Biology Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Eagle II Joint 2021 Mock Exams

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Instructions to candidates 
  • Answer all the question
  1. Give the structure of the cell that perform the following function-: (2Mks)
    1. Regulate exchange of substances in and out of the nucleus
    2. Synthesis of ribosomes
  2. State the functions of the followings apparatus in collecting and observing specimens (3Mks)
    1. Pooter
    2. Abait trap
    3. Pit fall trap
  3. Define the term resolution (1Mk)
  4. Explain the absence of the following components in urine of a healthy person (2Mks)
    1. Glucose
    2. Plasma proteins
  5. Differentiate between primary and secondary growth (2Mks)
  6. Give a reason why lack of roughage in diet often leads to constipation.                    (1Mks)
  7. State the role of the following bacteria in the nitrogen cycle (3Mks)
    1. Rhizobium bacteria
    2. Nitrosomonas
    3. Nitrobacter
  8. What is the function of carnassial teeth.                                                                      (2Mks)
  9. List the changes that takes place during inhalation in the breathing cycle of a mammal in the following (2Mks)
    1. Ribcage
    2. Diaphragm
  10.  
    1. What is metamorphosis? (1Mk)
    2. What is the biological importance of the larval stage during metamorphosis (2Mks)
  11.  
    1. What is seed dormancy ? (1Mk)
    2. Name a growth inhibitor in seeds (1Mk)
    3. Differentiate between hypogeal and epigeal germination in seeds (2Mk)
  12. Name the causative agent of the following diseases in man (2Mks)
    1. Candidiasis
    2. Syphilis
  13. Study the diagram below and answer the questions that follow
    Bio EJM PP1Q13
    1.  Identify the type of circulatory system shown above (1Mk)
    2. Give a reason for your answer in (a) (i) (1Mk)
    3. Give a disadvantages of this type of circulation (1Mk)
  14. Give a reason for each of the following biological phenomenan (2Mks)
    1. A mature plant cell does not lose its shape after losing water
    2. Amoeba will not burst when placed in a hypotonic solution
  15. Mention two differences between pollen grains of wind and insect pollinated flower  (2Mks)
  16. State the functions of the following structures in human reproductive system (3Mks)
    1. Seminiferous tubules____________________________________________________
    2. Interstitial cells________________________________________________________
    3. Epidydimis____________________________________________________________
  17. The following are text messages on a cell phone that represent gene mutation
         Intended message                  Actual message
    1. Buy me a coat                        Buy me a goat
    2. John is paying                        John is praying 
      1. Identify the type of gene mutation that is represented in each case (2Mks)
      2. Identify any two disorder arising due to gene mutation in humans (2Mks)
  18. State one effect of magnesium deficiency in green plants.                                (1Mks)
  19. Explain why water logging of the soil may lead to death in plants.                              (2Mks)
  20. A dog weighing 15.2kg requires 216kj while a mouse weighing 50g requires 2736kj per day. Explain. (2Mks)
  21. The equation below shows an oxidation reaction of food substance.
    5C51    H98O6 + 145CO2  arrow  102CO2 + 98H20 + Energy
    1. Determine respiratory quotient of the oxidation of food substance.                        (2Mks)
    2. Give two reasons why the above food is not the main substrate.                              (2Mks)   
  22. An individual is blood group B positive (2Mks)
    1. Name the antigens in the individual’s blood
    2. Give the reason why the individual cannot receive blood from blood group A donor (2Mks)
  23. Below data was obtained in an ecosystem
    Mango tree - 1
    Caterpillars – 100
    Sparrow- 50
    Hawk- 5
    1. Sketch a pyramid of numbers for their feeding relationship (2Mks)
    2. Identify the shape of the pyramid of number (1Mk)
  24.  
    1. What is organic evolution? (1Mks)
    2.  
      1. What are vestigial structures? (1Mk)
      2. Give two examples of vestigial structures in human (2Mks)
  25. Name the kidney disease which affects the glomerulus (1Mk)
  26. Name the kingdom to which plasmodium belongs.                                                     (1Mks)
  27.  
    1. What is non- disjunction (1Mk)
    2. State two disorders in human that are as a results of non-disjunction (2Mks)
  28. Name two external features found in the class Mammalia only.                                        (2Mks)
  29. State two roles of diffusion in human being.                                                                        (2Mks)
  30. How do the following factors affect the rate of diffusion.                                                    (2Mks)
    1. Diffusion gradient
    2. Surface area to volume ratio
  31. Name two fat soluble vitamin manufactured by the human body.                                          (2Mks)
  32. Name two sites of gaseous exchange in frogs.                                                                      (2Mks)
  33. State two characteristic features of members of division Bryophyta.                                  (2Mks)
  34. How are lenticels adapted for gaseous exchange.                                                                  (2Mks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1. Give the structure of the cell that perform the following function-: (2Mks)
    1. Regulate exchange of substances in and out of the nucleus
      • Reject Nuclear membrane, cell membrane.
    2. Synthesis of ribosomes :-
      • Nucleolus
  2. State the functions of the followings apparatus in collecting and observing specimens (3Mks)
    1. Pooter :- Used for sucking small animals from rock surfaces or bark of trees
    2. Abait trap :- For attracting and trapping small animals e.g rats
    3. Pit fall trap : - For catching crawling animals e.g. millipedes
  3. Define the term resolution (1Mk)
    • Ability of a microscope to distinguish between two close points as distinct entities
  4. Explain the absence of the following components in urine of a healthy person (2Mks)
    1. Glucose
      • All glucose are actively reabsorbed in the blood stream
    2. Plasma proteins
      • Have large molecules size hence not filtered through small pores of the capillary walls of glomerulus
  5. Differentiate between primary and secondary growth (2Mks)
    • Primary growth occurs at the tip of the roots and shoots due to the activity of apical meristems resulting in increase in height. While secondary growth increase width/ girth due to activity of cambium meristem.
  6. Give a reason why lack of roughage in diet often leads to constipation. (1Mks)
    • Lack of roughage results in slow movement of food
  7. State the role of the following bacteria in the nitrogen cycle (3Mks)
    1. Rhizobium bacteria: Convert nitrogen gas into nitrates
    2. Nitrosomonas :Convert ammonia to nitrites
    3. Nitrobacter :Convert nitrites to nitrates
  8. What is the function of carnassials teeth. (2Mks)
    • Slice flesh
    • Crush bones
  9. List the changes that takes place during inhalation in the breathing cycle of mammal in the following (2Mks)
    1. Ribcage :-
      • Moves upwards and outwards
    2. Diaphragm : -
      • Flattens
  10.  
    1. What is metamorphosis (1Mk)
      • Changes in the body form during the life cycle of animal
    2. What is the biological importance of the larval stage during metamorphosis (2Mks)
      • There is vigorous feeding; hence the insect obtain enough nutrients; rapid cell division for growth
  11.  
    1. What is seed dormancy (1Mk)
      • A period in which a seed cannot germinate even if provided with all the conditions necessary for germination when conditions are suitable
    2. Name a growth inhibitor in seed (1Mk)
      • Abscisic acid (reject wrong spelling)
    3. Differentiate between hypogeal and epigeal germination in seeds (2Mk)
      • Epigeal the cotyledon is brought above ground level (due to elongation of hypocotyl,)
      • Hypogeal cotyledon remain below ground level (due to elongation of epicotyls)
  12. Name the causative agent of the following diseases in man (2Mks)
    1. Candidiasis :-
      • Candida albicans
    2. Syphilis:-
      • Treponema pallidum
  13. Study the diagram below and answer the questions that follow
    1. Identify the type of circulatory system shown above (1Mk)
      • Single circulatory systems
    2. Give a reason for your answer in (a) (i) (1Mk)
      • Blood flows through the heart once in a complete circulation
    3. Give a disadvantages of this type of circulation (2Mk)
      • Blood flows under low pressure ; making circulation slow hence the animals are less active;
  14. Give a reason for each of the following biological phenomena (2Mks)
    1. A mature plant cell does not lose its shape after losing water
      • Has a cell wall which gives a plant a regular shape
    2. Amoeba will not burst when placed in a hypotonic solution
      • Has a contractile vacuole for excretion of excess water.
  15. Mention two differences between pollen grains of wind and insect pollinated flower (2Mks)
     Wind  Insect
     Small  Large 
     Light  Heavy 
     Smooth  Rough/sticky 
     Numerous  Few 
  16. State the functions of the following structures in human reproductive system (3Mks)
    • Seminiferous tubules :- Produce sperms
    • Interstitial cells:- Produces androgen / test to sterone
    • Epidydimis: - Store sperms
  17. The following are text messages on a cell phone that represent gene mutation
         Intended message                  Actual message
    A- Buy me a coat                         Buy me a goat
    B- John is paying                         John is praying
    1. Identify the type of gene mutation that is represented in each case (2Mks)
      • A – Substitution
      • B – Insertion
    2. Identify any two disorder arising due to gene mutation in humans (2Mks)
      • Albinism
      • Sickle cell anaemia
      • Haemophilia
      • Colour blindness
  18. State one effect of magnesium deficiency in green plants. (1Mks)
    • Chlorosis/yellowing of leaves
  19. Explain why water logging of the soil may lead to death in plants. (2Mks)
    • When soil is water logged oxygen cannot diffuse into the root tissues hence no respiration
  20. A dog weighing 15.2kg requires 216kj while a mouse weighing 50g requires 2736kj per day.
    Explain. (2Mks)
    • A mouse has high surface area to volume ratio and tends to lose heat faster. It requires more energy to replace.
  21. The equation below shows an oxidation reaction of food substance.
    5C51 H98O6 + 145CO2  arrow102CO2 + 98H20 + Energy
    1. Determine respiratory quotient of the oxidation of food substance. (2Mks)
      RQ = CO₂ produced  =  102
                  O₂ used up         145
      RQ=0.7
    2. Give two reasons why the above food substance is not the substrate. (2Mks)
      • Not very soluble in water
      • Require more oxygen to oxidise
  22. An individual is blood group B positive
    1. Name the antigens in the individual’s blood (2Mks)
      • ‘B’ and rhesus factors or antigen ‘D’
    2. Give the reason why the individual cannot receive blood from blood group A donor (2Mks)
      • Recipient plasma has antibody ‘a’ which corresponds to antigen A which causes antigen antibody reaction causing agglutinations of red blood cells
  23. Below data was obtained in an ecosystem
    Mango tree - 1
    Caterpillars - 100
    Sparrow - 50
    Hawk – 5
    1. Sketch a pyramid of numbers for this feeding relationship (2Mks)
      Bio EJM PP1Ans23
    2. Identify the shape of the pyramid of number (1Mk)
      • Inverted pyramid of numbers
  24.  
    1. What is organic evolution (2Mks)
      • Is the gradual emergence of complex life forms of organisms from pre-existing, simple life forms over a long period of time
    2.  
      1. What are vestigial structure (1Mk)
        • Are structures that have ceased to be functional in some organisms and have over time reduce in size
      2. Give two examples of vestigial structures in human (2Mks)
        • Appendix
        • Coccyx
        • Nictitating membrane
  25. Name the kidney disease which affects the glomerulus (1Mk)
    • Nephritis
  26. Name the kingdom to which plasmodium belongs. (1Mks)
    • Protoctista
  27.  
    1. What is non- disjunction (1Mk)
      • Failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during cell division 1 resulting in gametes with extra chromosome and other with less
    2. State two disorders in human that are as a results of non-disjunction (2Mks)
      • Down’s syndrome
      • Turner’s syndrome
      • Klinefelter’s syndrome
  28. Name two external features found in the class Mammalia only. (2Mks)
    • Have mammary glands
    • Body covered with fur/hair
    • Have pinna
  29. State two roles of diffusion in human being. (2Mkss)
    • Absorption of digested food materials into the blood stream
    • Gaseous exchange.
    • Excretion of nitrogenous waste
  30. How do the following factors affect the rate of diffusion. (2Mks)
    1. Diffusion gradient
      • The greater the diffusion gradient, the greater the rate of diffusion.
    2. Surface area to volume ratio
      • The greater the surface area the higher the rate of diffusion.
  31. Name two fat soluble vitamin manufactured by the human body. (2Mks)
    • Vitamin D,K,A
  32. Name two sites of gaseous exchange in frogs. (2Mks)
    • Skin
    • Mouth
  33. State two characteristic features of members of division Bryophyta. (2Mks)
    • Absence of vascular bundles
    • Body parts not differentiated into roots, stem and leave
  34. How are lenticels adapted for gaseous exchange. (2Mks)
    • Cells are loosely arranged to facilitate air circulastion.
    • Cells have moist surfaces; to dissolve respiratory gases.

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