Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - 2021 KCSE Eldoret Diocese Mock Exams

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Questions

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  • This paper consists of three sections: A, B and C
  •  Answer all the questions in section A and B and any two questions from section C

SECTION A (30 MARKS)
(Answer all the questions from this section)

  1. State two causes of hard pan in the farm. (1 mark)
  2. State four information contained in a delivery note. (2 marks)
  3. Give four advantages of using certified seeds in crop production. (2 marks)
  4. Give four disadvantages of minimum tillage. (2 marks
  5. State four conditions under which shifting cultivation is practiced. (2 marks)
  6. Give four importance of sub-soiling. (2 marks)
  7. State three conditions under which opportunity cost is zero. (11/2 marks)
  8. State four methods of harvesting water on the farm. (2 marks)
  9. Name three basis on which the classification of fertilizers is done. (11/2 narks)
  10. Outline four advantages of land reforms in Kenya. (2 marks)
  11. State two causes of forking in carrots. (1 mark)
  12.        
    1. State three types of capital. (11/2 marks)
    2. Apart from capital, state other three factors of production. (11/2 marks)
  13. State four reasons for conserving forage. (2 marks)
  14. State four factors that affect the efficiency of herbicides. (2 marks)
  15. Give four scientific aspects of agriculture. (2 marks)
  16. Name four methods of harvesting trees in agroforestry. (2 marks)

SECTION B (20 MARKS)
(Answer all the questions from this section)

  1. Study the diagram below and answer the questions that follow.
    Eld21Agrip1q17
    1. Name the method of irrigation illustrated above. (1 mark)
    2. State two advantages of this method of irrigation. (2 marks)
    3. Give four factors which determine the choice of type of irrigation to use. (2 marks)
  2. . The diagram below shows a common weed in the farm. Study it and answer the questions that follow.
    Eld21Agrip1q18
    1. Identify the weed shown above. (1 mark)
    2. State one harmful effect of the weed to cereals. (1 marks)
    3. Give three ways that can be used to control the weed. (3 marks)
  3. The diagram below shows irish tubers after being subjected to some conditions before transplanting. Study them carefully and answer the questions that follow.
    Eld21Agrip1q19
    1. Name the process of potato treatment illustrated above. (1 mark)
    2. State two conditions necessary for the above process. (2 marks)
    3. Give two reasons for carrying out the above practice. (2 marks)
  4. Students were to apply a compound fertilizer 5:20:10 on their agriculture plot measuring 3 m by 4 m, at the rate of 200kg per hectare.
    1. Calculate the amount of fertilizer they would require for each plot. (Show your working). (2 marks)
    2. What do figures 20 and 10 in the fertilizer stand for? (2 marks)
    3. Give two methods of soil sampling. (1 mark)

SECTION C (40 MARKS)
(Answer any two questions from this section)

  1.          
    1. Describe ways in which cultural measures control crop diseases (8mks)
    2. Describe seven nursery practices carried out while seedlings are still growing. (7marks)
    3. State the qualities of a good farm manager. (5 marks)
  2.     
    1. Describe the field production of bulb onions under the following sub headings.
      1. Ecological requirements. (4 marks)
      2. Planting. (3 marks)
      3. Harvesting. (3 marks)
    2. Discuss six reasons for pruning in coffee. (6 marks)
    3. Highlight four characteristics of plants used as green manure. (4 marks)
  3.   
    1. Briefly explain six factors influencing mass wasting. (6 marks)
    2. Describe the procedure of harvesting sugar cane. (6 marks)
    3. Describe four ways in which soil depth influences crop production. (8 marks)

Marking Scheme

  1. State two causes of hard pan in the farm. (1 mark)
    • Continuous ploughing at the same depth.
    • Plough using heavy machinery on wet soil.
  2. State four information contained in a delivery note. (2 marks)
    • The date of delivery
    • The quantity and type of goods delivered.
    • The method of delivery
    • The person receiving the goods
    • Condition in which the goods are received
    • Delivery note serial number.
  3.  Give four advantages of using certified seeds in crop production. (2 marks)
    • Have high germination potential.
    • Free from pests and diseases.
    • Give high yields.
    • Are able to adapt to certain ecological conditions.
  4. Give four disadvantages of minimum tillage. (2 marks)
    • Leads to build-up of soil-borne pests and diseases.
    • Leads to build-up of rhizomatous weeds.
    • Causes poor soil aeration.
    • Leads to poor water drainage.
  5. State four conditions under which shifting cultivation is practiced. (2 marks)
    • Where land is abundant.
    • Where the population is sparse.
    • Where land is communally owned.
    • Where the number of livestock per unit area is low.
  6. Give four importance of sub-soiling. (2 marks)
    • Better plant root penetration into the soil.
    • Brings leached nutrients near crop roots.
    • Improves water infiltration into the soil.
    • Allows efficient gaseous exchange hence improves microbial activities.
  7. State three conditions under which opportunity cost is zero. (11/2 marks)
    • When there is no alternative choice.
    • When goods are unlimited in supply.
    • When a factor of production is freely offered.
  8. State four methods of harvesting water on the farm. (2 marks)
    • Use of weirs and dams.
    • Use of ponds.
    • Rock catchment.
    • Roof catchment.
    • Use of retention ditches or level terraces.
  9. Name three basis on which the classification of fertilizers is done. (11/2 narks)
    • Effect on the soil.
    • Mode of application.
    • Time of application.
    • Nutrient composition.
  10. Outline four advantages of land reforms in Kenya. (2 marks)
    • To encourage land improvement and conservation measures.
    • To increase labour and land productivity by putting idle land into use.
    • To promote commercial farming.
    • To encourage investment in agriculture.
    • To enable agriculture meet changing market demands.
    • To enhance efficient utilization of land and hence increase agricultural output.
    • To settle landless people.
  11. State two causes of forking in carrots. (1 mark)
    • Excessive use of organic manure.
    • Presence of an obstacle.
  12.            
    1. State three types of capital. (11/2 marks)
      • Liquid capital.
      • Working capital.
      • Fixed/ durable capital.
    2. Apart from capital, state other three factors of production. (11/2 marks)
      • Land.
      • Labour.
      • Management.
  13. State four reasons for conserving forage. (2 marks)
    • To avoid wastage in times of plenty.
    • To ensure enough supply of forage throughout the year.
    • To earn income from selling excess forage.
    • To ensure good utilization of land.
  14. State four factors that affect the efficiency of herbicides. (2 marks)
    • Stage of growth of crops.
    • Plant morphology and anatomy.
    • Mode of action ie contact or translocated.
    • The concentration of the herbicide.
    • Method of application.
    • Environmental factors like rain and soil.
  15. Give four scientific aspects of agriculture. (2 marks)
    • Entomology.
    • Crop pathology.
    • Agricultural engineering.
    • Soil science.
    • Genetics as applied in plant and animal breeding.
  16. Name four methods of harvesting trees in agroforestry. (2 marks)
    • Pollarding.
    • Lopping.
    • Coppicing.
    • Thinning.
  17. Study the diagram below and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Name the method of irrigation illustrated above. (1 mark)
      • Sprinkler irrigation.
    2. State two advantages of this method of irrigation. (2 marks)
      • It is easy to control the amount of water used.
      • Can be used on any topography.
      • Water is evenly distributed over the required area.
      • Less water wastage than in furrow irrigation.
      • The system can easily be moved from one place to another.
      • Foliar fertilizers can be applied together with irrigation water.
    3. Give four factors which determine the choice of type of irrigation to use. (2 marks)
      • Capital availability.
      • Topography of the land.
      • Water availability.
      • Type of soil.
      • Type of crop to be irrigated.
  18. The diagram below shows a common weed in the farm. Study it and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Identify the weed shown above. (1 mark)
      • Striga / Witch weed/ Striga hermontheca
    2. State one harmful effect of the weed to cereals. (2 marks)
      • It is parasitic
    3. Give three ways that can be used to control the weed. (3 marks)
      • Rotating with non-cereal crops.
      • Using appropriate herbicides.
      • Trap cropping.
  19. The diagram below shows irish tubers after being subjected to some conditions before transplanting. Study them carefully and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Name the process of potato treatment illustrated above. (1 mark)
      • Chitting/ sprouting.
    2. State two conditions necessary for the above process. (2 marks)
      • Humidity/ moist environment.
      • Diffuse light.
    3. Give two reasons for carrying out the above practice.
      • To ensure uniform growth after selection.
      • To ensure that growth commences immediately after planting.
  20. Students were to apply a compound fertilizer 5:20:10 on their agriculture plot measuring 3 m by 4 m, at the rate of 200kg per hectare.
    1. Calculate the amount of fertilizer they would require for each plot. (Show your working). (2 marks)
      • 1 ha (10,000m2) requires 200kg of fertilizer
        Therefore, (3 * 4) m2 would require = 12m2 * 200  
                                                                      10,000m2
        = 0.24kg / 240g
    2. What do figures 20 and 10 in the fertilizer stand for? (2 marks)
      • 20- ration of phosphorous pentoxide (P2O5)
      • 10- Ratio of potassium oxide (K2O)
    3. Give two methods of soil sampling methods. (1 mark)
      • Traverse method.
      • Zigzag method.
  21.  
    1. Describe ways in which cultural measures control crop diseases. (8mks)
      • Use of healthy planting materials/ certified seeds during planting to prevent introduction or spread of crop diseases.
      • Practicing field hygiene / burning crop residue / rogueing/ clean weeding/ destroys (kills) disease causing micro-organisms/ destroys pests that transmit diseases.
      • Proper seedbed preparation/ clean seedbed for the control of armillaria root rot in tea and coffee.
      • Proper spacing to control damping off in cabbage seedlings in the nursery or rosette disease in groundnuts or blight
      • Heat treatment for the control of ratoon stunting disease in sugarcane.
      • Proper drying of cereals and pulses before storage to control Aflatoxin
      • Planting disease resistant varieties eg Ruiru 11, for the crop to be able to resist attack by coffee Berry disease.
      • Crop rotation – starves the disease-causing organisms to death
      • Proper crop nutrition – makes the crop strong and able to resist attack by disease
      • Close season – This is the period when a susceptible crop is not grown in order to control a certain disease.
      • Timely planting/ early planting – enables the crop to escape attack by the disease eg blight in tomatoes and irish potatoes.
      • Pruning/ open pruning / staking/ altering of environmental conditions / irrigation;
      • irrigation during dry season controls blossom end in tomatoes, staking and pruning reduce blight in tomatoes (Stating ½ mk explaining ½ mk x 8 = 8mks)
    2. Describe seven nursery practices carried out while seedlings are still growing. (7marks)
      • watering- water the nursery bed regularly preferably in the morning and evening.
      • Mulching- apply a light mulch after nursery establishment
      • Weed control- weeds to be removed through uprooting.
      • Pricking out- remove overcrowded seedlings and plant in a seedling bed.
      • shading- a light shed to be erected over the nursery bed to minimize water loss.
      • Pest and disease control- are controlled through sterilizing the soil using appropriate chemicals
      • Hardening off- gradually reduce shade and frequency of watering to prepare seedlings to the ecological conditions in the seed bed.
    3. State the qualities of a good farm manager. (5mks)
      • Has knowledge about specific agricultural principles, marketing and accounting
      • Hardworking and time conscious
      • Has practical farming skills
      • Flexible in decision making
      • Should be responsible/ dynamic /prudent/ competent / ambitious
  22.                 
    1. Describe the field production of bulb onions under the following sub headings.
      1. Ecological requirements. (4 marks)
        • Temperature-Hot or warm climates though some varieties prefer cool conditions.
        • Rainfall-1000mm and above/annum. Irrigation is necessary in dry areas. A long dry period is needed for ripening.
        • Altitude-2100m
        • Soils-Require sandy loam and alluvial soils which should be fertile and well drained.
        • pH-6-7.
      2. Planting. (3mks)
        • For direct sowing 250kg DSP /ha should be applied during planting .
        • Plant at a spacing of 30x10cm or 30x7.5cm.
        • In indirect planting seedlings are transplanted at 8cm apart within the rows
        • Make shallow drills/holes, place seeds and then cover the seeds with little soil.
        • Deep planting of seedlings inhibits bulb expansion.
      3. Harvesting. (3mks)
        • When the leaves start drying the tops are bent or broken to hasten withering of the stem
        • Bulbs are then dug up and left to dry in a shade for a few days.
        • They are stored in slatted boxes.
    2. Discuss six reasons for pruning in coffee. (6 marks)
      • To control cropping
      • To train the plant to have the required shape.
      • To remove the diseased and unwanted parts of a plant.
      • To facilitate picking.
      • To ease the penetration of sprays into the bush of a plant.
      • To control pests and diseases such as Antestia bug and coffee berry disease.
    3. Highlight four characteristics of plants used as green manure. (4 marks)
      • Are highly vegetative/ leafy.
      • Have a fast growth rate.
      • Have high nitrogen content (leguminous).
      • Capable of rotting quickly.
      • Capable of growing in poor conditions.
  23.              
    1. Briefly explain six factors influencing mass wasting. (6 marks)
      • The slope of the land-Steep slopes leads to faster movement of materials.
      • The nature of material-Mass wasting occurs easily where massive rocks overlie sedimentary rocks which have clay material underneath and also if the material contains a lot of water.
      • Climate-Heavy rainy periods encourage wasting
      • Vegetation cover-It is easy and faster in bare ground than where it is covered with vegetation.
      • Human activities-eg deforestation, building, quarrying etc interferes with the stability of surface layers.
      • Forces within the earth’s crust eg earth tremors and some volcanic eruptions
    2. Describe the procedure of harvesting sugar cane. (6 marks)
      • Take the sample to the factory first for quality testing.
      • Cut the stem of the cane at ground level using a panga to avoid the loss of the yield and to ensure establishment of the ratoon crop.
      • Remove the green tops to avoid some substances from flowing back.
      • Strip off the dry leaves from the stem.
      • Do not burn the cane as this lowers its quality.
      • Transport the cane to the factory immediately for processing.
    3. Describe four ways in which soil depth influences crop production. (8 marks)
      • Soil moisture content: a deep soil holds more moisture than a shallow soil.
      • Root penetration and plant support: a deep soil provides better root anchorage and free root penetration to lower zones.
      • Soil erosion: a deep soil encourages water infiltration other than surface run-offs, thus minimizing soil erosion.
      • Soil aeration: a deep soil is well-aerated compared to a shallow soil.
      • Mineral nutrient content: a deep soil allows more accumulation and exchange of minerals. This allows better growth of vegetation compared to a shallow soil that has less mineral nutrient.
      • Microbial activity: a deep top soil and sub-soil favours activity of micro-organisms such as decomposers and nitrogen fixers.

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