History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Asumbi Girls High School KCSE Mock 2021

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INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  • This paper consists of three sections: A, B and C.
  •  Answer all the questions in section A, three questions from section B and two questions from Section C.

SECTION A – (25 MARKS )
Answer all the questions from this section

  1. Identify one disadvantage of using electronics as a source of information on History and Government. (1mk)
  2. State two environmental factors that influenced the migration of the cushites into Kenya. (2mks)
  3. Give the reason why the Luo are referred to as the River Lake Nilotes. (1mk)
  4. Identify two conflict resolution methods used to settle disputes during the pre-colonial period. (2mks)
  5. Mention two written sources of History on the Kenyan Coast. (2mks)
  6. Mention any two Treaties that paved the way for the abolition of slave trade in Kenya. (2mks)
  7. Give one reason why the government of Kenya may limit a person’s freedom of speech. (1mk)
  8. Name the type of constitution used in Kenya. (1mk)
  9. Give the main reason why a Referendum is held. (1mk)
  10. Identify two pillars of the Nyayo Philosophy. (2mks)
  11. State two political challenges faced in Kenya between 1978-1982. (2mks)
  12. Mention one political party that was formed after the Second Lancaster House Conference. (1mk)
  13. Give two subordinate courts in Kenya. (2mks)
  14. Mention two arms of the National police service. (2mks)
  15. State one role played by the Ministry of Health to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS in Kenya. (1mk)
  16. Define the term ‘Rule of Law’? (1mk)
  17. Name the officer who controls public finance in county National Governments. (1mk)

SECTION B (45 MARKS)
Answer three questions from this section

  1.        
    1. Identify five social features that are similar between the Bantu and the Nilotes. (5mks)
    2. Discuss five impacts of the migration of the Borana into Kenya. (10mks)
  2.  
    1. State three reasons why Africans were discouraged from growing cash crops upto 1939. (3mks)
    2. Discuss five economic activities introduced by the colonial government during the colonial period. (12mks)
  3.  
    1. Identify five characteristics of early political organizations. (5mks)
    2. Discuss five challenges faced by independent churches and schools in Kenya. (10mks)
  4.     
    1. Give three major reforms which resulted from the Lyttleton Constitution of 1954 in Kenya. (3mks)
    2. Explain six ways through which Thomas Joseph Mboya contributed to the struggle for independence in Kenya. (12mks)

SECTION C: ( 30 MARKS)
Answer any two questions from this section.

  1.        
    1. Give five reasons for multi-party democracy in Kenya since 1991. (5mks)
    2. Explain five challenges of multiparty democracy in Kenya. (10mks)
  2.   
    1. State five functions of the Cabinet in Kenya? (5mks)
    2. Discuss five challenges facing the Kenya Defence Forces. (10mks)
  3.    
    1. Identify three factors considered while changing county boundaries in Kenya. (3mks)
    2. Explain six factors which undermines the provision of services by the county governments in Kenya. (10mks)

Marking Scheme

  1. Identify one disadvantage of using electronics as a source of information on History and Government. (1mk)
    • The information may be biased
    • The information may be exaggerated
    • Use of electronic media maybe too expensive for studying History
    • The information collected may be inaccurate
    • Collecting/teaching of History using electronic sources requires electricity which may not be reliable/available
    • Collecting of information is time consuming (1 x 1 = 1mks)
  2. State two environmental factors that influenced the migration of the cushites into Kenya. (2mks)
    • Human and animal diseases prevalent in their areas led to migration to Kenya.
    • The cushites moved to Kenya to escape from natural calamities e.g. floods, drought and famine, landslides.
    • The cushites were searching for greener and fertile lands for their livestock and farming.
      (2 x 1 = 2mks)
  3. Give the reason why the Luo are referred to as the River Lake Nilotes. (1mk)
    • During their migration and settlement their lives were centred along rivers and lakes.(1 x 1 = 1mk)
  4. Identify two conflict resolution methods used to settle disputes during the pre-colonial period. (2mks)
    • Mediation
    • Arbitration
    • Negotiation
    • Religious action
    • Conciliation
    • Subjugation
    • Use of elders (2 x 1 = 2mks)
  5. Mention two written sources of History on the Kenyan Coast. (2mks)
    • Greek sources (periplus of the Enthrean sea) ‘Geography” by Claudio Ptolemy.)
    • Roman sources e.g. natural history by Pling a Roman geographer
    • Chinese sources e.g. Chao-Ja-Kua
    • Indian sources e.g. Christian Topography of Cosmos Indico Pleatustes
    • Arabic sources by Al-Idris , al-Masud and Ibn Battuta.
    • African sources e.g. Swahili Chroricles and Kilwa chronicles.
      (2 x 1 = 2mks)
  6. Mention any two Treaties that paved the way for the abolition of slave trade in Kenya. (2mks)
    • Moresby treaty – 1822
    • Hammerton Treaty - 1845
    • The Frere Treaty – 1873 (2 x 1 = 2mks)
  7. Give one reason why the government of Kenya may limit a person’s freedom of speech. (1mk)
    • If one publishes seditions documents or reveals government secret
    • If one talks ill/against the president
    • If one incites others against the government. (1 x 1 = 1mk)
  8. Name the type of constitution used in Kenya. (1mk)
    • Written constitution (1 x 1 = 1mk)
  9. Give the main reason why a Referendum is held. (1mk)
    • For people to decide on constitutional issues by way of voting a YES or NO. (1 x 1 = 1mk)
  10. Identify two pillars of the Nyayo Philosophy. (2mks)
    • Peace
    • Love
    • Unity (2 x 1 = 2mks)
  11. State two political challenges faced in Kenya between 1978-1982. (2mks)
    • Death of the first president, Jomo Kenyata
    • The existence of ethnic organizations
    • The abortive coup of 1982 (2 x 1 = 2mks)
  12. Mention one political party that was formed after the Second Lancaster House Conference. (1mk)
    • Kenya African National Union (KANU)
    • Kenya African Democracy Union
    • African Peoples Party (APP) 1 x 1 = 1mk)
  13. Give two subordinate courts in Kenya. (2mks)
    • The magistrates’ court
    • Tribunals courts
    • Court martial
      (2 x 1 = 2mks)
  14. Mention two arms of the National Police Service. (2mks)
    • The Kenya police service
    • The Administration police service. (2 x 1 = 2mks)
  15. State one role played by the Ministry of Health to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS in Kenya. (1mk)
    • They give subsidized ARVS
    • They encourage people to know their status through free testing.
    • Compulsory testing for expectant mothers.
    • Screening of blood for donation
    • Creating awareness on HIV/AIDS
    • Teaching of HIV/AIDS in schools (1 x 1 = 1mk)
  16. Define the term ‘Rule of Law’? (1mk)
    • The supremacy of law/means that all people are equal to the law/all people are subject to lsaw1 x 1 = 1mk
  17. Name the officer who controls Public Finance in County and National Government.(1mk)
    • The Controller of Budget. (1 x 1 = 1mk)
  18.       
    1. Identify five social features that are similar between the Bantu and the Nilotes. (5mks)
      • The family was the smallest social unit
      • In both, there was belief in a supreme being.
      • The two communities had special people who were highly respected e.g. priests, diviners, prophets, rainmakers.
      • The two communities had special worshipping places/shrines.
      • The Nilotes and the Bantus practiced ancestral worship.
      • They offered prayers and sacrifices
      • The two communities had special ceremonies to commemorate different activities e.g. wedding, funerals, harvests.
      • The two held initiation ceremonies to mark full acceptance into their communities.
        (5 x 1 = 5mks)
    2. Discuss five impacts of the migration of the Borana into Kenya. (10mks)
      • Increase in population in the places they settled.
      • Increased conflicts between them and the Bantus
      • Redistribution of population intermarriage with their neighbours e.g. Samburu
      • Cultural interaction
      • Trade increased in the region with their neighbours
      • Displacement of some communities e.g. the Bantus
      • Assimilation and absorption of some communities.
        (5 x 2 = 10mks)
  19.      
    1. Give three reasons why Africans were discouraged from growing cash crops upto 1939. (3mks)
      • African grown coffee would be prone to diseases
      • Africans lacked knowledge in coffee farming/low quality coffee from Africans
      • African labour would not be available/ to maintain labour in the settler farms.
      • Fear of competition to the market
        (3 x 1 = 3mks)
    2. Discuss five economic activities introduced by the colonial government during the colonial period in Kenya. (12mks)
      • Cash crop farming e.g. coffee, tea, pyrethrum
      • Livestock keeping e.g. introducing exotic breads
      • Mining exploited mining soda ash
      • Transport and communication e.g. Railway
      • Trade promotion of int’l trade, development of new currency
      • Development of industries e.g. KCC, Unga Limited, Agro-based industries.
      • New employment opportunities e.g. clerical jobs (6 x 2 = 12mks)
  20.      
    1. Identify five characteristics of early political organizations. (5mks)
      • They were led by mission – educated young men
      • They were ethnic based
      • Asians gave both material and moral support to most of them.
      • They did not attract very large membership
      • Championed for better living conditions.
      • They had similar grievances.
      • They did not demand for independence
      • They were non-violent or militant (5 x 1 = 5mks)
    2. Discuss five challenges faced by independent churches and schools in Kenya. (10mks)
      • Harassment from missionaries and colonial government.
      • They lacked adequate trained personnel
      • Shortage of funds/inadequate funds
      • Leadership wrangles
      • Mission schools/churches competed with them for followers. (5 x 2 = 10mks)
  21.          
    1. Give three major reforms which resulted from the Lyttleton Constitution of 1954 in Kenya. (3mks)
      • It led to the establishment of a multi racial council of ministers made up of official and unofficial members.
      • B.A. Ohanga was made minister of community development and African affairs.
      • Africans were allowed to form political organizations whose functions were confined to district levels.
      • The government provided for elections of eight Africans to the legislative council.
      • It led to the establishment of an advisory council to discuss government policies.
      • He joined AEMO and became its Secretary General. (3 x 1 = 3mks)
    2. Explain six ways through which Thomas Joseph Mboya contributed to the struggle for independence in Kenya. (12mks)
      • He was a member of the Kenya local government workers union (KLGWU) and Kenya Federation of labour KFL.
      • HE protested against colonial separation of the Agikuyu, Aembu and Ameru from the other communities in Nairobi.
      • He was a member of KAU and became its Director of Information. He later became the Treasurer of the party.
      • He protested against the restriction of Africans to grow cash crops.
      • He solicited for financial and moral support to Kenya Federation of labour from international trade unions.
      • He campaigned for the release of detained unionists and political leaders such as Jomo Kenyatta.
      • He facilitated trade union education in many parts of Kenya.
      • He was elected secretary general of KANU in 1960.
      • He exposed African problems and sought for help from the Pan African Movement.
      • He attended the 2nd Lancaster House Conference of 1962.
        (6 x 2 = 12mks)
  22.        
    1. Give five reasons for multi-party democracy in Kenya since 1991. (5mks)
      • Rampant corruption
      • Developments in Eastern Europe
      • Rigging of elections of 1988
      • Multi – party success in other parts of Africa like Zambia/Togo
      • Pressure from multilateral and bilateral donors
      • Pressure from the church/clergy
      • Pressure from the civil society, lawyers and intellectuals.
      • Repeal of section 2A of the constitution reverting to multi-party democracy
        (5 x 1 = 5mks)
    2. Explain five challenges of multiparty democracy in Kenya. (10mks)
      • Ethnic clashes in some parts of the country which led to bloodshed in 1991 and 1997.
      • Partiality of some civil servants in which they took sides in politics by allowing themselves to be used by the government and ruling party to frustrate the opposition.
      • Ethnic based political parties which tended to divide the people along ethnic loyalties
      • Weakening of political parties through defections under the influence as bribes of bribes by greedy politicians
      • Monopoly of the government machinery by KANU e.g. police, KBC and other government resources which blocked the party way of democratization.
      • Inadequate funds by many political patties due to lack of political funding thus many cannot compete favourably in politics and campaigns.
      • Inadequate civic education among the citizenry. Thus don’t fully appreciate and take part in democratic processes.
      • Political interference especially by the international community who take sides with certain political parties
      • Compromising of voters through bribes during voting exercise.
      • Harassment of the opposition parties by the police/government including denial of licenses to hold rallies, beatings and arrests.
      • Leadership wrangles within and between parties which democratizes electorates and slows service delivery by the government.
      • Ideological differences among parties and party leaders which inhibit democratization for example enactment of the New Constitution
        (5 x 2 = 10mks)
  23.         
    1. State five functions of the Cabinet in Kenya? (5mks)
      • Taking charge of the Cabinet office
      • Keeping minutes of the cabinet
      • Serving other functions as directed by the president
      • Advice and assist the president in governing the country
      • Discuss national and international issues with the president
      • Formulation of policies and programmes of the government
      • Initiating government bills
      • Monitor/supervises the day to day running of their respective ministries
      • Formulation of budgets for individual ministries.
      • Explaining government policies to the people.
      • Gender based discrimination in recruitment
      • They have been involved in cases of indiscipline e.g. abortive coup
        (5 x 1 = 5mks)
    2. Discuss five challenges facing the Kenya Defence Forces. (10mks)
      • Corruption e.g. during recruitments and procurements.
      • Issues of tribalism, regionalism and nepotism during promotions.
      • Lack of enough funds to equip the forces
      • Piracy and militia attacks and raids of the Kenyan borders.
      • Invasion of Kenyan territorial waters by foreign fishermen.
      • Political interference
      • Majority are not provided with opportunity to further their education
      • Location of the Moi Airbase at Eastleigh presents a challenge as the area is occupied by many ordinary citizens.
      • Inadequate psychosocial support
      • Allegations of violation of human rights
      • Recruitment of officers with low grades
        (5 x 2 = 10mks)
  24.       
    1. Identify three factors considered while changing county boundaries in Kenya. (3mks)
      • Population density and demographic trends
      • Physical and human infrastructure
      • Historical and cultural ties
      • The cost of administration
      • The views of the communities affected
      • The objectives of devolution of government
      • Geographical features e.g. Mara region, Mr. Kenya can’t be divided.
        (3 x 1 = 3mks)
    2. Explain six factors which undermines the provision of services by the county governments in Kenya. (10mks)
      • Inadequate sources of revenue
      • Transfer of some functions which overlap between the National and County Governments e.g. education, health
      • Inadequate funds e.g. for training human resource
      • Policy and legal gaps in some areas need to be addressed e.g. more levels to be decentralized.
      • Economies of scale – counties need to cooperate in areas of common interests e.g. building bridges; water resources.
      • Restructuring especially of certain institutions e.g. provincial administration
      • Underdeveloped transport and communication.
      • Delay in remitting funds from the Nation Government.
      • Some counties do not have adequate human, natural and financial resources leading to poor service delivery.
      • Some counties are highly populated which strains the available resources.
      • Leadership wrangles/rivalry.
      • Natural calamities e.g. drought, floods calling for emergency relief assistance.
      • Ethnicity/Nepotism in employment undermines efficiency.
      • Duplication of roles with the national government.
      • Conflicts over common resources e.g. dams
        (5 x 2 = 12mks)

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