English Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Mokasa II Mock Examination 2021/2022

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ENGLISH
Paper 2
(Comprehension, Literary Appreciation and Grammar)

Instructions to students

  • Answer all questions in the spaces provided
  • All your answers must be written in the spaces provided in this question paper.
  • Candidates must answer all questions in English


Questions

  1. Read the passage below and answer the questions after it. (20 marks)

    In the countryside where I grew up, fruits are ripening later and rains coming late. Climatic change is real. Add overpopulation, overuse of fertilizers and deforestation, and a crisis faces the once thriving community. The rivers we once swam in are gone, intermittent after floods. The natural forests that once defined our lives have been cleared – we call that growth. Paradoxically, when we become affluent, we want to live in the leafy suburbs, nearer to nature and even play games such as golf on plain grass or polo using horses, not cars.

    What other evidence do we need to prove planet earth is in a crisis? We did not need 300 delegates in the Glasgow climate conference to prove the obvious. Long before COP26, we heard President Daniel Moi and Wangari Mathai talk about climate change and the environment. We did not listen, yet the main victims of climate change are the poor. The affluent can afford water, food and other necessities; they can even import them or immigrate. Think of the years trees take to grow. Ever seen a mature mahogany or cedar tree? Think of rehabilitating land that has been built up; how much would it cost to make the Nairobi central business district green again? What do we do with all the concrete?

    Climate change has become a big issue because the rich, developed countries are on the receiving end too, with floods and drought accompanied by wild fires. These countries are accepting that the earth’s temperature is rising because of burning too much fossil fuels. Yet we heard of acid rain and the greenhouse effect decades ago. The rich countries have been active, innovating around climatic change. Think of hybrid and electric cars. And they are clever, to keep their industries humming by making hybrid cars as a stop-gap solution before going fully electrical. Their boldness on climate change could be based on their readiness.

    The big debate now is how the whole world will cooperatively reduce the effects of climate change. The envisaged approach is cutting the use of fossil fuels to reduce carbon footprints. That would mean using more renewable energy that is less polluting such as solar, wind, geothermal and hydro, and less of coal despite its low cost and availability. The shift to renewables has cost implications. The plants have to be redesigned, or retired. Some countries will be losers. Think of Saudi Arabia or Nigeria and oil, and of Kenya’s dream of being an oil exporting country.

    Luckily, climate change could end the oil curse. The global power balance will shift; who will provide the ingredients for making car batteries that power electric cars? Who has the resources for producing renewable energy? Developing countries, on the other hand, are crying foul. They are asking why they should shift to renewables when they have plenty of fossil fuels such as oil, gas and coal. Why they can’t be allowed to industrialize the old-fashioned way to catch up with the developed countries.

    Some countries feel the developed countries want to share the burden of climate change yet they benefited alone. They want to be paid to stop the use of fossil fuels. South Africa could be paid for keeping coal underground. What of India? Will Russia keep her oil underground? Will China switch off her coal or oil-fired plants and slow down her economic growth? Countries have to make a choice between economic growth and climate change, or better, sustainability. It is not a choice like flipping a switch. The COP26 demonstrated that economic nationalism is at the heart of this debate. Which politicians want to lose votes over climate change? It is no wonder the young are the most vocal about climate change, they have more at stake.

    Climate change affects everyone, weather has no borders. That is why we all must participate in slowing down the rise in temperatures. We must win over the skeptics too, just like we did with anti-vaxxers in the war on Covid-19.A lot of money has been channeled to climate change programmes, we want to see tangible evidence that emissions and temperatures are reduced. This planet is our only home, we must make it homelier.

    (Adapted from the article ‘Climate Change is Now a Moment of Truth’ by XN Iraki: The Standard, November 16, 2021)
    1. Why does the writer say that climate change is real? (1 mark)
    2. Explain the paradox the writer mentions in the first paragraph. (2 marks)
    3. Explain the relevance of President Daniel Moi and Wangari Mathai in the writer’s argument in this passage. (1 marks)
    4. According to the writer, why is climate change suddenly a big issue? (1 marks)
    5. In about 50 words, explain how the debate on the reduction of the effects of climate change favours the developed countries. (3 marks)
    6. Briefly explain the silver lining the writer sees in the fifth paragraph. (2 marks)
    7. Why is there a feeling among the developing countries that they are being short-changed by their developed counterparts? (2 marks)
    8. From your understanding of the passage, what does ‘economic nationalism’ mean? (2 marks)
    9. In the last paragraph, the writer emphasizes a reason for world cooperation in the matter of climate change. State what it is and say why you agree or disagree with the assertion. (2 marks)
    10. Countries have to make a choice between economic growth and climate change, or better, sustainability. (Rewrite this sentence, beginning: Countries must …) (1 mark)
    11. Climate change affects everyone, weather has no borders. (Rewrite as two separate sentences) (1 mark)
    12. Explain the meaning of the following words and phrases as used in the passage: (2 marks)
      1. greenhouse effect ……………………………………………………………………….
      2. skeptics ………………………………………………………………………………...

  2. Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow. (25 marks)

    Nora: I don’t believe that any longer. I believe that before all else I am a reasonable human being, just as you are- or at all events, that I must try and became one. I know quite well, Torvald that most people would think you right and that views of that kind are to be found in books. I must think over things for myself and get to understand them.
    Helmer: Can you not understand your place in your own home? Have you not any reliable guide in such matters as that? - have you no known religion?
    Nora: I am afraid, Torvald, I do not exactly know what religion is.
    Helmer: What are you saying?
    Nora: I know nothing but what the clergyman said when I went to be confirmed. He told us that religion was this and that, and the other. When I am away from all this, and I am alone, I will look into the matter too. I will see if what the clergyman said is true, or at all events if it is true for me.
    Helmer: This is unheard of in a girl of your age! But if religion cannot lead you alright, let me try and awaken your conscience. I suppose you have some moral sense? Or-answer me- Am I to think you have none?
    Nora: I assure you, Torvald that is not an easy question to answer. I really don’t know. The thing perplexes me all together. I only know that you and I look at it in a quite different light. I am learning, too, that the law is quite another thing from what I suppose; but I find it quite impossible to convince myself that the law is right. According to it, a woman has no right to spare her old dying father, or to save her husband’s life. I can’t believe that.
    Helmer: You talk like a child. You don’t understand the conditions of the world in which you live.
    Nora: No, I don’t. But now I am going to try. I am going to see if I can make out who is right, the world or I.

    1. In point form, summarize the circumstances surrounding the events in this extract.(4 marks)
    2. How is Torvald depicted in this extract? (4 marks)
    3. From elsewhere in the play, show the contrast in Nora’s character from what we see in this extract. (4 marks)
    4. Discuss any thematic concern addressed in this extract. (2 marks)
    5. I am going to see if I can make out who is right, the world or I. Add a question tag. (1 mark)
    6. What does Helmet’s question, “– have you no religion?’ reveal about the place of religion in the society? (2 marks)
    7. Comment on the effectiveness of any one feature of style in the extract above. (2 marks)
    8. Describe the mood in this extract. (2 marks)
    9. What is the meaning of the following expressions as used in this extract? (4 marks)
      1. I am a reasonable being…………………………………………………………………
      2. clergyman……………………………………………………………………………….
      3. conscience……………………………………………………………………………….
      4. perplexes…………………………………………………………………………………..
  3. Read the following poem and answer the questions that follow (20 marks)

    Richard Cory

    Whenever Richard Cory went downtown,
    We people on the pavement looked at him:
    He was a gentleman from sole to crown,
    Clean favored, and imperially slim.

    And he was always quietly arrayed,
    And he was always human when he talked;
    But still he fluttered pulses when he said,
    "Good-morning," and he glittered when he walked.

    And he was rich—yes, richer than a king—
    And admirably schooled in every grace:
    In fine, we thought that he was everything
    To make us wish that we were in his place.

    So on we worked, and waited for the light,
    And went without the meat, and cursed the bread;
    And Richard Cory, one calm summer night,
    Went home and put a bullet through his head.
    (Edwin Arlington Robinson)
    1. Briefly explain what the poem is about. (2 marks)
    2. What do we learn about the persona from the first stanza? (2 marks)
    3. What does the following line mean “So on we worked, and waited for the light”? (2 marks)
    4. Comment on any two figures of speech used in the above poem. (6 marks)
    5. Comment on the tone of the persona towards the subject matter. (3 marks)
    6. Outline the atmosphere prevalent in the poem. (3marks)
    7. Explain the relevance of the title to the poem. (2 marks)

  4.         
    1. Rewrite the following sentences as instructed. (3 marks)
      1. If you do not arrive in school punctually, you will be punished. (Begin: Unless………..)
      2. The baby arose. The mother left for the market. (Begin: Hardly…..)
      3. Tom could have passed his examinations if he had not worked hard. (Use … ‘but’)
    2. Use the appropriate form of the word in brackets. (3 marks)
      1. The heavy rainfall rendered all the planes …………………………………….. (mobile)
      2. We had to take part in several ……………………………(strain) exercises for us to win the game
      3. The money she has is enough for her ……………………………(sustain) in school.
    3. Replace the underlined word with an appropriate phrasal verb. (3 marks)
      1. The police asked the speeding driver to stop the vehicle.
      2. The students complained that they could not understand what the speaker was saying.
      3. The girl fainted after receiving the shocking news.
    4. Explain the two possible meanings each of the sentences below. (4 marks)
      1. The chicken is ready to eat
      2. I do not like flying planes
    5. Explain the meaning of the underlined expressions in the sentences below (2 marks)
      1. Liverpool cut Arsenal to size by beating them in the last match
      2. Considering Manchester United’s dismal past record, the win in the last match seems to be a flash in the pan.


Marking Scheme

  1. Excerpt: A Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen

    1. Before–
      • Helmer accuse Nora of neglecting her most sacred duties; duty to her husband and children. ✔
      • Nora refutes saying there are other sacred duties; duties to herself. ✔
      • Helmer tells her the duty to her husband and children comes before that of hers. ✔

        After –
      • Helmer accuses Nora of being ill and delirious. ✔
      • Nora says she is most clear and certain in her mind. ✔
      • Helmer questions how a sober mind can forsake her children. ✔
        (Must be presented in point form. If not award 50% of the total marks. Any 2 points before and 2 after)

    2. Torvald is depicted as
      • Abusive✔ – he calls Nora blind, foolish woman✔
      • Chauvinistic✔ – he has low opinion for his wife. She has a sacred duty to husband and children not herself. ✔
      • Emotional✔–he shouts at Nora. He gets angry with Nora ✔
      • Conservative✔ – believes that a woman should not leave her marital home✔

    3. Contrast in Nora’s character is seen in the following ways:
      • Before this she is submissive ✔– she is at peace when called skylark, song bird, squirrel etc. ✔
      • She is also naïve✔ – Mrs. Linde calls her a kid and less experienced. She accepts such labels
      • In the excerpt Nora is authoritative✔ and independent. ✔ She authoritatively states that she has a sacred duty to herself first then to husband and children. She is ready to pursue the opinion of the few. She assertively questions a law that does not allow a woman the right to spare her old dying father or save her husband’s life. ✔
        (Any 2 clearly explained differences)

    4. Female empowerment ✔– Nora questions the logic of the law if it does not allow a woman to spare her old dying father or save her husband’s life. The law should have such provisions. ✔
      • Gender equality ✔– the wife goes through name calling from her husband. Nora feels she has a duty to herself. She says she should be treated as a human being. The law should grant gender equality. ✔
      • Place of women in the society ✔– Torvald believes a woman’s role is being a wife and a mother ✔

    5. Helmer’s question shows how religion is used to perpetuate the oppression of women in the society. ✔

    6. Features of style evident in the excerpt
      • Rhetoric questions – “can you not understand your place in your home?’ ✔ This is used to show Torvald’s attitude towards Nora✔
      • Irony✔ – Nora’s change of character is completely unexpected. She comes out as an assertive woman contrary to Torvald’s expectations. ✔
      • Simile – “You talk like a child.” ✔This again reveals Torvald’s condescending attitude toward Nora. ✔
        (Any one well illustrated and explained feature of style)

    7. The mood is tense✔/anxious✔ – the heated argument in the dialogue characterized by different viewpoints carries a lot of conflict. Nora is ready to quit the marriage. ✔

    8. Meaning of word and phrases as used in the excerpt
      • I can think and make own decisions✔
      • Ordained Christian minister✔
      • Moral sense of right and wrong ✔
      • Baffles/vexes/disturbs/bewilders/puzzles✔

  2. Poem 20 marks
    1. The poem is about a man✔ who is deeply troubled yet he manages to conceal his inner conflict using a false facade✔. He has a striking outward appearances that can easily conceal the battle. “whenever Richard Cory went………….” ✔
      “….went home and put a bullet through his head”
      The poem can also be said to about:
      • Wealth and status do not guarantee happiness- the relationship between money and happiness. ✔
      • Income inequality✔
      • Perception(don’t judge a book by it’s cover) ✔

    2. Lower class/commoner/poor/subordinate/keen ✔
      The commoners are observant and they admire Richard Cory: his grooming, his simplicity, his stature. They are appreciative of his genteel nature. ✔

    3. The poet means that they worked hard and waited for their success or breakthrough ✔

    4.    
      • Irony ✔ – Richard Cory seems a happy man with all the pleasures of life yet he commits suicide. ✔Implies that wealth and status do not guarantee happiness. “Went home and put a bullet through his head”
      • Metaphor ✔ – “..So on we worked, and waited for the light,” – they are waiting for the loads to be lightened or for their lives to get easier ✔
      • Simile ✔ – And he was rich—yes, richer than a king
        Shows he was a wealth man ,lived like a royal. ✔
        (Any two well identified and explained features of style. 1d+Ill. 1mk Expl. 1mk)

    5. Ironic/Sarcastic ✔– It’s ironical that an enviable person ends up killing himself. “…..in fine we thought he was everything…..” ✔

    6. Sad/melancholic/somber ✔ – a man whose outward look is outstanding the commoners wish to emulate him but he kills himself. “…..to make us wish that we were in his place.” ✔

    7. The title of the poem is relevant ✔ because the poem is about Richard Cory; his good looks, his wealth and ultimately commits suicide. The lower class look up to him with envy and admiration.
      “…when Richard Cory went down…… ✔
      “…he was rich –yes,richer than a king” ✔

  3. GRAMMAR 15 marks
    1. Rewriting the sentences
      1. Unless you arrive in school early, you will be punished.
      2. Hardly had the baby arisen when the mother left for the market.
      3. But for not working hard, Tom would have passed his exams.

    2. Word formation
      1. The heavy rainfall rendered all the planes immobile.
      2. We had to take part in several strenuous exercises for us to win the game
      3. The money she has is enough for her sustenance in school

    3. Phrasal verbs
      1. The police asked the driver to pull over the vehicle
      2. The students complained that they could not make out what the speaker was saying.
      3. The girl passed out after receiving the shocking news

    4. Ambiguity
      1. The chicken has been cooked and is ready to be eaten
      2. The chicken is ready to be fed.
      3. I do not like planes that fly.
      4. I do not like the act of flying planes

    5. Idiomatic expressions
      1. Cut to size – made them realize they are not that good
      2. Flash in the pan – just happen by chance and might not happen again.

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