)
  26.    
    1. Explain five causes of land fragmentation in Kenya since independence (5 marks)
    2. Describe the advantages of land consolidation and registration. (8 marks)
    3. Explain the objectives of land reform under taken in Kenya. (7 marks)

MARKING SCHEME

Section A

  1. During dry weather conditions and arid areas
    When growing paddy rice, which requires flooded seedbed
    To supplement rainfall
    To moderate temperature when it’s too hot
  2. Animals are enclosed in an area where management practice such as disease control, improved pastures, supplementary feeding and water are provided.
  3. Application of lime
    Application of basic fertilizer
  4. It increases water holding capacities of the soil
    It improves soil structure
    It buffers soil PH
    It improves soil fertility by releasing wide range of nutrients into the soil
    Humus which is mostly dark in color.
  5. Creates awareness about farming among the youth
    Organize rallies for the members
    Develop leadership qualities among the youths
    Exposing the youth to the existing and improved agricultural technology
    Teaching by carrying practical projects to show that agriculture can be profitable profession.
  6. Perfect markets –market situations where by firms are completely powerless in determining or influencing prices in the markets
    Imperfect market-situation where firms have some degree of market power to control prices.
  7. Invoice
    Statement
    Receipts
    Delivery note
    Purchase order
  8. soil type
    Seed size
    Soil moisture content
    Type of germination
    Ecological condition of the area
  9. Application of herbicides in controlling weed
    Use mulch on the soil surface
    Establishing cover crop on the field
    Timing cultivation
    Restricting cultivation to the area where seeds are to be planted
  10. Training
    Farm mechanization
    Labor supervision
    Giving incentives and improving terms and conditions of service.
  11. Agrosilviculture
    Silvopastoral
    Agrosilvapastoral
  12. Plant population = Area of land x seed rate
    Spacing of crop
    Formula – ½ mrk 400×300=120,000
                                 75×25       1875
    =64 plants
    Calculation – 1 mrk)
    Answer – ½ mrk (2mks) = 160 x 40 = 6400 plant
  13. To provide feed on the dry season
    To ensure better and fully utilization of available land
    To distribute available forage for stock throughout the year
    On large scale conserved forage can be sold i.e baled bay.
  14. Can be used to secure credit facility
    Security of tenure
    Occupant can lease land and get extra income
    Encourages investment in long term and permanent projects.
    Disputes concerning land boundaries or land ownership.
  15. movement of water from water shades
    Channel erosion caused by flowing water
    Wearing of the sides of the channels
    Scouring of the floor of channel moving water
  16. Health and free from pests and diseases
    Compatible with different scions
    Resistant to soil borne pests and diseases
    Adaptability of different soil conditions
  17. surface spoilage
    seepage losses
    gaseous losses
  18. To settle the landless citizens
    To relieve population pressure in densely populated areas
    Land reclamation especially by creating tsetse fly barriers
    To create self-employment thus improving living standards
    To improve or increase agricultural productivity by farming on land that was previously unused
  19. Stage of maturity of the crop (concentration of required chemicals)
    Use of the crop
    Taste and preferences of the consumers
    Weather conditions, hence liability of spoilage moisture.
    Market demand
    Profit margin 

SECTION B

  1.      
    1. Soils in each of the funnels
      H – Sand (1mk)
      J – Loamy (1mk)
      K – Clay (1mk)
    2. Soil with the highest porosity
      H / Sand soil (½ mk)
    3. Suitable soil for planting paddy rice
      K / Clay soil ( ½mk)
  2. The diagrams below represent some varieties of Sorghum crop. Study them carefully and answer the questions that follow.
    1.    
      1. = Compact panicle (1mk)
      2. = Open Panicle (1mk)
      3. = Goose necked Panicle (1mk)
    2. Varieties C- Goose necked panicle makes it difficult for birds to feed on the grains
    3.    
      1. Sorghum shootfly (Antherigonavaria)
      2. early planting
        Closed season
        Spraying/dusting appropriate
        Insecticides
  3.      
    1. Name the farming practice illustrated above.(1marks)
      Chitting/ sprouting/shooting/ breaking dormacyn in potato setts.
    2. State the procedure followed to carry out the practice you have named in (i) above (3marks)
      • Potato setts of about 3-6cm in diameter are selected.
      • look for a partially darkened room.
      • Arrange the potato setts in layers of 2or 3 tubers with the rose-end facing upwards and heel end downwards.
      • Diffused light is then passed through.
    3. state the importance of the carrying out the farming practice. (1 mark)
      Leads to sprouting of the potato setts hence grow/ mature faster when grown in the seed bed
      Gives them a head start.
  4.      
    1. Identify of weeds J, and K.
      E- Thorn apple – Daturastramonium
      F- Double thorn – Oxygeriumsinuatum
      (2 ×1 = 2 marks)
    2. Effects of weed labeled j to livestock
      It is very poisonous to livestock (1 x 1 = 1 mark)
    3. Reason why it is difficult to control weed L
      Because it has well developed underground rhizomes (1 x 1 = 1 mark)

SECTION C

  1. Production of onion
    1. Ecological requirements
      Altitude above 300m above sea level ,optimum 2100m
      Temperature 13 to 29OC
      Rainfall over 1000mmwell distributed throughout the growing period .Other wise irrigate
      Soils-Fertile and well drained soils (4 Marks)
    2. Planting
      Crops can be sown directly into the main field or started off in a nursery bed
    3. Direct seeding method
      Drilling seeds in rows 30cm apart and 10 to 15 cm within the row
      Seeding rate for direct seedlings is 7 to 11 kg/ha
    4. Transplanting method
      Select a suitable site which is well drained
      Dig deeply and remove all perennial weeds
      Harrow to a fine filth
      Mix soil well with rotten manure
      Level the nursery using a rake
      Sow the seeds in drills 13mm deep
      Cover seeds lightly with soil and watch
      Transplant at age of 8 weeks or thickness of a pencil
      Spacing 30 to 38 cm x 10 to 15 cm
      Apply DSP fertilizer in drills at the rate of 250 kg / ha
      Trim roots and some leaves to regulate growth (5 Marks)
    5. Field management practices
      Thinning
      Weeding
      Top dressing using CAN
      Pest control
      Disease control
    6. Harvesting and marketing
      Harvested at green stage or dry bulbs
      Harvesting done / start when leaves stale drying, the crops should be broken or bend at the neck to hasten withering of stem
      Harvesting can be done manually or mechanized
      Bulbs should be dried in the sun and outer skin peeled off ready for storage
      Grading may be done to small medium and large according to market tastes
      Separate the damaged onions or the thick -necked onions to avoid rotting
      Store onions in well ventilated area / place
      Market according to size and the size of the net bags (7 marks)
  2.    
    1. Uses of farm records
      Guide farmer in planning and budgeting
      Show whether farmer is marking profit or losses
      Show history of the farm
      Determine farmer’s credit worthiness
      Help in sharing profit, bonuses or losses in partnership or co-operative basis
      Comparing performance of different enterprises in the farm
      Helps in settling disputes among heirs.
      Help in supporting insurance claims in the event of death (8 x 1 = 8)
      Remind farmer his/her debts or liabilities
      Help in selection of breeding stock and culling
      Detect theft or loss cases on the farm
      Used in making management decisions
      Pinpointing the weaknesses of the farm business or areas
      Accurate assessment of income tax to avoid over taxation or under taxation.
    2. Adjusting to risks and uncertainities
      – Adopting modern methods of production
      Flexibility in production methods
      Input rationing
      Taking insurance cover (6 Marks)
      Selecting more reliable enterprises
      Diversification of enterprises
    3. use woven baskets to avoid premature fermentation of flowers
      • handle flowers carefully to avoid damage
      • don’t pick wet flowers
      • avoid any contaminations
      • dry flowers immediately after picking to a moisture content of 10-12 % to prevent fermentation
        Flowers should not be compacted in the basket
  3.      
    1. Causes of land fragmentation
      Shifting cultivation
      Inheritance
      Selling and buying the landless
      Compensation by the government 5 x 1 = 5 Marks
    2. Advantages of land consolidation and registration
      Reduces land ownership disputes
      Full prone of land ownership proper supervision of land
      Economic use of time and save on transport cost
      Easy provision of Agricultural advice
      Sound farm planning and adoption of crop rotation programme. (8marks)
      Facilitates soil conservation and land improvement
      Facilitates soil conservation and land improvement
      Facilitates construction of permanent structures
      Weed, pest and disease control is enhanced
      Incentive to the farmer
      Used as security when securing loans
    3. Objectives of land return in Kenya
      Encourage land improvement and conservation measures
      Promote commercial farming
      Encourage investment in Agriculture (7marks)
      Enable Agriculture meet changing market demands
      Increase productivity of labour and land by putting idle land into use
      Enhance utilization of land and hence increase Agricultural out put
      Settle landless people

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