Geography Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Eagle II Joint 2021 Mock Exams

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INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES.

  • This paper has two sections A and B
  • Answer ALL the questions in section A.
  • Answer question 6 and any other TWO questions from section B.

SECTION A
Answer ALL the questions in this section

  1.  
    1. Give three major areas studied in Human and Economic geography (3mks)
    2. State how geography is related to agriculture (2mks)
  2.  
    1. Give three reasons why it is necessary to study geography through fieldwork (3mks)
    2. State two disadvantages of direct observation as a method of data collection (2mks)
  3.  
    1. State three uses of Soda Ash (3mks)
    2. Name two areas where diamond is mined in South Africa (2mks)
  4.  
    1. identify two protective role of forest in Kenya (2mks)
    2. State three factors that lead to depletion of forests in Kenya. (3marks
  5.  
    1. State three physical condition favouring the growing of cocoa in Ghana (3mks)
    2. List two problems facing cocoa farming in Ghana (2mks

SECTION B
Answer Question 6 and any other two questions from this section.

  1. The table below shows domestic consumption of dairy products in Kenya in millions
    kilograms between 2008 and 2011. Use it to answer questions that follows;
     Dairy products/years  2008 2009  2010  2011 
     Butter  20,000  25,000   30,000  35,000 
     Canned milk  15,000  30,000   25,000   20,000
     Cheese  10,000  9,500  5,000  4,000
     Yoghurt junket  2,000  4,000  5,000  9,000
    1.  
      1. Using a vertical scale of 1cm to represent 5000 million kilograms , draw Cumulative bar graphs to represent the data (8mks)
      2. Give three disadvantages of using cumulative bar graph to represent the data (3mks)
    2.  
      1. Name four dairy breeds kept in Kenya  (4mks)
      2. State two differences between dairy farming in Kenya and Denmark  (4mks)
    3. Explain three ways taken by the government of Kenya to improve dairy farming (6mks)
  2.  
    1.  
      1. Name two types of alluvial mining method (2mks)
      2. Identify four factors that influence the exploitation of minerals in Kenya (4mks)
      3. Describe the shaft method of mining (6mks)
    2. Explain three adverse effect of gold mining to the environment of South Africa (6mks)
    3. Your class intends to carry out a field study on gold mining site in Migori County in Nyanza region;
      1. Outline four ways in which the students would prepare for this field study (4mks)
      2. State three reasons why they would be required to conduct a reconnaissance (3mks)
  3.  
    1.  
      1. State three benefits of out grower schemes in growing of sugar cane in Kenya (3mks)
      2. State three reasons why Kenya imports sugar sometimes (3mks)
    2.  
      1. State four physical conditions which favour large scale sugarcane growing in Kenya (4mks)
      2. Describe the stages involved in the processing of sugarcane at the factory (8mks)
      3. Give three by – products obtained from sugar cane (3mks)
    3. State four problems facing sugar cane farmers in Kenya (4mks)
  4.  
    1.  
      1. Give three methods used to drained swamps in Kenya (3mks)
      2. State four benefits that resulted from the reclamation of the Yala swamp (4mks)
    2.  
      1. What is a polder (2mks)
      2. Name three areas which make up the wider zuder zee reclamation project in the Netherland (3mks)
    3.  
      1. Name two methods of irrigation used in Kenya (2mks)
      2. State three importance of irrigation farming in Kenya (3mks)
    4. State four differences between land reclamation in Kenya and the Netherland (8mks)
  5.  
    1.  
      1. What is fish farming (2mks)
      2. State three reasons why marine fisheries are underdeveloped in Kenya (3mks)
    2.  
      1. describe the purse seining as a method of fishing (6mks)
      2. State four ways in which the Kenyan government is promoting the fishing industry in the country (4mks)
    3. The world map below shows major fishing grounds of the world. Use it to answer the following questions;
               Geo EJM PP2Q10c
      1. Name the fishing ground marked A and B (2mks)
      2. Explain four factors that make the area marked C an important fishing ground (8mks)

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A

  1.  
    1. Give three major areas studied in Human and Economic geography        (3mks)
      • Agriculture
      • Forestry
      • Mining
      • Wildlife and tourism
      • Fishing
      • Energy and Industrial development
      • Transport and Communication
      • Trade
      • Population and settlement
      • Management and conservation of the environment
    2. State how geography is related to agriculture            (2mks)
      • Agriculture is the science and practice of farming and it involves the growing of crops and rearing of livestock. Geography on the other hand studies farming systems, their distribution and the factors affecting farming activities
      • Geography studies the relief of an area which helps identify suitable areas for various agricultural activities
      • Geography also looks at both the negative and positive impact agriculture has on the environment e.g soil erosion and conservation practices 
      • Geography deals with types of soil which influences type of crops
  2.  
    1. Give three reasons why it is necessary to study geography through fieldwork  (3mks)
      • It helps to collect samples for future references/use
      • It enables one to get firsthand information
      • It makes geography real/ meaningful
      • Helps leaners to understand better theoretical concepts taught in class
      • Helps students to develop skills of data collection
      • Makes leaning of geography interesting
    2. State two disadvantages of direct observation as a method of data collection (2mks)
      • It cannot be used if the researcher has visual impairment
      • It is expensive because it involves a lot of traveling
      • It may be subjective due to personal biasness
      • It cannot be used in very high temperature and rainfall conditions
  3.  
    1. State three uses of Soda Ash        (3mks)
      • Used in manufacturing of glasses and bottles
      • Used to make soaps and detergents
      • Used in softening of water
      • Used in textile industry
      • Used in oil refining
    2. Name two areas where diamond is mined in South Africa          (2mks)
      • Kimberly
      • Bloemfontein
      • Alexander
  4.  
    1. Identify two protective roles of forests in Kenya                              (2mks)
      • Protect water resources
      • Control soil erosion
      • Act as wind breakers
    2. State three factors that lead to depletion of forests in Kenya. (3marks
      • Illegal encroachment of human activities/ illegal cultivation has led to clearing of forests
      • Prolonged drought have caused drying up of some trees
      • Plants diseases and pest which have destroy some trees in the forests
      • Outbreak of forests fires/ charcoal burning
      • Over exploitation of certain species of the trees
      • Increased population of the elephants that destroys the trees
  5.  
    1. State three physical condition favouring the growing od cocoa in Ghana  (3mks)
      • High temperature / temperature of 24ºc - 30ºc
      • High rainfall / of 1200mm – 1500mm which is well distributed throughout the year
      • Deep well drained loamy / volcanic soil
      • Shades from strong sun rays for the seedlings / young plants
      • Undulating lowlands with altitude of (0 – 750m) above the sea level
      • Sun shines for ripening of pods
    2. List two problems facing cocoa farming in Ghana                                     (2mks)
      • High cost of farm inputs
      • Pest and diseases attack e.g capsid bug and black pod or swollen shoot respectively
      • Poor extension services
      • Competition from other beverages
      • Competition for land from other crops
      • Limited storage facilities
      • Price fluctuation

SECTION B
Answer Question 6 and any other two questions from this section.

  1. The table below shows domestic consumption of dairy products in Kenya in millions kilograms between 2008 and 2011. Use it to answer questions that follows;
    1.  
      1. Using a vertical scale of 1cm to represent 5000 million kilograms , draw Cumulative bar graphs to represent the data               (8mks)
         Dairy products/years  2008  c.t  2009   c.t 2010   c.t 2011   c.t
         Butter  20,000  20,000  25,000   25,000  30,000  30,000  35,000   35,000
         Canned milk  15,000  35,000  30,000   55,000  25,000   55,000  20,000  55,000
         Cheese  10,000  45,000  9,500  64,500  5,000  60,000  4,000  59,000
         Yoghurt junket  2,000  47,000   4,000  68,500  5,000  65,000  9,000  68,000

        Geo EJM PP2Ans 6a
      2. Give three disadvantages of using cumulative bar graph to represent the data (3mks)
        • It takes time to draw because of many are calculation involved
        • The values of individual components of the same bar are difficult to establish at a glance
        • There is limited number of components that can be represented
        • Values of many variables on one bar can give wrong impression
    2.  
      1. dairy breeds in Kenya    (4mks)
        • Friesian/Holstein block
        • Guernsey
        • Alderney
        • Ayrshire
        • Sahiwal
      2. State two differences between dairy farming in Kenya and Denmark                  (4mks)
        • In Kenya dairy animals are kept outside throughout the year while in Denmark animals are kept indoors during winter
        • In Kenya dairy animals depend mainly on natural pasture while in Denmark it is mostly on fodder
        • In Denmark dairy farming is highly mechanized while in Kenya mechanization is limited
        • Most of the dairy products are exported in Denmark while in Kenya most of them are consumed locally
        • Dairy co-operation are highly developed in Denmark while in Kenya they suffer from mismanagement of funds
        • In Denmark dairy farmers are specialized while in Kenya they practice mixed farming
      3. Ways taken by Kenya   government             (6mks)
        • Reopening of Kenya cooperative creameries…………………
        • Holding agricultural shows………………………….
        • Improving intensive services……………………….
        • Instruction of quality breeds…………………………………
  2.  
    1.  
      1. Name two types of alluvial mining method                     (2mks)
        • Panning
        • Dredging
        • Hydraulic mining
        • Submarine mining
      2. Identify four factors that influences the exploitation of minerals in Kenya      (4mks)
        • Value of the minerals
        • Quality of ore
        • Amount of the capital required
        • Methods of mining
        • Transport cost
        • Market for the minerals
      3. Describe the shaft method of mining                                   (6mks)
        • Vertical shaft are sunk into the earth’s crust to reach the layers with the minerals
        • Horizontal tunnels are dug from the vertical shaft to reach the mineral
        • Props are erected to support the roof from collapsing
        • The minerals bearing rocks are then blasted by explosives to loosen them
        • The deposit is then transported on light rail or conveyor belt to the bottom of the shaft
        • They are then brought up to the surface by a crane or a lift called cage where they loaded to trucks
    2. Explain three adverse effect of gold mining to the environment of South Africa (6mks)
      • The dumping of rocks has led to the loss of biodiversity / destruction of natural vegetation in S. Africa
      • Dereliction of land dues to dumping of waste materials / open mines are eye soaring has exposes the land to agents of erosion
      • Pollution of the area by noise / dust /water pools are all health hazards
      • Mining of gold disrupts the water table which may lead to shortage of water
    3. Your class intends to carry out a field study on gold mining site in Migori County in Nyanza region;
      1. Outline four ways in which the students would prepare for this field study             (4mks)
        • Reading on the topic from the books
        • Discussing in class
        • Forming discussion groups
        • Consulting geography teachers
        • Assembling necessary tools
        • Drawing out working schedule
      2. State three reasons why they would be required to conduct a reconnaissance       (3mks)
        • To assess the suitability of the study area
        • To help prepare a route map
        • To ask for permission
        • To help design a working schedule
        • To help identify probable problems and how to solve them
        • To estimate the cost of the study
        • To help identify suitable data collection methods
        • To help identify appropriate equipments  / tools to be carried
  3.  
    1.  
      1. State three benefits of out grower schemes bin growing of sugar cane in Kenya (3mks)
        • It provides extension services to farmers
        • It provides fertilizers to farmers
        • Receives and gives seed canes to farmers
        • It provides tractors for ploughing to farmers
        • It also pay the workers harvesting the canes
      2. State three reasons why Kenya imports sugar sometimes        (3mks)
        • Sugar produce in Kenya is expensive than beet sugar thus Kenya makes a profit by importing beet sugar
        • Crop failure due to drought leads to shortages necessitating importation to supplement the locally produced sugar
        • High cost of farm inputs leads to low production hence needs to import the sugar
        • Mismanagement of factories leading to their collapse hence needs to be supplanted
    2.  
      1. State four physical conditions which favour large scale sugarcane growing in Kenya (4mks)
        • The presence of deep, well drained / black cotton/ clay / volcanic / alluvial soil
        • High temperatures of 20ºc – 27°c
        • Gently sloping / Undulating land for easy mechanization
        • High rainfall / 1200mm – 1500mm well distributed throughout the year
        • Sunny condition for sugar accumulation
      2. Describe the stages involved in the processing of sugarcane at the factory    (8mks)
        • The cane is received and weighed
        • The cane is washed and then chopped into small pieces
        • The pieces are crushed to extract the juice
        • The juice is put in clarifiers to filter off the impurities
        • The juice is boiled to evaporate the water
        • The juice is further stirred in large tanks to allow crystallization
        • The crystals are separated from molasses
        • The sugar is then bleached to whiten it
        • The sugar is the dried, cooled, graded, weighed and packed for sale
      3. Give three by – products obtained from sugar cane            (3mks)
        • Bagasse
        • Molasses
        • Cane juice
        • Filter cake/ filter mud
        • Jaggery
        • Wax
    3. State four problems facing sugar cane farmers in Kenya        (4mks)
      • Pests such as termites / white grub, diseases such as ratoon stunting and smut attacks the cane
      • Accidental fires / fires set by arsonists destroy the canes
      • Flooding of the market with cheap imported sugar
      • Delay in harvesting reduces the quality / tonnage of the cane
      • Closure of some factories has depreived farmers of their source of income
      • Mudding feeder roads in some areas delays cane delivery to the factory
  4.  
    1.  
      1. Give three methods used to drained swamps in Kenya       (3mks)
        • Constructing of drainage pipes
        • Digging of open ditches / canals
        • Pumping out the water
      2. State four benefits that resulted from the reclamation of the Yala swamp   (4mks)
        • Floods were controlled
        • Mosquitoes were controlled
        • There was increased land for agriculture / more land was made available for agriculture
        • Better farming methods were introduced
        • There was an increased in the employment opportunities
    2.  
      1. What is a polder               (2mks)
        • It is an area of low lying land reclaimed from sea which is enclosed by dykes in Netherlands
      2. Name three areas which make up the wider zuder zee reclamation project in the Netherland  (3mks)
        • Markerwaard
        • South Flevoland
        • East Flevoland
        • North Eastern polder
        • Wieriger Meer polder
    3.  
      1. Name two methods of irrigation used in Kenya                                        (2mks)
        • Drip irrigation / trickle irrigation
        • Overhead irrigation / sprinkler
        • Furrow or canal irrigation
        • Flood/ basin irrigation 
        • Use of lifting devices
      2. State three importance of irrigation farming in Kenya                 (3mks)
        • Has help to settle the landless people in some schemes like Mwea – Tabere
        • Has saved the country foreign exchange because Kenya can rely on domestic rice than importing
        • Leads to rehabilitation and development of the areas by reclaiming dry land
        • Has helped in the control of environmental hazards likes flooding through correction of dykes or dams
        • Has created employment in them schemes
        • Has led to the growth of urban centres
    4. State four differences between land reclamation in Kenya and the Netherland       (8mks)
      • In Kenya the area that is reclaimed is relatively small while the areas reclaimed in the Netherlands are large
      • In Kenya land is mainly reclaimed from swamps and marginal areas while in the Netherlands reclamation is from the sea
      • In Kenya irrigation is used as a means of reclaiming dry area while in the Netherlands irrigation is used to lower the salinity of the soil in the reclaimed lands
      • In Kenya dykes are used to control rivers floods while in Netherlands dykes protect the reclaimed land from invasion by sea
      • In Kenya the methods of land reclamation are simple/ digging canals /ditches to drain water from the land while in the Netherlands the methods used are highly advance like creation of polders
  5.  
    1.  
      1. What fish farming                                                                 (2mks)
        • This is the rearing of fish in ponds/ cages
      2. State three reasons why marine fisheries are underdeveloped in Kenya  (3mks)
        • The continental shelf is narrow
        • The coastline is fairly straight and has few indentation
        • The fishermen have inadequate capital, hence are unable to buy and maintain modern equipment
        • Fishermen have inadequate skills
        • There is low demand for fish locally
        • There is a limited market due to competitors from the developed countries
    2.  
      1. Describe the purse seining as a method of fishing     (6mks)
        • It uses two boats, one large and one small
        • It uses a large net
        • The net has floats on top and weights at the bottom to keep in a vertical position while in water
        • The fishermen begin by locating a shoal / area which has fish
        • The string at the bottom of the net is pulled to close the net the bottom and trap the fish
        • The net is pulled out of the water and the fish hauled into the large boat for preservation and transportation to the shore
      2. State four ways in which the Kenya government is promoting the fishing industry in the country          (4mks
        • Fishermen are given loans
        • Fishermen are encourage to form cooperatives
        • Research is carried out / the over fished areas are restocked with fingerlings
        • There is standardization of the size of nets used in fishing
        • Laws have been enacted against water fisheries
        • Seasonal restriction in fishing in some areas
        • By encouraging fish farming / hatcheries to supply fish farmers with fingerlings
    3. The world map below shows major fishing grounds of the world. Use it to answer the following questions;
      1. Name the fishing ground marked  A and B     (2mks)
        • A. North East Atlantic fishing ground
        • B. North West Atlantic fishing ground
      2. Explain four factors that make the area marked C an important fishing ground      (8mks)       
        • The convergence of the cold Oya Siwo current and the warm Kuro Siwo current results in well oxygenated ice free cool waters ideal for fishing
        • The broad continental shelf along the coastline favours the growth of plankton leading to more fish
        • The indented coastline with several bays and islands favour fish breeding and provide good fishing ports
        • The mountainous landscape especially in Japan hinders the development of agriculture leaving fishing as an alternative source of food and income
        • Availability of ready market and labour from the high population in the Asian countries
        • Advanced technology in the region especially Japan has boostedthe fishing industry 
        • The modern and efficient transportation facilities offers quick movement of the fish from the fishing ground to the market centres                                                 

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