Geography Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Asumbi Girls High School KCSE Mock 2021

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Questions

INSTRUCTIONS

  • The paper comprises of two sections A & B
  • Attempt all the questions in Section A
  •  In Section B answer question 6 and choose any other TWO questions

SECTION A
Answer all the questions in this section

  1.            
    1. What is human geography? (2 marks)
    2. State three ways in which the study of Geography contributes to National development. (3 marks)
  2.  
    1. Apart from coniferous forest, name two other types of natural forests. (2 mks)
    2. State three characteristics of coniferous which favour their exploitation. (3 mks)
  3.     
    1. Give the characteristics of plantation agriculture in Kenya. (3 marks)
    2. State 2 problems facing coffee farming in Kenya. (2 marks)
  4.  
    1. Study the map of the Ruhr Industrial region and use it to answer the question below
      07GeoPP2q4a
      1. Name
      2. The town marked Q (1 mark)
      3. The River marked X (1 mark)
    2. Apart from the iron and steel, list 3 other industries in the region. (3 marks)
  5.  
    1. State three causes of urban rural migration (3 marks)
    2. Give two reasons for rapid population growth. (2 marks)

SECTION B (75 MARKS)
Answer question 6 and any other TWO questions from this section.

  1.  The table below shows the number of tourists who visited Kenya between 1996 -1999. Use it to answer the questions that follow.
    Origin/Year  1996  1997  1998  1999
    Britain  100 000  80 000  60 000  40 000
    N. America  80 000  50 000  45 000  45 000
    Germany  70 000  40 000  35 000  30 000
    S.E Asia  40 000  30 000  25 000  25 000

    1. Using a scale 1 cm to represent 20,000 people, draw a compound bar graph to present this data. (6 marks)
    2. State possible reasons for the decline in the number of tourists since 1997 (4 marks)
    3.        
      1. What is eco-tourism (2 marks)
      2. State two objectives of eco-tourism. (2 marks)
    4. Explain three factors that hinder development of domestic tourism in Kenya. (6 marks)
    5. Identify five steps taken by the Kenya government to promote tourism in the country. (5 marks)
  2. Study the sketch map of the great lakes of St. Lawrence
    07GeoPP2q7
    1. Name
      1. The port marked N. (1 mk)
      2. The waterfall marked M (1 mk)
      3. The lakes marked I, J, K, L (4 mks)
    2. Explain five ways in which the great lakes of St. Lawrence sea way has contributed to the economy of Canada and USA. (10 mks)
    3.          
      1. State three recent developments that have taken place in Kenya to improve communication of information. (3 mks)
      2. Explain three problems facing telephone as a means of communication in Kenya. (6 mks)
  3.         
    1.          
      1. What is Environmental Hazards. (2 marks)
      2. Identify three environmental hazards caused by human activities. (3 marks)
    2.     
      1. State three cause of floods. (3 marks)
      2. Explain four ways of combating floods in Kenya. (8 marks)
    3. Students from your school carried out a field study on a flood prone area in your country.
      1. State four reasons why the working schedule is very important in their study. (4 marks)
      2. List two methods of data collection they are likely to use. (3 marks)
      3. Name two areas in Kenya prone to flooding. (2 mks)
  4.         
    1.         
      1. Apart from nuclear energy name three other non-renewable sources of energy. (3 marks)
      2. State three factors that hinder development of nuclear energy in many countries. (3 marks)
    2.   
      1. Explain the three effects of overdependence of petroleum on the economy of oil importing countries. (6 marks)
      2. State 3 methods that Kenya can use to conserve her energy. (3 marks)
    3. Give reasons why Kenya has not been fully able to fully exploit her geothermal potential. (4 marks)
    4. Use the map of Africa to answer the questions that follow
      07GeoPP2q9d
      1. Name the H.E.P projects that are marked 1,2,5,6. (4 marks)
      2. Give two reasons why Africa has a high potential of H.E.P ( 2 mks)
  5.            
    1.        
      1. Name four forms of which minerals occur. (4 mks)
      2. State four factors that are necessary for the occurrence of minerals. (4 mks)
    2. State three ways in which open cast mining affect the environment. (3 mks)
    3. Explain four ways in which mining contribute to the economy of Kenya. (8 mks)
    4. Form 4 Geography students carried out field study on mineral found in the Rift Valley
      1. State three objectives of their study. (3 mks)
      2. List down three problems they are likely to come across. (3 mks)

Marking Scheme

  1.        
    1. What is human geography? (2 mks)
      • it is a branch of geography which deal with the study of man’s/people’s activities on the earth surface
      • It deals with spatial distribution of human features on the earth surface and factors which influence their distribution
    2. State three ways in which the study of geography contributes to national development. (3 mks)
      • Geography career creates employment in the country improving people’s living standards.
      • It teaches on the conservation of natural resources which are used as source of raw materials for industrial productions
      • it equips the learner with important social skills such as time management which is a key component in the planning of the national projects.
      • It involves learning about case studies from other countries and the knowledge gained from other parts of the world can be used as a basis for solving national problems
      • Learners understand the value of cooperation among people since they perform task in groups during field work thus promoting team work and National unity which are essential in development of a country.
  2.          
    1. Apart from coniferous forest, name two other types of natural forests. (2 mks)
      • Tropical hardwood forest
      • Temperature hardwood forest
      • Mixed forests
      • Bamboo/montane forests
      • Tropical monsoon forests
      • Mediterranean forest
    2. State three characteristics of coniferous which favour their exploitation. (3 mks)
      • Trees are light in weight
      • There is little undergrowth
      • The trees have straight trunk
        (Any 3 x 1 mks)
  3.       
    1. Give characteristics of plantation agriculture in Kenya (3 mks)
      • Some plantations are foreign own e.g. Delmont
      • Many crops take several years to mature
      • There is heavy capital outlay
      • There is scientific management
      • Concentration on one crop e.g. tea, coffee
      • Crops mainly grown on large estates e.g. more than four hectares
    2. State two problems facing coffee farming in Kenya. (2 mks)
      • Crop attacked by leaf rust/coffee berry disease (CBD) 2 mks
      • Fluctuation of coffee prices in world market
      • Poor transportation e.g. poor roads
      • Mismanagement of coffee cooperatives
      • Inadequate capital
      • Delayed payment
      • Low payment
      • Poor market strategies
      • Inadequate rainfall
      • Expensive prices of inputs e.g. fertilizers, pesticides e.t.c.
        Any 2 x 1
  4.        
    1. Study the map of the Ruhr Industrial region and use it to answer the questions below.
      1. The town marked Q (1 mk)
        • Kreis Wessel
      2. The river marks X (1 mk)
        • River Lippe
    2. A part from iron and steel list three other industries in the region. (3 mks)
      • Textile industry
      • Oil refinery
      • Chemical industry
      • Food processing
      • Electronic and surgical instruments industry
      • Fertilizers marketing industry
      • Service industry e.g. banking, repair
      • Engineering industries
  5.   
    1. State three courses of urban rural migration. (3 mks)
      • Retirement from job
      • Transfer on job
      • Insecurity in towns
      • Education purposes/learning
      • Retrenchment from one’s job in town
      • Religion
    2. Give two reasons for rapid population growth in Kenya..
      • Improved nutrition hence balanced diet
      • Improved medical facilities which has reduced mortality
      • Some religions/Christian churches disapprove the use of artificial birth control methods
      • Increases cases of early pregnancy in girls
      • Provision of better social amenities
  6.       
    1.       
    2. Possible reasons for the decline in the number of tourists since 1997 (4 mks)
      • High degree of insecurity caused by 1997 Likoni clashes in Mombasa, a major tourist destination in the country.
      • Tourist attack like in 1998 bombing in Nairobi and other attacks directed to tourist resorts
      • The tense atmosphere preceding the parliamentary elections in 1997
      • Poor transport and communication after massive destruction caused by 1997 Elnino rains
      • Negative travel advisory made by some governments cautioning their citizen against visiting Kenya
        Any 4 x 1 mks
    3.      
      1.         
        • Definition of ecotourism
        • This is tourism with emphasis on the conservation of the environment. (2 mks)
      2. Objective of ecotourism
        • To make tourism sustainable
        • Protection of the environment
        • Make local people appreciate tourism through the sharing of benefits accrued from their environment
    4. Factors that hinder domestic tourism in Kenya. (6 mks)
      • Inadequate local campaign and publicity to make people aware of local attractions
      • The roads to the parks are poorly maintained. This discourage people from visiting
      • Familiarity with tourist attractions among the people make them fail to appreciate their beauty and valu
      • Insecurity from gangsters, poachers, bandits and cattle rustlers discourages and scares people away from parks
      • The high cost of accommodation in the game reserves discourages local tourists
    5. Steps that the Kenya government has taken to promote tourism in Kenya. (5 mks)
      • The government has provided transport and communication necessary for tourism to make the attraction sites accessible
      • The Kenya government manages and conserves wildlife through establishment of national parks and games reserves
      • The government has established the Ministry of Tourism which formulates and implements policies that ensure promotion of tourism in the country
      • The government encourages local and foreign investors to invest in coastal hotels so as to attract more tourists
      • Kenya has undertaken vigorous publicity campaigns abroad. She has promotion offices in major tourist sources of the world.
      • The government has established a body which lends to and advises the investors in tourism industry i.e. the Kenya Tourism Development Cooperation (KTDC)
      • The government has established institutions to train all cadres of human resources for the hotel and tourism industry sub – sectors for example the Utalii College
      • The government has conducted a conclusive atmosphere for the running of the tourism industry
        Any 5 x 1 well explained
  7. Study the sketch map of the great lakes – St. Lawrence
    1. Name
      1. The part marked N (1 mk)
        • Quebec
      2. The waterfall marked M
        • Niagara Falls
      3. The lakes marked I, J, K, L (4 mks)
        • I Lake Superior
        • J Lake Michigan
        • K Lake Huron
        • L Lake Ontario
    2. Explain five ways in which the great lake of St. Lawrence Seaway has contributed to the economy of Canada and USA. (10 mks)
      • The seaway has created employment opportunities in transport industry thus raising the living standards of people
      • The Seaway is tourist attraction which generates income in the region
      • Tariffs charges earns the country income
      • It provides easy navigable means of transport for both imports and exports. This encourages internal and international trade
      • It has led to the growth of parts and towns e.g. Quebec, Montreal and Duruth
    3.           
      1. State three recent developments that have taken place in Kenya to improve communication of information. (3 mks)
        • Liberalization on the press
        • Expansion of telephone facilities
        • Introduction of mobile phones, pager services, e.t.c
        • Liberalization of postal services
        • Licensing of more private radio stations and television stations
          (Any 3 x 1 mks)
      2. Explain three problems facing telephone as a means of communication in Kenya. (6 mks)
        • Poor reception or disruption of natural hazards like rainfall of the telephone lines therefore discourages the use of this facility
        • Mismanagement in the organization that provides telephone services has hindered its expansion
        • Vandaliation of telephone equipment has rendered most of telephone services
        • Unavailable to users
        • Development of other more faster and efficient means of communication e.g. electronic mail, has reduced the use of telephone
        • High cost of installation and maintenance of telephone lines limit the number of subscribers
  8.        
    1.          
      1. What is Environmental Hazards. (2 marks)
        • It is event in nature that poses danger to people and the other living organisms
      2. Identify three environmental hazards caused by human activities. (3 marks)
        • Pollution
        • Desertification
        • Soil erosion
        • Epidemics
    2.          
      1. State three cause of floods. (3 marks)
        • Deforestation therefore cutting down of trees in catchment areas exposes soil to agents of erosion and at the same time reduces water percolation
        • Cultivation along river banks
        • Blocked urban drainage systems
        • Collapse of a dam
        • Rise in the sea level
          Any 3 x 1 mks
      2. Explain four ways of combating floods in Kenya. (8 marks)
        • Construction of dams
        • Building of dykes and artificial levees
        • A forestation and reforestation
        • Dredging and directing channels
          Any relevant points
    3. Students from your school carried out a field study on a flood prone area in your country.
      1. State four reasons why the working schedule is very important in their study. (4 marks)
        • To ensure proper time management and reduce tendency of time wastage
        • To ensure no important area will be inadequately covered
        • It ensures that the one carrying out field study is on course
        • It is a pointer as to how much time will be required for the study
        • It gives a step by step plan of activities for the day
        • It is a plan or timetable to be followed
      2. List three methods of data collection they are likely to use. (3 marks)
        • Observation
        • Interviewing people settled near the flooded areas
        • Taking photographs
        • Sampling
      3. Name two areas in Kenya prone to flooding. (2 mks)
        • Kano plains
        • Lower Tana River
        • The Bundalagi areas in Busia district
  9.              
    1.      
      1. Apart from nuclear energy name three other non-renewable sources of energy. (3 marks)
        • Natural gase
        • Coal
        • Petroleu
      2. State three factors that hinder development of nuclear energy in many countries. (3 marks)
        • It is very expensive to construct a nuclear reactor
        • Waste from a nuclear power plant is highly reactive and life threatening therefore difficult to
        • In case of being faulty can result to disastrous accidents
        • The raw materials uranium is very rare
          Any 3 x 1 mks
    2.     
      1. Explain the three effects of overdependence of petroleum on the economy of oil importing countries. (6 marks)
        • Higher expenditure/foreign exchange/ spends more on importation
        • Higher production costs/hence higher prices of manufactured goods
        • Closure of industries which are not able to meet the increased cost of production coupled with increase in transport cost
        • Slowed industrial growth as most industries depend on petroleum
        • Economic recession in these countries as oil is necessary for all sectors of production
          Any 3 x 2 (6 mks)
      2. State 3 methods that Kenya can use to conserve her energy. (3 marks)
        • Control energy imported levels
        • Encourage package transport for people working in some areas or residing in the same place
        • Construct and maintain good road to ensure less fuel consumption e.g Mombasa highway, Thika Highway e.t.c.
        • Encourage people to use energy saving jikos
        • Encourage people to use renewable sources of energy e.g. solar in carrying out campaigns
    3.      
      1. Give reasons why Kenya has not been fully able to exploit her geothermal potential. (4 marks)
        • Inadequate capital
        • Low level of technology in the exploitation of geothermal power
        • Inadequate areas are located in remote areas/sparsely populated areas far from markets
        • Inadequate skilled man power to harvest geothermal power
        • Danger of land subsidence as kinetic water is withdrawn
    4.    
      1. Name the H.E.P projects that are marked 1,2,5,6. (4 marks)
        • 1 Akosombo 1 mk
        • 2 Kainji 1 mk
        • 5 Owen falls 1 mk
        • 6 Seven folks 1 mk
      2. Give two reasons why Africa has a high potential of H.E.P ( 2 mks)
        • Availability of many permanent rivers
        • Availability of hard basement rock to support the weight of the dam
        • Presence of plateau that increase the speed of the river
  10.         
    1.      
      1. Name four forms of which minerals occur. (4 mks)
        • Veins and nodes
        • Beds and seams
        • Weathering products
        • Alluvial/placer deposits
      2. State four factors that are necessary for the occurrence of minerals. (4 mks)
        • Availability of necessary minerals to make mineral for e.g. deposits of vegetation and animal matter are necessary for formation of coal
        • Presence of high pressure and temperature conditions to compact the raw materials and heat to form minerals
        • Time during which the materials have been exposed to great heat and pressure
        • Geological processes determine the minerals distribution e.g. vulcanicity and folding
    2. State three ways in which open cast mining affect the environment. (3 mks)
      • it causes land dereliction which causes the land to lose its natural beauty.
      • it causes the loss of productivity when loose soils, deficient of nutrients are left which cannot support agriculture
      • mining exposing the land to agents of erosion hence rendering the land unproductive
      • it leads to loss of biodiversity
      • it causes harm to people and organisms when they drown in deep ponds caused open cast
    3. Explain four ways in which mining contribute to the economy of Kenya. (8 mks)
      • Provides raw materials for manufacturing industries
      • Stimulates the development of transport and communication
      • Opens up the remote areas through development e.g. water supply for drinking, construction of schools and hospitals
      • Promotes settlement leading to growth of towns e.g. Magadi
      • Generates employment opportunities where people earn income
      • Promotes agriculture by providing market
      • Lead to set up of other related industries
    4. Form 4 Geography students carried out field study on mineral found in the Rift Valley
      1. State three objectives of their study. (3 mks)
        • To find out the minerals found in Rift Valley
        • To find out the uses of minerals in the Rift
        • To find out the problems miners are facing
          Any relevant objectives
      2. List down three problems they are likely to come across. (3 mks)
        • Un conducive weather e.g. very cold, rainy, windy
        • Attacked by wild animals e.g. reptiles
        • Breakdown of the vehicle
        • Some students may fall sick
        • Language barrier
        • Inaccessibility of some areas
        • Hostile people
          Any relevant points

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