Geography Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Butere Mock Exams 2021

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QUESTIONS

SECTION A
Answer all questions in this section

  1.        
    1. What is eco – tourism? (2mks)
    2. State any two benefits of eco-tourism to the government. (2mks)
  2.    
    1. State two challenges of rail transport in Kenya. (2mks)
    2. State why road transport is used more than air transport in East Africa. (3mks)
  3.        
    1. Name any three towns where motor vehicles assembly takes place in Kenya. (3mks)
    2. State any three factors that led to the development of iron and steel industry in Ruhr region. (3mks)
  4.        
    1. Name any three environmental hazards. (3mks)
    2. Give two ways in which water is polluted. (2mks)
  5.      
    1. State two characteristics of market gardening in Kenya. (2mks)
    2. Give three factors favouring horticultural farming in Kenya. (3mks)

SECTION B
Answer question 6 and any other two questions. All questions carry 25 marks.

  1. The table below shows four main mineral exporters in Africa in 2007. Use it to answer questions.
    South Africa – 300,000
    Libya – 350,000
    DRC – 140,000
    Tanzania – 60,000
    1.      
      1. Draw a divided rectangle 15cm long to represent the data. (8mks)
      2. State two disadvantages of using divided rectangles to represent data. (2mks)
      3. Name two major minerals exported by South Africa. (2mks)
    2.      
      1. State three processes which influence the occurrence of minerals. (3mks)
      2. Explain how solution method of mining is done. (6mks)
    3. State four effects of open cast mining on the environment (4mks)
  2. Define the following terms.
    1.      
      1. Fertility. (2mks)
      2. Census (2mks)
    2. State three reasons why Kenya carries out census. (3mks)
    3. Explain four problems that result from high population growth rate in E. African Countries. (8mks)
    4. State any four factors leading to slow population growth rate. (4mks)
    5. Explain three ways in which the population of Kenya is different from that of Sweden. (6mks)
  3.      
    1. What is the difference between pelagic fish and demersal fish. (2mks)
    2.        
      1. On the outline map of the world provided name the fishing grounds marked A,B,C
        1
      2. Explain four factors that make the area marked C an important fishing ground. (8mks)
    3.      
      1. List four ways in which fish from Lake Victoria is preserved. (4mks)
      2. Explain four reasons why tropical waters are not rich fishing grounds. (8mks)
    4. State three reasons why marine fishing is less developed in Kenya? (3 mks)
  4.        
    1.      
      1. State the difference between land rehabilitation and land reclamation. (4mks)
      2. Name any three irrigation blocks that are part of the Mwea irrigation scheme. (3mks)
    2. Explain any four factors that influenced the establishment of Perkerra irrigation schemes. (8mks)
    3.      
      1. What is a polder? (2mks)
      2. Explain any three benefits of the Zuyder Zee project. (6mks)
      3. Apart from irrigation and polders list two other ways of reclaiming land. (2mks)
  5.      
    1. State three physical conditions that favour coffee growing in the central highlands of Kenya. (3mks)
    2. Name three coffee growing counties in the western region of Kenya. (3mks)
    3. Describe the stages involved in coffee cultivation. (8mks)
    4. Compare coffee growing in Kenya and Brazil under the following sub-heading. (6mks)
      1. Coffee Growing areas.
      2. Soil
      3. Labour
    5.      
      1. State any three problems facing coffee farmers in Kenya. (3mks)
      2. Name the two coffee varieties planted in Kenya. (2mks)


MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A

  1.          
    1. What is eco – tourism? (2mks)
      Is a form of tourism in which tourists travel to an area of interest with an aim of conserving the environment.
    2. State any two benefits of eco-tourism to the government. (2mks)
      • Source of revenue
      • Protects threatened wildlife
      • increase area under forests.
      • Creates job opportunities to the locals in remote areas.
  2.        
    1. State two challenges of rail transport in Kenya. (2mks)
      • Competition from other forms of transport i.e. roads or pipeline which are faster, flexible & cheaper.
      • High cost of rail network maintenance and expansion.
      • Inadequate servicing of rail equipment.
      • Mismanagement of rail services leading to poor services.
    2. State why road transport is used more than air transport in East Africa.(3mks)
      • It is cheaper than air transport/cheaper to construct.
      • It is flexible.
      • Provides door to door services.
      • Readily available in many areas.
      • Faster over short distances.
  3.            
    1. Name any three towns where motor vehicles assembly takes place in Kenya. (3mks)
      • Mombasa
      • Thika
      • Nairobi
    2. State any three factors that led to the development of iron and steel industry in Ruhr region. (3mks)
      • Availability of large iron deposits.
      • Availability of water from River Rhine & Rhone which provides water for the industries.
      • Availability of abundant source of power/coal
      • Availability of raw material / limestone/ iron ore
      • Developed transport – network/navigable rivers/canals.
      • Traditional industries provided skilled labour.
      • Availability of capital/rich population/companies/gloup family
      • Large market in central and western Europe/large population.
  4.        
    1. Name any three environmental hazards. (3mks)
      • Lightning
      • Windstorms
      • Pests and diseases.
      • Seismic disturbances/earthquakes/ Tsunamis
      • Volcanic eruptions.
      • Drought/desertification.
      • Forest & bushfires.
    2. Give two ways in which water is polluted. (2mks)
      • Chemicals/fertilisers from farms.
      • Oil spills from factories, garages over land/tankers.
      • Industrial & domestic wastes.
      • Washing of garbage/surface run off.
  5.        
    1. State two characteristics of market gardening in Kenya. (2mks)
      • Practiced near urban centres.
      • Farms are small.
      • Intensive cultivation of land.
      • Application of manual labour.
      • Scientific management e.g. use of fertilisers and insecticides.
      • Application of irrigation to facilitate production.
      • Products for local market
        2x1 = 1
    2. Give three factors favouring horticultural farming in Kenya. (3mks)
      • High demand both local and abroad.
      • Investment by large companies e.g. Delmonte, Oserian, homegrown etc.
      • Wet and hot conditions.
      • Availability of good transport network like Nakuru – Nairobi highway/ airports
      • Technical assistance by foreign countries e.g. Israel, Netherlands
      • Organised marketing of crops coordinated by Horticultural crops development authority.
        3 x 1 = 3

SECTION B

  1. The table below shows four main mineral exporters in Africa in 2007. Use it to answer questions.
    South Africa – 300,000
    Libya – 350,000
    DRC – 140,000
    Tanzania – 60,000
    1.        
      1. Draw a divided rectangle 15cm long to represent the data. (8mks)
        South Africa – 300,000
        Libya – 350,000
        DRC – 140,000
        Tanzania – 60,000
        Total - 850,000
        Libya = 350,000 × 15 = 6.18cm ≈ 6.2
                     850,000
        S.Africa = 300,000 × 15 = 5.29cm ≈ 5.3
                        850,000
        DRC = 140,000 × 15 = 2.47cm ≈ 2.5
                    850,000
        Tanzania =  60,000  × 15 =  1.06 ≈ 1.2cm
                          850,000
        2
      2. State two disadvantages of using divided rectangles to represent data.
        • It is difficult to determine values of individual components at a glance.
        • It consumes time because of calculations involved.
        • Limited to few variables
      3. Name two major minerals exported by South Africa. (2mks)
        • Diamond
        • Gold
    2.      
      1. State three processes which influence the occurrence of minerals. (3mks)
        • Vulcanicity
        • Metamorphism
        • Weathering
        • Erosion and sedimentation.
        • Evaporation.
      2. Explain how solution method of mining is done. (6mks)
        • Is used to mine minerals that are soluble e.g. Sulphur, potash.
        • Pipes with super heated water or steam are sunk down to the deposits.
        • Minerals dissolve into the water which is then pumped to the surface.
        • At the surface water is evaporated and the mineral extracted. (6mks)
    3. State four effects of open cast mining on the environment (4mks)
      • Causes mass wasting
      • Leads to destruction of bio diversity
      • Leaves heaps of soil lowering aesthetic values
      • Causes pollution
      • Lead to land dereliction
  2. Define the following terms.
    1.        
      1. Fertility. (2mks)
        It’s the number of live births a woman has during her reproductive age.
      2. Census (2mks)
        It is the enumeration of entire human population of an area.
    2. State three reasons why Kenya carries out census. (3mks)
      • In order for government to obtain information on the composition of its population in terms of gender, age and regional distribution.
      • To establish the population trends and level of mortality and fertility.
      • Helps the government to plan for the provision of social amenities such as hospitals, schools etc.
      • Avail employment opportunities.
      • Make decisions on the divisions of new administrative areas.
      • To plan for provision of servises
    3. Explain four problems that result from high population growth in E. African Countries. (8mks)
      • High dependency ratio resulting into little savings by the working population/low investments/low living standards.
      • High importation to meet local demands hence depleting foreign exchange.
      • High unemployment rate since job opportunities may not increase at rate that can cope with the number of job seekers/may increase rate of crime.
      • Increase in demand for social amenities leading to congestion in schools/hospitals/housing and transport facilities.
      • Increase in demand of food which may lead to food shortage.
      • Increase in demand of agricultural land causing land fragmentation/landlessness/destruction of forests.
      • Decrease in revenue that would be used for development of income generating projects hence slow economic growth.
    4. State any four factors leading to slow population growth rate. (4mks)
      • Tradition – Cultural practices such as period between two children.
      • Wars leading to death.
      • Calamities/epidemics leading to death of people.
      • Education which results in late marriage reducing child bearing period.
      • Use of contraceptives which regulates/reduces chances of conception.
      • Creation of awareness about the benefits of small families/change of altitude.
      • Modern careers especially for women leading to long separation periods between couple.
      • Emigration of people leading to reduced numbers in the area of outgoer.
    5. Explain three ways in which the population of Kenya is different from that of Sweden. (6mks)
      • Dependency ratio in Kenya is high and low in Sweden.
      • Majority of the Kenyan population is in rural areas while Sweden’s majority are in urban centres.
      • Kenyan population has a large number of young people aged below 20 years while Sweden has an aging population.
      • Kenyan population has a lower life expectancy while Sweden has a higher life expectancy.
      • Birth rate is high in Kenya but low in Sweden.
      • Fertility rate is high in Kenya but low in Sweden.
      • Population structure in Kenya has a broad base and narrows with increasing age while that of Sweden is narrow at the bottom, bulges out in the middle and arbit wide at the top.
      • In Kenya death rate is high and low in Sweden.
  3.      
    1. What is the difference between pelagic fish and demersal. (2mks)
      • Pelagic fish – fish communities that live near the surface or at the shallow sea depth.
      • Demersal fish – Fish that live close or the bottom of the sea.
    2.      
      1. On the outline map of the world provided name the fishing grounds marked ABC.
        1. N.E Pacific
        2. N.W Atlantic
        3. N.W Pacific
      2. Explain four factors that make the area marked C an important fishing grounds. (8mks)
        • Cold Kamchatka and warm kurosiwo current converge on this grounds thereby creating a conducive condition for development of planktons.
        • Rugged landscape discourage other forms of economic activities.
        • Densely populated countries of China, Japan and Taiwan provide a ready market for the fish.
        • Advanced technology in the area especially in Japan has encouraged the development of the fishing industry.
        • The many islands in the North Asian Coast form good shelter for the breeding of fish.
        • Extensive and shallow continental shelf favours the thriving of several types of plankton.
    3.      
      1. List four ways in which fish from Lake Victoria is preserved. (4mks)
        • Sun – drying
        • Frying
        • Smoking
        • Salting
        • Refrigeration.
      2. Explain four reasons why tropical waters are not rich fishing grounds. (8mks)
        • Water is too warm for plankton growth.
        • High temperature discourage fish preservation in absence of refrigeration.
        • The coast of Africa & America are straight/ lacking inlets/bays which discourage fish breeding and for fishing ports.
        • Tropical coasts have narrow continental shelves.
    4. State to reasons why marine fishing is less developed in Kenya. (3mks)
      • Regular coastline
      • Warm tropical waters discourage breeding
      • Territorial conflicts in the ocean
      • Many fresh water fisheries
      • Low market for marine fish
  4.        
    1.      
      1. State the difference between land rehabilitation and land reclamation. (4mks)
        • Reclamation – is a process of making waste lands (deserts & swamps ) suitable for farming and settlement.
        • Rehabilitation – is the process of restoring waste land to its former good conditions for human activities.
      2. Name any three irrigation blocks that are part of the Mwea irrigation schemes. (3mks)
        • Mwea
        • Karaba
        • Tebere
        • Thiba
        • Wamumu 3x1=3
    2. Explain any four factors that influenced the establishment of Perkerra irrigation schemes.
      • Presence of river perkerra which provides water for irrigation.
      • The area slopes gently allowing flow of water to the fields by gravity.
      • Availability of soils rich in minerals enables a variety of crops to be grown.
      • Availability of extensive land which makes large scale cultivation of crops possible.
      • The area had sparse population hence making it easy to resettle it.
      • The area is semi-arid therefore there was need for irrigation farming.
    3.      
      1. What is a polder?
        This is a low lying land in the Netherlands reclaimed from the sea.
      2. Explain any three benefits of the Zuyder Zee project. (6mks)
        • Creation of large fresh water lake in the middle of the country for domestic & industrial use – Lake Yssel.
        • Polders have attracted towns which have led to improvement of transport routes & social amenities.
        • The great dyke has shortened the coastline distance by a great deal/320 km
        • The fresh water of Lake Yssel has helped in reducing the salt content of the neighbouring regions. Availing more land for grazing and farming.
        • Tidal flooding on the coastal areas has been completely reduced after the construction of protective dykes.
        • Reclaimed land is fertile – production of wheat, beet root etc.
        • Reclaimed areas have been used for settlement, recreation industries and establishment of social amenities.
      3. Apart from irrigation and polders list two other ways of reclaiming land. (2mks)
      4. Draining swamps.
      5. Tsetse fly control
  5.      
    1. State three physical conditions that favour coffee growing in the central highlands of Kenya. (3mks)
      • Experience high rainfall 1000 – 1500mm, well distributed rainfall per year which in ideal for coffee.
      • The soils are deep, volcanic type, well drained.
      • The area experience cool to warm condition/14 – 24oC throughout the year.
      • The land has gentle slopes/undulating landscape that allow good drainage.
    2. Name three coffee growing counties in the western region of Kenya. (2mks)
      • Bungoma
      • Busia
      • Vihiga
      • Nyamira
      • Kisii
      • Trans-Nzoia
    3. Describe the stages involved in coffee cultivation. (8mks)
      • Land is cleared
      • Land is ploughed.
      • Seedlings are raised in a nursery – where they are watered and shaded as they germinate & stay for six month.
      • Holes are dug in the field with a space of 3 metres, apart . manure is added and watered regularly.
      • Seedlings are then transplanted in the holes in the field.
      • Seedlings are sheltered from strong sunlight by trees artificial shades.
      • The seedlings are also mulched to conserve moisture.
      • The plant is pruned, weeded, sprayed and manured regularly.
      • The coffee matures at about 5 years.
      • Coffee berries are picked by hand.
    4. Compare coffee growing in Kenya and Brazil under the following sub-heading.
      Coffee Growing areas.
      • In Brazil coffee is grown at lower altitudes upto 900m/ on gently rolling Brazilian plateaus while in Kenya is mainly grown in the highlands.
        Soil
      • In Brazil it is grown in deep porous/tera rossa soils while in Kenya in deep volcanic soils.
        Labour
      • In Kenya work is done by family members while in Brazil it is done by tenants.
        3x2 = 6
    5.          
      1. State any three problems facing coffee farmers in Kenya. (3mks)
        • Pests and diseases such as black coffee thrip, red spider mites, weevils and beetles.
        • Hailstone which lower the quality and the quantity of the berries.
        • Fluctuation of world market prices.
        • Inadequate rainfall in times of prolonged drought.
        • Labour shortage.
        • Soil exhaustion
      2. Name the two coffee varieties in Kenya.
        • Arabica
        • Robusta
        • Ruiru II

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