Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Pavement Mock Exams 2021/2022

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Instructions to candidates:

  • This paper consists of three sections : A, B and C
  • Answer all questions in A and B
  • Answer any two questions in section C.
  • Candidates should answer the questions in English.

SECTION A (30MARKS)
Answer All the questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1. Name two methods of farming that are considered outdated (1mark)
  2. State three symptoms of potassium deficiency in plants (1 ½ marks)
  3. State two ways of controlling late blight in tomatoes (1marks)
  4. Name three financial documents in farm accounts (1½ marks)
  5. State four farming practices which can enhance proper light penetration in a crop. (2marks)
  6. Give four factors which determine the method of weed control in crop production (2marks)
  7. State four causes of seed dormancy (2marks
  8. List four effects of weeds on pastures (2marks)
  9. State four qualities to be considered when selecting seeds for planting (2marks)
  10. State three farming practices which may lead to multiplication of pests (1 ½ marks)
  11. Give three pieces of information to be found in a master roll (1 ½ mark)
  12. State three objectives of land reform (1 ½ marks)
  13. Why is it important to weed early in crop production (2marks)
  14. State three effects of late defoliation in pasture management (1½ marks)
  15. Differentiate between undersowing and oversowing as used in forage Production. (2marks)
  16. State three functions of a farm manager (1½ marks)
  17. State two ways of overcoming the effects of excess water in crop production. (2marks)
  18. Give three symptoms of viral infections in crops (1 ½ marks)

SECTION B (20MARKS)
Answer All the questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1.  
    1. A farmer planted seeds at the rate of one seed per hole at the spacing of 90cmx30cm in his piece of land measuring 120m x100m.Calculate the plant population in the whole field if all the seeds germinated (show your working)             (2marks)
    2. State how the following factors influence spacing in crops (2marks)
      1. Fertile soil
      2. High moisture content in the soi/
  2. The diagram below illustrates a feature observed after digging the soil several metres deep. Study the diagram carefully and answer the questions that follow.
             Agri PVM Q20 2122 PP1
    1. Identify the feature that the diagram above represents (½ mark)
    2. Name the parts of the diagram labeled B,C and D (1½ mark)
    3. Outline three characteristics of the part labeled A (3marks)
  3. Use the diagram below of a pest to answer the questions that follow
    Agri PVM Q21 2122 PP1
    1. Identify the pest (1mark)
    2. Name the crop and part attacked by the pest (2marks)
       Crop   Part attacked 
         
    3. Mention the most suitable method of controlling the pest (1mark)
  4.  
    1. Describe the harvesting of sugar cane (3marks)
    2. List any two diseases of sugar cane (2marks)

SECTION C(40MARKS)
Answer any two questions from this section in the spaces provided

  1.  
    1. Describe the production of dry beans under the following subheadings
      1. Land preparation (4marks)
      2. Planting (6marks)
      3. Control of Anthracnose disease (5marks)
    2. Outline five advantages of planning and budgeting in agriculture (5marks)
  2.  
    1. Explain the cultural methods of soil and water conservation (10marks)
    2. State and explain how various practices carried out in crop production help to control pests   (10marks)
  3. Study the table below showing quantities of fertilizers used and yield of maize obtained over a period of years and answer the questions that follow.
     Land (in ha)   DAP fertilizers (in 20kg units)   Yield (90kg bags)   Marginal production(mp) (in 90 kg bags)   Average production(AP) (in 90 kg bags)
         1               0          2    
         1               1         10    
         1               2         24    
         1               3         42    
         1               4         56    
         1               5         62    
         1               6         60    
         1               7         56    
    1.  
      1. Fill in the marginal and average product columns in the table (4marks)
      2. Using the graph paper provided draw the production function curve (6marks)
      3. Show the three zones of production on the graph (3marks)
    2. Outline any seven activities carried out in organic farming (7marks)


MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A(30 MARKS)

  1. Name two methods of farming that are considered outdated ( ½ x 2 =1mark)
    • Shifting cultivation
    • Nomadic pastoralism
  2. State three symptoms of potassium deficiency in plants ( ½ x 3 = 1 ½ marks)
    • Premature leaf fall
    • Leaf curling
    • Leaf becomes chlorolic/ turns yellow
    • Poorly developed roots and tubers
    • Leaf edges are scorched
  3. State two ways of controlling late blight in tomatoes
    • Regular spraying with appropriate/ recommended fungicides
    • Uprooting and destroying infected plants/ field hygiene/ rogueing ( ½ x 2=1mark)
  4. Name three financial documents in farm accounts
    • Invoice
    • Receipt
    • Purchase order
    • Delivery note   ( ½ x 4=2marks)
  5. State four farming practices which can enhance proper light penetration in a crop.
    • Thinning
    • Weeding
    • Pruning
    • Wider spacing/ proper spacing      
    • Monocropping    ( ½ x 4= 2marks)
  6. Give four factors which determine the method of weed control in crop production
    • Type of weed
    • Stage of growth/ size/ age
    • Type of crop affected
    • Available skills
    • Weather conditions
    • Capital available ( ½ x 4=2marks)
  7. State four causes of seed dormancy
    • Lack of oxygen
    • Lack of moisture in the soil
    • Old stage/ prolonged storage period/ Depleted food reserves 
    • Impermeable testa to water/ oxygen
    • Damage by pests and diseases    ( ½ x 4=2marks)
  8. List four effects of weeds on pastures
    • Reduce quality and quantity of forage
    • Interfere with forage utilization
    • Reduce life span of pasture
    • Complete with forage crops for moisture, nutrients and sunlight    ( ½ x 4=2marks)
  9. State four qualities to be considered when selecting seeds for planting
    • Germination percentage
    • Free from pests and diseases
    • No physical damage
    • Clean/ pure
    • Uniform in size, color
    • High vigour      ( ½ x 4=2marks)
  10. State three farming practices which may lead to multiplication of pests
    • Monocropping
    • Indiscrimination use of pesticides
    • Poor choice of planting materials ( ½ x 3 = 1 ½ marks)
  11. Give three pieces of information to be found in a master roll
    • Name of worker/ person
    • Pay roll number
    • Days of the month
    • Days worked
    • Rate of pay
    • Total pay
    • Signature      ( ½ x 3= 1 ½ marks)
  12. State three objectives of land reform
    • Increase output from land
    • Meet changing national and market demand.
    • To achieve increasing productivity of both land and labour
    • Increase commercial farming
    • Increase land conservation and improvement    ( ½ x 3 = 1 ½ marks)
  13. Why is it important to weed early in crop production
    1. Reduce weed competition for nutrients, space, light, water.
    2. Control spread of pests and diseases.
    3. To reduce production costs. (1 x 2=2marks)
  14. State three effects of late defoliation in pasture management
    • Forage has high DM content
    • Forage has high cellulose content/ fibrous
    • Forage has high lignin, cutin, tannin.
    • Low leaf to stem ratio
    • Low drying matter digestibility
    • Low crude protein.    ( ½ x 3=1 ½ )
  15. Differentiate between undersowing and oversowing as used in forage Production
    • Over sowing: introduction of legume into an existing grass pasture.
    • Under sowing- Introducing a pasture under a cover crop such as maize. (2mks as a whole)
  16. State three functions of a farm manager
    • Long term planning
    • Short term planning
    • Analyzing information
    • Bearing risks and taking responsibility
    • Implementing farm plans. ( ½ x 3 = 1 ½ marks)
  17. State two ways of overcoming the effects of excess water in crop production
    • Drainage
    • Planting water tolerant crops eg rice
    • Timely planting to escape adverse effects of rain. (1 x 2 = 2marks)
  18. Give three symptoms of viral infections in crops
    • Leaf chlorosis
    • Leaf curling
    • Mosaics       ( ½ x 3 = 1 ½ )

SECTION B

  1.  
    1. Calculate the plant population in the whole field if all the seeds germinated
      Plant population =   Area of land      
                                    Spacing of group
                                 = 120m X 100m
                                     0.9m X 0.3m 
                                 = 44,444.44
                                 = 44 444 Plants

      b) State how the following factors influence spacing in crops
      1. Fertile soil
        • Supports high population of plants hence closer spacing (1mark)
      2. High moisture content in the soil
        • High moisture content supports high population of plants hence closer spacing. (1mark)
  2.  
    1. Identify the feature that the diagram above represents
      • Soil profile
    2. Name the parts of the diagram labeled B, C and D
      • B - Subsoil
      • C - Substratum/weathered rock
      • D - Parent rock/ Bedrock
    3. Outline three characteristics of the part labeled A
      • Dark in color/contains, a lot of organic matter
      • Rich in plant nutrients
      • Is well aerated ( 1 x 3=3marks)
  3.  
    1. Identity
      • giant looper ( 1 x 1=1mark)
    2.  
       Crop attacked  Part attacked 
       coffee 1 x 1= 1mark   leaves 1 x 1=1mark 
    3. Suitable control method - use of pyrethrum based sprays/ suitable insecticides. (1 x 1=1mark)
  4.  
    1.  
      • Done at the age of 12-18 months
      • Done manually using pangas, cutlasses, matchetes
      • Cut cane as close to the ground level as possible.
      • Remove the green tops and leaves immediately to preserve quality.
      • Deliver cane to factory within 48hrs of harvest. (1 x 3=3marks)
    2.  
      1. Ratoon stunting
      2. headsmart of sugar cane (1 x2 =2marks)

SECTION C (40 MKS)

  1.  
    1.  
      1.  
        • Clear the land using appropriate tools eg slashers
        • Dig deeply/ primary cultivation using jembes, ploughs
        • Harrow to medium tilth
        • Done early/ dry season
        • Eradicate all the weeds (1 x 4 =4mks)
      2.  
        • Use certified seeds
        • Done at the onset of rains/ early
        • Spacing at (30-60) cm x 15cm depending on variety
        • Dig holes to a depth of 2.5cm -10cm
        • Use phosphatic fertilizer or DAP at the rate of 200kg/ ha
        • Plant 2-3 seeds hole
        • Mix fertilizer thoroughly with soil. (1 x6 =6mks)
      3.  
        • Plant resistant varieties
        • Through crop rotation
        • Destruction of crop residues/ field hygiene
        • Use certified seeds (1 x 5=5mks)
        • Spray with recommended fungicides
    2.  
      • Assist farmers to estimate the required production resources.
      • Assist farmers when negotiating for farm credit.
      • Help to reduce uncertainly in the farming process.
      • Assist farmers in making management decision when comparing alternative projects.
      • Shows the progress or lack of progress in the farm business.
      • Forecast profits or fore see losses. (1 x 5=5marks)
  2.  
    1.  
      • Use of grass strips/ filter strips- trap solid
      • Cover cropping- intercept grain drops
      • Contour farming- improve infiltration
      • Mulching- lower the speed of surface runoff.
      • Cropping system eg crop rotation – improve soil structure.
      • Strip cropping- trap soil particles
      • Grassed/ vegetated waterways- trap soil particles
      • Afforestation/ reafforestation- intercept raindrops
      • Agroforestry- roots cementing soil particles
      • Minimum tillage- improves soil structure. (10marks)
    2.  
      • Drying of crops- makes produce hard for pest to pierce/ bore
      • Timely planting- crops grow fast and escape pests.
      • Timely harvesting- crops escape pests.
      • Close season- break life cycle of pests.
      • Trap cropping- attract pests away from desired crop and are killed.
      • Use of resistant crop varieties - discourage pests
      • Field hygiene- starves/ kills pests
      • Proper crop nutrition- leads to fast growth /resistant
      • Destruction of alternate host- controls infestation
      • Proper spacing/ thinning- discourage ease of transfer
      • Irrigation- discourages pests/ drowns pests
      • Application of pesticides- kills pests (1 x 10=10mks)
  3.  
    1.   
       Land (in ha)   DAP fertilizers (in 20kg units)   Yield (90kg bags)   Marginal production(mp) (in 90 kg bags)   Average production(AP) (in 90 kg bags)
           1               0          2                     2                        0
           1               1         10                     8                      10
           1               2         24                    14                      12
           1               3         42                    18                      14
           1               4         56                    14                      14
           1               5         62                     06                      12.4
           1               6         60                     −2                      10
           1               7         56                     −4                        7
      1. Filling the marginal product column correctly (2marks)
        Filling the average product column correctly (2marks)
      2. Scale= 1mk
        Labeling axis- 2mks
        Plotting-1mk
        Smooth curve-1mk
        Name curve- 1mk
      3. Showing the three zones
        1mk for each zone i, ii, iii
    2.  
      • Use of organic manure
      • Early planting
      • Rotation grazing
      • Planting resultant varieties
      • Practice minimum tillage
      • Use plant extracts to control pests
      • Maintain field hygiene
      • Cover cropping
      • Organic mulching (1 x 7 = 7marks)

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