Geography Paper 1 Questions,Answers and Confidential - Kigumo Mocks 2021 Exams

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INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  • This paper contains sections A and B.
  • Answer all questions in Section A.
  • In section B, answer questions 6 and any other two.

QUESTIONS

SECTION A
Answer all questions in this section (25 marks)

  1. The diagram below represents structure of the earth.
    1
    1. Use it to answer questions that follow.
      1. Name the boundaries marked E and F. (2 marks)
        E.......................................................F.................................................
      2. Identify two minerals that make up the layer marked H. (2 marks)
    2. Give two effects of the rotation of the earth on its axis. (2 marks)
  2.                
    1. Define the term magmatic water (2 marks)
    2. List three surface features on Karst landscape (3 marks)
  3.                      
    1. Define the term vegetation (2 marks)
    2. Explain how the following factors influence the distribution of vegetation
      1. Relief (2 marks)
      2. Soils (2 marks)
  4. State four indicator of occurrence of sol creep in an area (4 marks)
  5.                  
    1. Name two types of submerged highland coasts (2 marks)
    2. Identify two resultant features of the emerged highland coasts (2 marks).

Section B. Answer question 6 and any other two. 75 marks

  1. Study the map of Kijabe provided to answer the questions that follow.
    1.                      
      1. Identify the tittle of the map provided. (1 mark).
      2. Give the latitudinal extent of the map given. (2marks)
      3. Identify any two methods used to represent relief in the map provided. (2 marks)
      4. Identify the feature in grid reference 402003. ( 1 mark)
    2.                      
      1. Determine the length of allweather road bound surface from grid reference 2589 to the junction at petrol station in kilometers. (2 marks)
      2. Identify three natural vegetation in the area covered by the map. (3marks)
      3. Describe the drainage of the area covered by the map. ( 6 marks)
    3.                          
      1. Explain three social activities found in the area covered by the map. (6 marks)
      2. Give two proofs that suggests lumbering is taking place in the area covered by the map. ( 2 marks)
  2.                
    1.                             
      1. Give three reasons why weather forecasting is important (3 marks)
      2. State three conditions that lead to fog formation. (3 marks)
    2. Explain how the following factors influence climate.
      1. Aspect ( 2 marks)
      2. Altitude ( 2 marks)
      3. Distance from the sea. (2 marks)
    3. Using a well labeled diagram, describe the formation of orographic rainfall. (6 marks)
    4.                  
      1. State two advantages of studying weather through fieldwork. (2 marks).
        Students from Turuturu Secondary conducted a field study on weather in a weather station.
      2. Formulate a suitable hypothesis they could have used for the study. (2 marks)
      3. State three followup activities they would carry out after the study. (3 marks)
  3.                    
    1. Identify three ways in which ice moves. (3marks)
    2. Describe plucking as a process in glacial erosion. (4marks)
    3.                  
      1. Using a well labeled diagram, describe the formation of a pyramidal peak. (6marks)
      2. Explain three factors that lead to glacial deposition. (6marks)
    4. You are required to carry out a field study on erosional features in glaciated lowland area
      1. Give three reasons why you would require a working schedule (3marks)
      2. Give three erosional features in the lowland areas they would have identified. (3marks
  4.              
    1.                            
      1. A part from the Rift Valley name two other relief features that are formed as result of faulting. (2marks)
      2. With the aid of a well labeled diagram, describe how a Rift Valley is formed by tensional forces. (8marks)
    2. Explain four effects of faulting (8marks)
    3. Students are planning to carry out a field study of an area affected by faulting
      1. State four reasons why it is important for the students to have a previsit of the area. (4marks)
      2. One of the ways they would use to collect data is through direct observation. Give three disadvantages of direct observation in the study of such an area. (3marks)
  5.            
    1.                                 
      1. Name three major deserts found in Africa (3 marks)
      2. Give two processes in which wind erodes the earth’s surface. (2 marks)
      3. Explain three ways in which wind transports its load. (6 marks).
    2. Using well labeled diagrams, explain how the following desert features are formed;
      1. Yardangs. (5 marks)
      2. Mushroom blocks. (6 marks)
    3. The diagram below represents features resulting from wind deposition in a desert
      Use it to answer questions that follow.
      c
      1. Name the above feature (1 mark)
      2. Name parts marked X and Y
        X .............................................
        Y .............................................(2 marks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1. The diagram below represents structure of the earth. Use it to answer questions that follow.
    1. Diagram on the boundaries marked E and F.
      1. E – Gutenberg discontinuity (1 mark)
        F – Mohorovicin discontinuity (1 mark)
      2. Identify minerals that make up the layer marked H (2 marks)
        • Iron and Nickel
    2. Give two effects of the rotation of the earth on its axis (2 mark)
      • Causes day and night
      • A difference of 1 hour between meridian 15 degrees apart.
      • Causes deflection of winds and ocean currents
      • Variation of speed of air masses
      • Causes of rising and falling of ocean tides.
  2.                  
    1. Magnetic water – Plutonic water that gets trapped in the rocks underground
    2. Examples of surface features
      • Grikes/grykes
      • Clints
      • Dolines
      • Uvala
      • Polge
      • Swallow hole
  3.                            
    1. Define vegetation. (2 marks)
      • It is the total mass of plant life that occupies a given area.
    2. Explain how the following factors influence the distribution of vegetation
      1. Relief (2 marks)
        • high altitude areas have low temperature which encourages scanty/no vegetation / low altitude areas have moderate temperature which encourage dense vegetation.
        • Gently sloping areas are well drained hence encouraging dense vegetation growth/steep slopes experience excessive drainage that discourages plant growth/ hence scanty vegetation. 1 x 2 = 2 marks
      2. Soils
        • Fertile soils have a variety of nutrients which encourage the growth of dense vegetation / infertile soils have insufficient nutrients leading to scanty vegetation.
        • Medium textured soils are well drained thus support a variety of plants / dense vegetation. Coarse / fine textured soils are poorly drained leading to scanty / no vegetation.
        • Deep soils enable the penetration of long roots thereby supporting trees (forests) / thin soils support vegetation with shallow roots thereby supporting grass vegetation. (1 x 2 = 2 marks)
  4. State Four indicator of occurrence of soil creep in an area (4 marks)
    • Telephone/fence poles that are inclined down a slope/bent tree trunk
    • Accumulated soil at the foot of a slope/behind obstacles such as walls/ on roads/ railways.
    • Existence of ribbed /stepped pattern across the slope
    • Presence of dipped rock strata in the direction of the slope
    • Presence of overhanging banks above roads/rivers. 4 x 1 = 4 marks
  5.                          
    1. Name two types of submerged highland coasts. 
      • Longitudinal/Dalmatian
      • Ria
      • Fiord/fjord
    2. Identify two resultant features of the emerged highlands coast
      • Raised geo/blow hole
      • Raised cliffs
      • Raised wave-cut platforms
      • Raised beaches
      • Raised caves
      • Raised notches
      • Raised arch/Raised stack/stump
  6.                                
    1.                      
      1. Identify the tittle of the map provided. (1 mark).
        • Kijabe
      2. Give the latitudinal extent of the map given. (2marks)
        • 0053’ to 1000’ S
      3. Identify any three methods used to represent relief in the map provided. (2 marks)
        • Contours
        • Trigonometrical Stations
      4. Identify the feature in grid reference 402003. ( 1 mark)
        • River confluence.
    2.                        
      1. Determine the length of all-weather road bound surface from grid reference 2589 to the junction at petrol station in kilometers. (2 marks)
        • 6.7 ± 0.1 Km
      2. Identify three natural vegetation in the area covered by the map. (3marks)
        • Forest
        • Scrub
        • Scattered Trees
        • Thicket
        • Woodlands. 3 x 1 = 3 marks
      3. Describe the drainage of the area covered by the map. ( 6 marks)
        • The main drainage features are rivers.
        • The main river is Ewaso Kendong.
        • Most rivers in the area covered by the map are permanent as indicated by continuous blue lines.
        • The main rivers are joined by many tributaries.
        • There are many rivers in the area covered by the map.
        • Most rivers are joined by their tributaries at an acute angle forming the dendritic patterns.
        • Rivers flowing from Kijabe hill form radial drainage patten.
        • Some rivers in the are covered by the map are disappearing eg at grid square 2796.
          Mark the first 6 x 1 = 6 marks.
    3.                          
      1. Explain three social activities found in the area covered by the map. (6 marks)
        • Education: The presence of many school eg Kinare sch.
        • Health Services. There are several dispensaries eg Kinale /Kijabe Hospital.
        • Religious Services. Presence of several churches eg. Grid square 3890.
        • Security services. Presence of police station at 3098.
        • Recreation services. The presence of Rest House at Grid 3498.
        • Administration. Evidenced by Location centers/Police post. 3 x 2 = 6 marks
      2. Give two proofs that suggests lumbering is taking place in the area covered by the map. ( 2 marks)
        • Saw- Mill.at grid 4399.
        • Dry weather road passing through the forest. 2 x 1 = 2 marks.
  7.                      
    1.                           
      1. Give three reasons why weather forecasting is important.
        • Help farmers plan their activities
        • Help people to choose clothing for the day
        • Influence designing of the houses and guide in landing of aircrafts.
        • Help in planning military activities
        • Guides fishing activities
          Any 3 points 3 x 1 = 3 marks
      2. State three conditions that lead to fog formation. (3 marks)
        • Air must have sufficient moisture
        • Clear sky / absence of clouds to allow free terrestrial radiation
        • Air must be cooled below dew point
        • Wind must be light /calm conditions to help hold water droplets in suspension
          Any 3 points 3 mks
    2. Explain how the following factors influence climate.
      1. Aspect
        • In the Northern Hemisphere of temperate regions North facing sloper are cooler as they do not receive direct sunshine. Southern facing slopes are warmer because they receive direct sunlight.
        • In the southern Hemisphere of the temperate region, North facing slopes are warmer while south facing slopes are cooler.
        • Windward slopes receive higher rainfall as they trap moist prevailing winds which raise through orographic effect. leeward sides have little or no rainfall due to rain shadow effect. Any 2 points 2 x 1 =2 marks
      2. Altitude
        • Temperature decrease with the increase in Height / Altitude as 1 at a loss of 6.5ºC for a rise of 1000 M ASL.
        • Lower altitudes have a longer column of air that vetains a lot of heat .
        • Higher altitudes have a shorter column of air leading to cooling which lower temp.
        • Temperature is higher at lower altitudes than at high altitude since air is heated from below and not directly from the sun.
          Any 2 points 2 x 1 = 2 marks
      3. Distance from the sea
        • Relative humidity in places near the sea is higher than places far away in the continent.
        • The amount of rainfall received in places near large water bodies is relatively higher than in places far away.
        • Air pressure is relatively higher near large water bodies than in places far away.
        • Near large water bodies temperatures are relatively warmer than in areas towards the continents.
    3. Using a well labeled diagram describe the formation of orographic reainfall. ( 6 marks)
      c ayguuydgad
      • Water in a lake /sea is heated causing evaporation of moisture formation.
      • Most air is forced to move horizontally by wind.
      • As the air rises, it expands, cools and condenses to form clouds.
      • The clouds then form relief rainfall.
      • The rainfall is mainly experienced on the wind wards.
      • The cool air then crosses over the hill and descends on the leeward side as dry wind.
      • There is little or no rainfall on the leeward side.
        Mark- diagram 3 marks
        Description 3 marks (Total 6 marks).
    4.                        
      1. State three advantages of studying weather through field work. (3 marks)
        • Enable learners to collect firsthand information
        • Help learners develop manipulative skills
        • Enable students apply knowledge learnt in classroom in real life situation
        • Makes learning interesting.
        • Provides detailed or in depth or broadened learning.
        • Enhances visual memory.
        • Breaks classroom monotony and boredoms. 3 x 1 = 3 marks
      2. Students from Turuturu Secondary conducted a field study on weather in a weather station. Formulate a suitable hypothesis they could have used for the study. (2 marks)
        • The area of study receives high rainfall.
        • The area of study has cool temperatures.
        • The area of study experiences convectional rainfall.
        • The station has many weather recording instruments.
          Mark any other relevant statement. 2 x1 = 2 marks
      3. State any three fall-up activities they would carry out after the study. ( 3 marks).
        • Discussing the findings
        • Analyzing data
        • Writing a report
        • Giving relevant advice to the state/residents
        • Drawing sketches
        • Displaying photographs / sketches Any 3 x 3= (3 marks)
  8.                                                       
    1. Identify three ways in which ice moves
      • Plastic flowage
      • Basal slip
      • Extrusion flow
      • Internal shearing
    2. Describe plucking as a process in glacial erosion (4marks)
      • Pressure from the overlying mass of ice cause freeze and thaw action
      • Melting water fills cracks / joints in the bed rock
      • As the water freezes it exerts pressure on the cracks enlarging them
      • The enlarged cracks led to disintegration of the rock
      • the disintegrated rocks eventually get embedded within the mass of ice.4 x 1= 4 marks
    3.                        
      1. Using a well labeled diagram, describe the formation of a pyramidal peak. (6marks)
        c 2 ajgduyad
        • Ice accumulates in several shallow pre-existing depressions on the mountain sides.
        • As the ice moves it plucks the rocks steepening the sides of the hollows / depressions.
        • Continued erosion by abrasion deepens and widens the hollows.
        • Adjacent hollows continue to be eroded causing the cirques backwall to erode until they are separated by narrow steep ridges called aretes.
        • Where aretes converge at the top of the mountain they form a sharp steep sided peak known as the pyramidal peak.
          Mark Text 4 marks
          Diagram 2
          Total 6 marks.
      2. Explain three factors that lead to glacial deposition. ( 6 marks)
        • rising temperature lead to melting of ice thereby causing the ice to deposit its loads.
        • change of gradient to relatively flat surface will reduce the velocity of the glacial.
        • movement which will subsequently lead to deposition of glacial materials.
        • alternating warm and cold periods lead to seasonal melting of ice which allows materials embedded in the ice to be released and deposited.
        • Stagnation/accumulation of glacier leads to pressure at the base of the glacier which in turn leads to melting of ice at the base.
        • The melt water then carries and deposits materials underneath which loosens the heavy materials beneath the mass of ice and subsequently deposited.
          Condition 1 mark
          Explanation 1 mark (any 3 x 2 = 6 marks)
    4. You are required to carry out a field study on erosional features in glaciated lowland area
      1. Give three reasons why you would require a working schedule (3marks)
        • It enables the planned activities to be carried out systematically.
        • It allows for proper use of available time.
        • It enables the assessment of the progress of the fieldwork.
        • It enables the estimation of total time required for the study.
        • It confines the researcher to the scope of the topic.
        • It ensures all areas are adequately covered.Any 2 x l = (2 marks)
      2. Give three erosional features in the lowland areas they would have identified. (3marks)
        • Ice eroded plains.
        • Depressions
        • Roche Mountonee.
        • Crag and tail
  9.                            
    1.                    
      1. A part from the Rift Valley name two other relief features that are formed as result of faulting. (2marks)
        • Tilt block
        • Escarpment/scrap slope
        • Block mountain/ horsts Any 2x1=2marks
      2. With the aid of a well labeled diagram, describe how a Rift Valley is formed by tensional forces. 8 marks
        9 a uyagtuyda
        • Layers of rocks are subjected to tensional forces when there is some tensional forces when there is some instability within the earth’s crust.
        • Parallel normal faults develop/lines of weakness develop.
          9 b ujytgaygdad
        • The middle part gradually sinks/ subsides.
          9 c aygdyugad
        • The sunken middle part forms a depression known as the Rift Valley
    2. Explain four effects of faulting (8marks)
      • Faulting / fault scraps make it difficult to construct roads/ railways.
      • Depression in the Rift valley contain water that forms lakes
      • Faulting exposes minerals such as diatomite.
      • Step faulting makes rivers to have waterfalls, rapids and cataracts
      • The scrap slopes / steep slopes tend to discourage settlement.
      • Some rivers such as the Katonga in Uganda have had their directions of flow changed. (Any 4 x 2 = 8 marks)
    3. Students are planning to carry out a field study of an area affected by faulting
      1. State four reasons why it is important for the students to have a pre-visit of the area. (4marks)
        • To enable them draw up study objectives / hypothesis
        • To enable them draw a route map.
        • To enable them prepare a work schedule / plan of activities
        • To enable them identify / sort our relevant tools / equipment for the study
        • To identify suitable methods of data collection.
        • To seek permission from the occupants of their site of study.
        • To enable them prepare financial (Any 4x1 = 4mks)
      2. One of the ways they would use to collect data is through direct observation. Give three disadvantages of direct observation in the study of such an area. (3marks)
        • It is expensive
        • It is time consuming
        • It is tiresome
        • It is limited only to direct sources / primary sources
        • It is only suitable to the signed people (Any 3x1 =3 marks)
  10.                            
    1.         
      1. Name three major deserts found in Africa. ( 3 marks)
        • sahara
        • Kalahari
        • Namib   3 x 1= 3 marks
      2. Give two processes in which wind erodes the earth’s surface. ( 2 marks).
        • abrasion
        • deflation
        • attrition 2 x 1 = 2 marks.
      3. Explain three ways in which wind transports its load. ( 6marks)
        • Saltation – This is where course granted sand particles are transported through a series of short jumps bouncing along the earth’s surface.
        • Suspension - very fine materials are picked by wind raised high and blown for long distance.
        • Surface creep - heavy materials are rolled pushed for short distances along the earth’s surface. 3 x 2 = 6 marks
    2. Using well labeled diagram explain how the following desert feature are formed.
      1. yarding 5 marks
        • Prevailing wind blow across the land where there are alternating vertical bands of resistant rocks.
        • The rock layers lie parallel to direction of prevailing wind.
        • Soft rocks are eroded by wind through abrasion to form depression, furrows while hard bands or rocks form ridges.
        • The ridges form features called yardings.
          b agduyad
          Diagram 2 Text 3 total 5 marks
      2. Mushroom Blocks 6 marks
        • it is formed where there is a homogeneous rock outcrop along the direction of prevailing winds.
        • The base of the rock is eroded more by wind abrasion
        • The top part is polished and smoothened through abrasion to form a massive rock with a broad rounded top called a mushroom block.
          ii ajgduyagd
          Diagram 3
          Text 3 Total 6marks
    3. The diagram below represents features resulting from wind deposition in a desert.
      Use it to answer the questions that follow.
      c 3 ayudgtuyagda
      1. Barchan 1 mark
      2. J – Horns
        L- Steep slope 2 marks

CONFIDENTIAL

Provide the map of Kijabe.


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