History Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Mokasa II Mock Examination 2021/2022

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HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 
PAPER 2

Instructions to Candidates

  • This paper consists of three sections A, B and C.
  •  Answer all questions in section A, three from Section B and two from Section C.
  • Candidates should answer the questions in English


Questions

Section A (25 marks)
Answer all questions in this section

  1. State the scientific theory that explains the origin of human beings. (1 mark)
  2. Give one invention that revolutionized food preservation during the 19th century (1 mark)
  3. Identify one advantage of barter as a system of exchange in Trans-Saharan trade (1 mark)
  4. Give two advantages of using the steam engine in the transport industry in the 19thcentury. (2 marks)
  5. State two economic effects of the industrial revolution in North America (2 marks)
  6. State two factors which led to the growth of Meroe as an urban center. (2 marks)
  7. State how humanitarian factors influenced the Scramble for Africa. (1 mark)
  8. State one way in which the rise of dictators in Europe contributed to the outbreak of Second World War. (1 mark)
  9. State two factors which promote economic relations between nations. (2 marks)
  10. Name one financial institution established by African Union. (1 mark)
  11. Apart from political instability in Uganda during the reign of Idi Amin, state one other reason that led to the collapse of East African Community in 1977. (1 mark)
  12. Identify two English speaking member countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). (2 marks)
  13. State two ways in which the Government of Tanzania nationalized resources following the Arusha Declaration. (2 marks)
  14. Give two types of Federal Courts in the United States of America. (2 marks)
  15. State one privilege which members of British Parliament enjoy. (1 mark)
  16. Name one type of elections held for the House of Commons in Britain. (1 mark)
  17.  Identify two circumstances that may make the Vice President assume Presidency in India. (2 marks)

Section B (45 marks)
|Answer any three questions from this section

  1.          
    1. State five factors which contributed to the development of early agriculture in Egypt. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five solutions to food shortage in African countries. (10 marks)
  2.          
    1. Identify five functions of the ancient City of Athens. (5 marks)
    2. Describe five challenges experienced in the city of Johannesburg. (10 marks)
  3.            
    1. State five limitations of using early means of transport. (5 marks)
    2. Discuss five advantages of using internet as a source of information on history and government. (10 marks)
  4.         
    1. State five factors that led to the decline of the Asante Empire by the 19th century. (5 marks)
    2. Describe the political organization of the Shona during the pre-colonial period. (10 marks)

Section C (30 marks)
Answer any two questions from this section

  1.            
    1. State three benefits which the people of the four communes in Senegal enjoyed as a result of the application of the French policy of assimilation. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six effects of the use of indirect rule by the British in Northern Nigeria. (12 marks)
  2.          
    1. Identify three levels of international relations in the world today. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six economic problems faced by the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) since independence. (12 marks)
  3.            
    1. State three qualifications for election to the Council of States in India (3 marks)
    2. Explain six functions of the Prime Minister in Britain. (12 marks)


Marking Scheme

  1. State the scientific theory that explains the origin of human beings. (1 mark)
    • The evolution theory/ Darwinian
      1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)

  2. Give one invention that revolutionized food preservation during the 19th century (1 mark)
    • Canning
    • Refrigeration
    • Pasteurization
      Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  3. Identify one advantage of barter as a system of exchange in Trans-Saharan trade (1 mark)
    • It facilitated trade between communities
    • It enabled people to acquire the commodities that they needed
    • It enabled some people to determine the value of their commodities
      Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  4. Give two advantages of using the steam engine in the transport industry in the 19thcentury. (2 marks)
    • It did not pollute the air
    • It was cheap
    • It increased the speed of locomotives
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  5. State two economic effects of the industrial revolution in North America. (2 marks)
    • Machines replaced human labour in factories
    • There increased demand for raw materials in North America
    • The search for markets for manufactured goods increased/led to international trade
    • Mass production of goods
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  6. State two factors which led to the growth of Meroe as an urban center. (2 marks)
    • It was an intersection/junction of many trade routes/strategically located/crossroads.
    • It was a mining center/iron working center
    • The area had fertile soils/farming activities.
    • It had abundant wood energy/fuel
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  7. State how humanitarian factors influenced the Scramble for Africa. (1 mark)
    • They advocated for the occupation of Africa in order to stamp out slave trade.
      1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)

  8. State one way in which the rise of dictators in Europe contributed to the outbreak of Second World War. (1 mark)
    • They overthrew democratic governments
    • They rearmed themselves
    • They engaged in acts of aggression/they attacked other countries
      Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  9. State two factors which promote economic relations between nations. (2 marks)
    • Loans given to other nations
    • Offering grants/aid to other nations
    • Trading activities between nations
    • Investments in foreign nations
    • Debt relief to other nations
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  10. Name one financial institution established by African Union. (1 mark)
    • African Monetary Fund
    • African Central Bank
    • African Investment Bank
      Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  11. Apart from political instability in Uganda during the reign of Idi Amin, state one other reason that led to the collapse of East African Community in 1977. (1 mark)
    • Ideological difference among the three member states
    • Personality difference between Idi Amin of Uganda and Julius Nyerere of Tanzania
    • Perception of Uganda and Tanzania that Kenya benefitted more
    • National pride/interests of the member states
    • Insufficient funds
    • Closure of boundaries by member states
      Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  12. Identify two English speaking member countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). (2 marks)
    • Liberia
    • Gambia
    • Ghana
    • Nigeria
    • Sierra Leone
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  13. State two ways in which the Government of Tanzania nationalized resources following the Arusha Declaration. (2 marks)
    • Africans were put in control of factors of production/land/capital/labour
    • Africans were put in charge of means of production/machines and raw materials
    • Marketing of the produce were placed in the hands of Africans
    • The distribution of government resources was done by the Africans
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  14. Give two types of Federal Courts in the United States of America. (2 marks)
    • Supreme Court
    • Court of Appeal
    • Federal District Courts
    • Court of Claims
    • Court of Customs
    • Circuit Courts
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  15. State one privilege which members of British Parliament enjoy. (1 mark)
    • Freedom of speech
    • Freedom from harassment e.g. arrest within precincts of parliament
    • Protection against arrest for civil offences for a period of 40 days before and 40 days after a session of parliament
      Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  16. Name one type of elections held for the House of Commons in Britain. (1 mark)
    • General elections
    • By-elections
      Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  17. Identify two circumstances that may make the Vice President assume Presidency in India. (2 marks)
    • When the sitting president dies
    • When the president becomes incapacitated
    • When the president resigns
    • When the president is impeached/removed
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)
  18.                
    1. State five factors which contributed to the development of early agriculture in Egypt. (5 marks)
      • Availability of water for irrigation from the Nile.
      • Existence of fertile soils/silt deposited by the Nile during its annual flooding.
      • External influence from S.W. Asia where farming had started.
      • Invention of the Shadoof and other methods of irrigation.
      • Favourable topographical factors enabled them to use canal irrigation.
      • Contribution of ancient rulers towards farming/stability
      • Availability of storage facilities like granaries.
      • Invention and use of farm tools like bronze hoes and ox-drawn plough.
      • The Egyptians had the knowledge of weather forecasting
      • Availability of labour from slaves and peasants.
      • Availability of indigenous crops and livestock like wheat, barley cattle and sheep.
        Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)

    2. Explain five solutions to food shortage in African countries. (10 marks)
      • Reclaiming more land would increase the area for farming thereby producing more food
      • Adopting irrigation which would ensure food production throughout the year
      • Government should adopt/formulate food policies which would give strategies of achieving food security the countries
      • Encouraging farmers to grow food crops that are drought resistant/require little rainfall
      • Farm inputs/seeds/fertilizers pesticides should be highly subsidized in order to make them affordable to the farmers/low cost of farm inputs
      • Storage facilities should be improved to minimize loss/storage before and after the harvest
      • Modern/scientific farming methods such as artificial insemination should be practiced in order to improve agricultural yields/extension services
      • Transport infrastructure should be improved/constructed for efficient movement of farm inputs/produce to and from markets
      • Encouraging agro forestry which would ensure food production alongside forestry
      • Promoting peaceful co-existence among communities to enable farming activities to prosper
      • Encouraging the growing of food crops instead of cash crops
      • Giving loans/credit facilities to the farmers
      • Diversification of eating habits by encouraging people to eat a variety of foods
      • Encouraging family planning so that families have only the number of children whom they can feed and provide for
      • Encouraging soil conservation measures e.g. terracing, construction of gabions and afforestation
      • Encouraging the forming of co-operative societies to market their produce
        Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)

  19.          
    1. Identify five functions of the ancient City of Athens. (5 marks)
      • It was an education centre
      • It was a centre of sports
      • It was a religious centre
      • It was a recreation centre/provided entertainment
      • It was cultural/theatre/arts centre/music centre
      • It was a trading/commercial centre
      • It was a transport/communication centre
      • It was an administrative centre
        Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)

    2. Describe five challenges experienced in the city of Johannesburg. (10 marks)
      • There exists a huge gap between the wealthy Europeans and the poor Africans
      • High unemployment rate among the people due to high population
      • High rate of infection of HIV/AIDS pandemic has increased the cost of treatment/ loss of lives
      • There is land/air/water pollution caused by emission of poisonous gases from industries
      • There is inadequate housing which has led to the development of slums/shanties
      • There is discrimination where Africans are mistreated/despised in work places/mines
      • It experiences industrial unrests/strikes by industrial workers
      • Traffic jams are rampant due to many vehicles in the city
      • High rate of crimes leading to insecurity, prostitution
      • Congestion in the town due to rural-urban migration
      • Inadequate social amenities like schools and hospitals
        Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)

  20.                   
    1. State five limitations of using early means of transport. (5 marks)
      • They were slow/time consuming
      • They carried small loads
      • They could cover limited distance
      • Animals could at times be stubborn
      • Animals may be attacked by wild animals/diseases
      • Some animals have limited lifespan
      • Animals are limited to daytime
      • Boats ,canoes, rafts and sailing ships can sink due to strong winds
      • Rafts, boats and canoes can only move downstream
      • Passengers using early forms of water transports were exposed to elements of weather
        Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)

    2. Discuss five advantages of using internet as a source of information on history and government. (10 marks)
      • It has promoted efficiency in the government operations in areas such as tax filling/provision of various services.
      • It has promoted education programmes as information can be accessed online.
      • It has promoted trade as goods/services can be sold/bought through internet/ online shopping/diverse transactions.
      • Job/employment adverts/job interviews can be made through thereby minimizing wastage of time/resources.
      • It has enhanced communication as people could send/receive messages online.
      • It has promoted research activities as it provides information in various fields.
      • It has enhanced quicker/faster communication through use of social media such as WhatsApp/Facebook/twitter/messenger.
      • It has promoted/enhanced storage of information through use of drop box/cloud storage.
      • It is used for entertainment as one is able to watch video/play/music online
      • It has enhanced security systems in many countries in the world
        Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)

  21.            
    1. State five factors that led to the decline of the Asante Empire by the 19th century. (5 marks)
      • Lack of strong leadership after the death of Osei Tutu
      • Constant rebellions from the conquered states
      • British interference in Asante affairs through the 19th Century
      • Abolition of slave trade as a major source of income
      • The British supported their enemies – the Fante to rebel against the British
      • The declaration of protectorate by the British
        Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)

    2. Describe the political organization of the Shona during the pre-colonial period. (10 marks)
      • The empire /kingdom was ruled by an emperor or king who was both the head of state and the government.
      • The office of the emperor was hereditary.
      • The emperor was assisted in administration of the empire by officials like the queen mother, head drummer and the emperor’s sister
      • The empire was divided into provinces which were ruled by lesser kings and were directly answerable to the emperor.
      • There was an advisory council whose work was to advise the emperor
      • The provinces were divided into chiefdoms ruled by chiefs
      • Under the chief were headmen who were in charge of the villages
      • The vassal states were ruled by chiefs who paid tribute to the emperor.
      • The empire had a standing army which was used in defending and expanding the kingdom.
      • Religion created unity in the kingdom.
      • There existed a royal fire that was kept burning in the emperor’s court as long as the emperor was alive. Each vassal chief carried a flame to his chiefdom and kept it burning as a symbol of unity.
      • The emperor controlled trade whose revenue was used to sustain the empire and the army.
      • Priests acted as a link between the people and the emperor and acted as spies.
      • The emperor was a military leader.
        Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)
  22.            
    1.      
      • State three benefits which the people of the four communes in Senegal enjoyed as a result of the application of the French policy of assimilation. (3 marks)
      • They were allowed to send representatives to the French Chamber of Deputies.
      • They were enfranchised (right to vote) like the French people in France.
      • They were provided with the same education rights like the French people.
      • They enjoyed the rights of the French Judicial System
      • They were exempted from forced labour
      • They were exempted from arbitrary arrests
      • They were exempted from paying taxes
      • They were allowed trading rights like the French people in France
      • They were allowed to operate Local Authority structures like those in France.
      • They were allowed to serve in the French civil service
      • The Muslims were allowed to maintain their Islamic law
        Any 3 points @ 1 mark each (3 marks)

    2. Explain six effects of the use of indirect rule by the British in Northern Nigeria. (12 marks)
      • It led to abolition of slavery and slave trade in Northern Nigeria.
      • It helped to preserve African cultures in Northern Nigeria because the British did not want to interfere with African way of life.
      • The African chiefs became wealthier than the rest of the people because they were paid for their services.
      • Traditional rulers became unpopular among the people due to new roles of collecting taxes and forceful recruitment of fellow Africans to work as laboures for Europeans and soldiers to fight in the world wars.
      • The British abolished the Fulani systems of taxation and replaced it with a single tax levied on each village.
      • Retention of Muslim Sharia law in the North made the area to lag behind.
      • The British modified previous systems of administration thus making the traditional rulers lose their independence.
      • It promoted tribalism in Nigeria as it was anti-unity since it kept the North separate from the South.
      • The system was anti-elitism since elites opposed it.
      • It deprived Africans of their national independence.
      • It enabled the British to administer a large territory with a small staff.
      • It perpetuated Muslim education in Northern Nigeria which made them develop a negative attitude towards new skills of modern society.
      • It led to the rise of African nationalism.
        Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)

  23.                          
    1. Identify three levels of international relations in the world today. (3 marks)
      • Political relations
      • Economic relations
      • Socio-cultural relations
        Any 3 points @ 1 mark each (3 marks)

    2. Explain six economic problems faced by the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) since independence. (12 marks)
      • Foreign firms repatriate profits from the mining of minerals
      • The country has had high foreign debts owing to over reliance on foreign aid
      • Illegal trading activities due to lack of appropriate trade policies denying the government revenue
      • Widespread corruption has denied the country money needed for development
      • Undeveloped infrastructure has led to slow economic growth
      • Political instability has interrupted international trade
      • High inflation due to Mobutu’s financial policy of printing more paper money
      • Economic decline as a result of Mobutu’s inconsistent national policies
      • Constant civil wars has created hostile environment for any form of investment
      • Lack of qualified personnel to oversee economic development as the government has not invested in education adequately
      • High rate of unemployment leading to widespread poverty among the people
      • Over reliance on primary commodities which are prone to price fluctuations thus low foreign exchange Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)

  24.                  
    1. State three qualifications for election to the Council of States in India (3 marks)
      • One must be an Indian Citizen
      • One must be above 30 years of age
      • One must be registered as a voter
      • One must be a resident of a state one is contesting
        Any 3 points @ 1 mark each (3 marks)

    2. Explain six functions of the Prime Minister in Britain. (12 marks)
      • He or she is the leader of the House of Commons.
      • He or she is the leader of the British government/ initiates domestic and foreign policies
      • The prime minister chairs cabinet meetings.
      • He or she appoints and dismisses ministers but with the consent of the monarch.
      • He or she represents Britain in international fora.
      • Recommends to the monarchy the names of candidates for the appointment of senior judicial offices/ award of civil honours
      • He or she settles disputes between various departments.
      • Changing laws since he or she has the backing of the majority in parliament.
      • Overseas the implementation of cabinet decisions
      • Determines when elections are to be held
      • He/ she is the leader of the party that nominated him/ her
        Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)

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