History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Butere Mock Exams 2021

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QUESTIONS

SECTION A – 25 MARKS
Answer all questions from this section.

  1. Give two forms of oral traditions as a source of information in History and Government. (2mks)
  2. Name two communities in Kenya that belong to the coastal Bantu. (2mks)
  3. State one function of the council of elders among the Luo in Kenya during pre – colonial period. (1mk)
  4. Give one way in which Seyyid Said provided security to the Arab and Swahili traders in the interior of East Africa during the long distance trade. (1mk)
  5. State two circumstances that can lead to one’s citizenship by registration to be revoked by the Kenyan government. (2mks)
  6. Give two reasons why communities should be united. (2mks)
  7. Identify two historical documents that form part of the British constitution. (2mks)
  8. Identify two types of democracy used in Kenya. (2mks)
  9. Identify two groups that monitor human rights in Kenya. (2mks)
  10. Identify one treaty which finalised the partition of east Africa in the second half of the 19th century. (1mk)
  11. Identify two colonial systems of administration in Kenya. (2mks)
  12. State one strategic reason which made the British to construct the Uganda railway. (1mk)
  13. State the main reason why independent churches and schools were formed. (1mk)
  14. Identify two challenges facing secondary education as a result of 100% transition. (2mks)
  15. Give one political challenge faced by president Moi during his reign as the president of Kenya. (1mk)
  16. State two parliamentary functions of the president of Kenya. (2mks)
  17. Define the term contingencies fund. (1mk)

SECTION B 45 MRKS
Answer three questions from this section.

  1.        
    1. State five factors for the migration of the Eastern Cushites into Kenya. (5mks)
    2. Explain five effects of migration and settlement of plain Nilotes during the pre-colonial period (10mks)
  2.        
    1. Give three reasons why the Portuguese constructed Fort Jesus. (3mks)
    2. Explain six factors that led to the decline of the Portuguese rule along the east African coast. (10mks)
  3.        
    1. Outline five recommendations of the Devonshire white paper of 1923. (5mks)
    2. Explain five problems faced by the white settler farmers in Kenya during the colonial period. (10mks)
  4.        
    1. State five factors that facilitated the Mau Mau movement. (5mks)
    2. Explain five roles played by the African elected members of parliament in the struggle for independence in Kenya. (10mks)

SECTION C 30MKS
Answer any two questions from this section.

  1.      
    1. Identify five ways in which education promotes national unity in Kenya. (5mks)
    2. Explain five importance of national integration to Kenyan citizens. (10mks)
  2.      
    1. Outline the three categories of the members of the senate. (3mks)
    2. Explain six advantages of parliamentary supremacy in Kenya. (12mks)
  3.      
    1. State three ways in which COVID – 19 has undermined the provision of health services by the county government in Kenya. (3mks)
    2. Explain six ways in which acounty government in Kenya raises its own revenue. (12mks)


MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A

  1. Give two forms of oral traditions as a source of information in History and Government. (2mks)
    • Riddles
    • Myths
    • Songs
    • Poems
    • Tongue twisters
    • Proverbs
    • Stories/folk tales/narratives
    • Legends
  2. Name two communities in Kenya that belong to the coastal Bantu. (2mks)
    • Mijikenda
    • Pokomo
    • Taita
  3. State one function of the council of elders among the Luo in Kenya during pre – colonial period. (1mk)
    • Maintained law and order
    • Settled disputes
    • Presided over religious functions
    • Blessed worriors before they went to war.
  4. Give one way in which Seyyid Said provided security to the Arab and Swahili traders in the interior of East Africa during the long distance trade. (1mk)
    • He gave them an introductory letter to the interior local chiefs.
    • He gave them the sultan flag to move with it.
  5. State two circumstances that can lead to one’s citizenship by registration to be revoked by the Kenyan government. (2mks)
    • If the person acquired the citizenship by fraud, false representation or failure to provide full information.
    • If a person supports or is found to have supported an enemy country during war with Kenya.
    • If the person within five years after registration has been convicted to a prison term of three or more years.
    • If a person has at any time after registration has been convicted of treason or an offence of which a penalty of seven or more than seven years may be imposed.
  6. Give two reasons why communities should be united. (2mks)
    • To promote socio – economic development
    • To promote peaceful co - existence
  7. Identify two historical documents that form part of the British constitution. (2mks)
    • Milestones
    • Commentaries
  8. Identify two types of democracy used in Kenya. (2mks)
    • Direct/pure democracy
    • Indirect/representative democracy
    • Constitutional democracy
  9. Identify two groups that monitor human rights in Kenya. (2mks)
    • Members of the mass media
    • Trade union movements
    • Non – governmental organizations
    • Special interest groups such as the law society of Kenya and religious organizations
    • Constitutional institutions such as the judiciary
    • Constitutional commissions such as Kenya national human rights and equality commission.
    • Police
  10. Identify one treaty which finalised the partition of east Africa in the second half of the 19th century. (1mk)
    Heligoland treaty/The Second Anglo – German agreement of 1890
  11. Identify two colonial systems of administration in Kenya. (2mks)
    • Direct rule
    • Indirect rule
  12. State one strategic reason which made the British to construct the Uganda railway.(1mk)
    The railway could enhance access to its strategic territory via the Kenyan coast/to protect the source of the Nile.
  13. State the main reason why independent churches and schools were formed. (1mk)
    They wanted to preserve the African cultural practices.
  14. Identify two challenges facing secondary education as a result of 100% transition.(2mks)
    • Lack of adequate facilities such as books
    • Overpopulation/congestion in school
    • Inadequate personnel.
  15. Give one political challenge faced by president Moi during his reign as the president of Kenya. (1mk)
    • Attempted coup of 1982
    • Political assassinations
  16. State two parliamentary functions of the president of Kenya. (2mks)
    • Addresses the opening of each newly elected parliament as well as a special sitting of parliament once every year.
    • Dissolving of the parliament.
  17. Define the term contingencies fund. (1mk)
    • These are funds established to cater for emergencies.

SECTION B 45 MRKS
(Answer three questions)

  1.      
    1. Five factors for the migration of the eastern Cushites into Kenya. (5mks)
      • Population pressure/increase in population
      • Natural calamities e.g drought and famine
      • Due to external attacks
      • Internal fights/Wrangles/feuds
      • Outbreak of diseases/epidemics
      • Spirit of adventure
      • Search of green pastures and water for their animals
    2. Five effects of migration and settlement of plain Nilotes during the pre – colonial period. (10mks)
      • They exchanged/traded goods/services with the neighbouring communities so as to get what they lacked.
      • They adopted cultural practices of the communities they interacted with.
      • They displaced some of the communities they came in contact with.
      • They absorbed/assimilated some communities leading to extinction of the absorbed groups.
      • Some of their military tactics were adopted by the neighbouring communities who used them for defence.
      • They intermarried with their neighbouring communities thus improving their relations.
      • Some of them adopted farming skills from their Bantu neighbouring hence became farmers.
      • There were conflicts/insecurity as they competed over scarce resources
  2.        
    1. Give three reasons why the Portuguese constructed Fort Jesus. (3mks)
      • To be used as a base for administration and sending expeditions against coastal people.
      • Act as a hiding place/to avoid attacks by their enemies/protection/security.
      • To be used as a store for armament/fire arms/ammunitions
      • To be used as a watch tower to detect enemies from far
      • Used as a prison for war captives
      • It was used as a residential area where the Portuguese stayed/lived
    2. Explain six factors that led to the decline of the Portuguese rule along the east African coast. (10mks)
      • The harsh Portuguese rule provoked resentment from the coastal communities.
      • Some coastal communities organized a series of revolts against the Portuguese in order to retain their independence.
      • The corrupt Portuguese colonial administrators embezzled revenue and so they made it difficult for Portugal to run their possessions on the Kenyan coast/inefficient administrators.
      • Trade along the Kenyan coast declined therefore the Portuguese found retaining their control over the east African coast a liability.
      • The Portuguese were constantly attacked by tropical diseases such as malaria which killed many of them and so those who survived were unwilling to continue to stay at the East African coast.
      • The coastal Arabs and Swahili obtained support from the Turks and Oman Arabs – their fellow Muslims who helped them to drive away the Christian Portuguese colonialists.
      • Distance – reinforcement delayed due to distance of Portugal from the East African coast.
      • Presence of other European powers who were interested in the East African Coast, British and French.
      • The Portuguese were attacked by the Zimba terrorists from the lower Mozambique valley/cannibals who looted property and killed people. This made life difficult for the Portuguese.
  3.        
    1. Outline five recommendations of the Devonshire white paper of 1923. (5mks)
      • The white highlands to be exclusively reserved for the whites
      • Restrictions on immigrations was lifted
      • Racial segregation was abolished in residential areas
      • A missionary Dr. Arthur was nominated to the Legco to represent the interests of Africans
      • The demand of the white for self – government in Kenya was denied.
      • The interests of the Africans were to be paramount.
      • Indians were allowed to elect five members to the legislative council.
    2. Explain five problems faced by the white settler farmers in Kenya during the colonial period. (10mks)
      • They were subjected to constant raids by the Africans whose land had been alienated
      • They had inadequate labour force as many Africans refused to work for them
      • The settlers lacked essential agricultural skills as many had not practiced when and what to plant.
      • They had inadequate capital to invest in farming.
      • They were unable to market their produce during the world wars
      • The economic depression affected market prices
      • There was high cost of production due to animal and crop diseases
      • There was inefficient transport and communication network which affected the movement of people and goods
  4.        
    1. State five factors that facilitated the Mau Mau movement. (5mks)
      • The oathing activities which united nationalists
      • Availability of homemade guns/ammunition
      • Hilly terrain/existence of forests provided hideouts for nationalists
      • Regular food supply/information provided to the fighters
      • Availability of able/skilfull leaders
      • Use of guerrilla tactics to fight the colonialists
    2. Explain five roles played by the African elected members of parliament in the struggle for independence in Kenya. (10mks)
      • They demanded for the release of detained/imprisoned African nationalists
      • They advocated for increased African representation in the Legco
      • They enlightened/educated other Africans on the need to struggle for independence
      • They aired/presented African grievances in international for a
      • They networked with other pan – Africanists to hasten the achievement of independence.
      • They formed political parties/movements to demand for independence/rights of Africans
      • They popularized Kenyatta thereby making him acceptable as a national leader.
      • They took part in the writing of the independence constitution/Lancaster house conferences

SECTION C 30MKS
(Answer any two questions from this section)

  1.        
    1. Identify five ways in which education promotes national unity in Kenya. (5mks)
      • Schools especially national schools admit students from all over the country – mix and interact
      • Students are taught the same syllabus
      • Students sit for common KNEC national examinations
      • Students participate in co – curricular activities like games, sports, and music and drama national festivals
      • Medium of instruction – English and Kiswahili brings unity
    2. Explain five importance of national integration to Kenyan citizens. (10mks)
      • It promotes economic development
      • Promotes national unity
      • Promotes political stability hence harmony and co – existence/peace.
      • Eliminates and reduces inter – community conflicts and suspicion
      • The disadvantaged and minority are assisted
      • Upholds cultural values – ensures richness in culture.
  2.      
    1. Outline the three categories of the members of the senate. (3mks)
      • 47 elected members of the senate representing counties
      • Elected speaker from non – members as an ex – offio member
      • Nominated members by political parties representing marginalized groups, the youth and people with disability
    2. Explain six advantages of parliamentary supremacy in Kenya. (12mks)
      • It creates harmony, since the legislature and executive work together
      • This system is flexible in the sense that in an emergency situation people may have the right to choose a leader to handle the crisis.
      • The system allows ordinary citizens to participate in governing process by electing their representatives to articulate their views on issues of national interest.
      • Parliamentary system of government is also effective since cabinet secretaries sit and answer questions in the house.
      • The parliamentary systems enables Kenyans of disability and experience to prove their worthy in parliamentary debates.
      • Parliamentary government is both responsible and responsive because members of the cabinet are controlled by the parliament.
  3.      
    1. State three ways in which COVID – 19 has undermined the provision of health services by the county government in Kenya. (3mks)
      • Lack of enough medical facilities e.g wards, oxygen machines etc
      • Threats from the medics to go on strikes
      • Corruption – money meant for the treatment of diseases has been mismanaged
      • It’s a risk to the doctors and nurses because they are not protected – no special masks, clothing, gloves etc
      • Increase in the spread as the citizens are not adhering to the policies given e.g wearing masks, social distancing etc.
    2. Explain six ways in which a county government in Kenya raises its own revenue (12mks)
      • They impose property taxes within their territories to enable them raise revenue for their operations
      • They charge for the services they render to the residents of the counties in order to generate income.
      • They are allocated part of the annual national revenue in order to supplement their incomes
      • By borrowing loans from the national government or international organizations to finance development projects
      • They levy taxes on the services/goods generated in the county to finance their organizations to finance development projects
      • They levy taxes on the services/goods generated in the county to finance their activities
      • Through licences granted to business/services operating in the counties
      • By charging fees for the use of the counties’ property/fines
      • By renting property/house to people in order to raise funds for development
      • Through grants e.g from local and external sources

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