History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Baringo North Joint Evaluation Mock Exams 2022

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INSTRUCTIONS

  • This paper consists of THREE sections: A, B and C.
  • Answer ALL the questions in Section A, three questions from Section B and Two questions from Section C.

SECTION A: (25marks)
Answer all the questions in this section

  1. State two ways in which Kenyan communities interacted with each other in the pre-colonial period. (2mks)
  2. Name two groups of the Mijikenda community. (2mks)
  3. State two functions of Fort Jesus during the Portuguese rule. (2mks)
  4. Identify one economic responsibility of a Kenyan citizen. (1mk)
  5. Name two national activities that promote national unity in Kenya. (2mks)
  6. Identify the constitutional amendment that was repealed to revert to a multi-party state in Kenya in 1991. (1mk)
  7. Name one survival right of a child under the constitution. (1mk)
  8. Identify the treaty that finalized the partition of East Africa. (1mk)
  9. Give the main reason why native reserves were created during the colonial period. (1mk)
  10. State two contributions of the independent schools during colonial period. (2mks)
  11. Identify the main contribution of Wangari Maathai. (1mk)
  12. Name two organs of the Kenya Defense Forces. (2mks)
  13. Identify two pillars of Nyayo philosophy. (2mks)
  14. Identify two political challenges that Kenya experienced between 1969-1978. (2mks)
  15. Give the main function of the county assembly. (1mk)
  16. Give one example of conditional grants given to county government. (1mk)
  17. Name the government department that collects taxes. (1mk)

SECTION B 45 marks

  1.  
    1. State five reasons for the migration of the Eastern Bantu. (5mks)
    2. Describe the political organization of the Mijikenda in the pre-colonial period. (10mks)
  2.  
    1. State three reasons why the Maasai collaborated with the British. (3mks)
    2. Explain six reasons why Kenyan communities were defeated by the British. (12mks)
  3.  
    1. State three reasons why the British government invited European settlers in Kenya. (3mks)
    2. Explain six factors that led to growth of nationalist activities in Kenya between 1945-1963. (12mks)
  4.  
    1. State five ways in which the government of Kenya has promote health sector since independence. (5mks).
    2. Explain five challenges facing agricultural sector in Kenya since independence. (10mk)

SECTION C 30 marks

  1.  
    1. State three ways in which one can become a Kenyan citizen through registration (3mks)
    2. Explain six factors that undermine national unity. (12mks)
  2.  
    1. State five functions of the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission of Kenya. (5mks)
    2. Explain five ways in which the independence of the Judiciary is guaranteed in Kenya. (10mks)
  3.  
    1. Identify three sources of revenue for the county government. (3mks)
    2. Explain six ways in which the national government uses its revenue. (12mks)


MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A

  1. State two ways in which Kenyan communities interacted with each other in the pre-colonial period.
    • Through trade
    • Through warfare
    • Through intermarriage
    • Through common festivals/ceremonies e.g., wrestling cultural exchange   2x1=2mks
  2. Name two groups of the Mijikenda community.
    • Kauma
    • Giriama
    • Duruma
    • Chonyi
    • Jibana
    • Kambe
    • Ribe
    • Rabai
    • Digo   2x1=2mks
  3. State two functions of Fort Jesus during the Portuguese rule.
    • To act as hiding place against/ attacks by their enemies.
    • To use it as a base of sending expeditions against resisting communities of the coast /administration base.
    • Use it for storing armaments/storage of items before transportation.
    • Use as a watch tower.    2x1=2mks
  4. Identify one economic responsibility of a Kenyan citizen.
    • Participating in development activities.
    • Paying taxes.
    • Engaging in income generation.
    • Protecting the environment.
    • Fighting corruption      1x1=1mk
  5. Name two national activities that promote national unity in Kenya.
    • Agricultural shows/trade fairs.
    • Games and sports.
    • National holidays.  2x1=2mks
  6. Identify the constitutional amendment that was repealed to revert to a multi-party state in Kenya in 1991.
    • Section 2A of the Constitution.     1x1=1mk
  7. Name one survival right of a child under the constitution.
    • Every child has the right to a name and nationality from birth.
    • Every child has the right to basic nutrition, shelter and health care    1X1=1mk
  8. Identify the treaty that finalized the partition of East Africa.
    • The Heligoland Treaty of 1890.     1x1=1mk
  9. Give the main reason why native reserves were created during the colonial period.
    • In order to create room/land for settler farming.    1x1=1mk
  10. State two contributions of the independent schools during colonial period.
    • Created more educational opportunities for Africans
    • Provided job opportunities to Africans
    • Preserved African cultural heritage
    • Natured nationalistic activities     2x1=2mks
  11. Identify the main contribution of Wangari Maathai.
    • Environmental conservation/ Tree planting    1x1=1mk
  12. Name two organs of the Kenya Defense Forces.
    • Kenya Navy
    • Kenya Army
    • Kenya Airforce    2x1=2mks
  13. Identify two pillars of Nyayo philosophy.
    • Peace
    • Love
    • Unity    2x1=2mks
  14. Identify two political challenges that Kenya experienced between 1969-1978.
    • Political assassinations
    • The attempt to change the constitution by some politicians   2x1=2mks
  15. Give the main function of the county assembly.
    • Legislation     1x1=1mk
  16. Give one example of conditional grants given to county government.
    • The Equalization Fund for provision of basic services like water, health services, electricity and roads in marginalized areas.
    • The Contingencies Fund to carter for urgent and unforeseen circumstances   1x1=1mk
  17. Name the government department that collects taxes.
    • Kenya Revenue Authority (KRA)     1x1=1mk

SECTION B (45 marks)

  1.  
    1. State five reasons for the migration of the Eastern Bantu.
      • They moved in search of water and pasture for their livestock
      • The outbreak of diseases/ epidemics forced them to move
      • Attacks from other communities forced them to move/external attacks
      • There was population pressure in their original homeland
      • They moved due to drought and famine
      • Family/clan dispute/conflicts forced them to migrate/internal conflicts
      • Search for land for settlement
      • They moved for adventure  5x1=mks
    2. Describe the political organization of the Mijikenda in the pre-colonial period.
      • The Mijikenda had a strong clan system. Administration was based on a strong clan system. 4-6 clans lived in a fortified village known as kaya.
      • The existence of a council of elders (Kambi) at clan level to settle disputes and the general administration of the clan
      • An age set (riika) system formed by young men after circumcision and which provided the base from which warriors were obtained.
      • Social and political unity was strengthened through intermarriage between different clans.
      • Judicial matters were handled by the elders’ council which was final court of appeal
      • The council of elders declared war on warring neighbors    5x2=10mks
  2.  
    1. State three reasons why the Maasai collaborated with the British.
      • Nandi power had weakened them
      • Civil wars between Kwavi & Purko
      • Natural calamities e.g. small pox & drought
      • Famine
      • Kedong massacre which killed many   3x1=3mks
    2. Explain six reasons why Kenyan communities were defeated by the British
      • The communities were not united hence they were easily defeated.
      • The communities had inferior weapons as compared to the superior British weapons.
      • The soldiers had little knowledge about the British military tactics.
      • Their population had been weakened / reduced by catastrophe such as famine and rinder pest and civil strife.
      • Their leaders lacked adequate organizational skills to mobilizing the people.
      • The British used treachery when dealing with come communities / collaboration.
      • The economic base of the communities was destroyed by the British thus making them weak.
      • The soldiers were demoralized when many warriors were captured / skilled (e.g. Aembu and Ameru in 1906/ scotched earth policy.
      • The Kenya – Uganda Railway facilitated the faster movement of British troops    6x2=12mks
  3.  
    1. State three reasons why the British government invited European settlers in Kenya.
      • The colonial government wanted to make Kenya a white man’s country by encouraging white settlers to form the back bone of the economy.
      • It hoped that the settlers would finance administrative expenses of the colony without involving the British tax payers.
      • The settlers’ economic activities would help the colonial government pay for the construction costs of the railway and maintain it.
      • The settlers were expected to produce raw materials for British industries.
      • The colonial government wanted to prevent Asian influence in Kenya by encouraging European settlement. The Kenyan highlands were suitable for European settlement in terms of climate and soil.
      • Wanted to make the colony self-sufficient in terms of foodstuff.     
      • Administrators wanted to create job opportunities for the unemployed British nationals.  3x1=mks
    2. Explain six factors that led to growth of nationalist activities in Kenya between 1945-1963.
      • The war experience of the ex-service men made them more informed in world affairs on their return.
      • The labor government in Britain was more responsive to the demands of self-rule in their colonies.
      • The constitutional changes implemented in Kenya by the labor party promoted nationalist activities e.g., the Lyttleton constitution of 1954 which created a multi-racial council of ministers.
      • The U.N.O. recommended for self-determination for the colonized people as a right.
      • Granting of independence for India and Ghana showed African nationalists that independence was achievable and made them more determined in their struggle for independence.
      • The mau-mau movement consolidated the nationalists struggle and brought it into direct confrontation with the colonial government.
      • Lifting of bans on political parties in 1945, 1955 and 1960 by the colonial government enabled the African nationalists to coordinate the nationalists in Kenya.
      • The activities of the trade unions promoted the growth of African nationalist activities especially in urban centres. 6x2=12mks
  4.  
    1. State five ways in which the government of Kenya has promote health sector since independence.
      • It has established/created the Ministry of Health.
      • It has established hospitals/clinics/dispensaries
      • It has encouraged NGOs/religious organizations/individuals to provide health services.
      • It has established medical training institutions.
      • It has recognized the use of herbal medicine.
      • It has established National Health Insurance Fund.
      • It has established Medical Research Institutes.
      • It has employed health workers.
      • It has subsidized the cost of healthcare/ free medical services.
      • It educates people on health matters.     5x1=5mks
    2. Explain five challenges facing agricultural sector in Kenya since independence.
      • Poor infrastructure in some pans of the country has led to great losses of farm produce thus reducing earnings of farmers.
      • The unstable prices of agricultural commodities on the local/world market has discouraged farmers.
      • Various parts of the country have been hit by drought/famine thus forcing the government to provide relief food.
      • Farmers produce is often destroyed by pests after harvest leading to food shortages/poor storage.
      • Poor technology/use of Traditional methods has contributed to low yields.
      • Politically instigated ethnic clashes have discouraged farmers from carrying out intense fanning due to insecurity.
      • The population of Kenya has been growing faster than gains made in the agricultural sear.
      • Corrupt government officials have grabbed/sold research land thereby affecting the operation; of research institutions/mismanagement of funds meant for agricultural development.
      • Farming has become a costly venture for most farmers are not able to meet the high costs of farm inputs
      • Overproduction of similar agricultural products leads to wastage due to lack of buyers
      • Shortage of agricultural extension officers has made it difficult for farmers to get advice on how to improve yields.
      • Mismanagement of cooperatives has impoverished farmers/delayed payments to farmers.
      • Competition from COMESA /industrialized nations has frustrated Kenyan farmers.       5x2=10mks

SECTION C 30 marks

  1.  
    1. State three ways in which one can become a Kenyan citizen through registration.
      • One must lawfully reside in Kenya continuously for at least seven years.
      • A child who is not a citizen must be adopted by a Kenyan citizen.
      • A person must be married to a Kenyan citizen for at least seven years.    3x1=3mks
    2. Explain six factors that undermine national unity.
      • Unequal distribution of national resources creates disparity in terms of development leading to the feelings of exclusion
      • Tribalism which favours people from one’s ethnic group thereby creating animosity hatred among the people
      • Religious conflicts brought about by intolerance to other people’s faiths leading to division of people along religious lines
      • Discrimination on the basis of colour creates antagonism among different races/ racism
      • Affiliation to different political parties with different ideologies polarizes the country along political lines
      • Corruption / greed/ bribery leads to a few people amassing a lot of wealth at the expense of the others
      • Poverty among the people creates a state of lawlessness/ high rate of crime in the society
      • Terrorism/ radicalization creates a state of anarchy/ fear/ suspicion among people
      • Nepotism- this is the practice of favouring relative
      • Cultural conflicts- some diverse cultural aspects may be in conflicts among different communities.
      • Ignorance- leading to intolerance of other people’s views leading to failure to appreciate developments taking place around them.  6x2=12mks
    3. State five functions of the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission of Kenya.
      • It registers prospective citizens who intend to participate in the elections.
      • It draws the boundaries of the constituencies/wards in all parts of the country in order to ensure equitable representation of the people.
      • It regulates nomination of candidates by political parties so as to ensure proportional nomination of members.
      • It settles electoral disputes other than petitions arising from the electoral process in order to ensure smooth/fair elections.
      • It registers that all candidates who intend to contest for positions during elections/announces and provides an election timetable.
      • It educates voters on their rights/importance of participating in the electoral process so as to make informed decisions.
      • It monitors/observes the elections in order to ensure transparency/honesty.
      • It regulates the amount of money spent by a candidate/political parties to prevent some candidates from influencing the voters.  
      • It develops code of conduct for candidates/parties participating in elections with the view of checking malpractices.
      • It ensures compliance with the electoral laws by all the parties involved in order to promote free and fair elections.
      • It distributes/transports electoral materials to all polling stations.
      • It appoints election officials.
      • It announces the results and declares the winners.     5x1=5mks
    4. Explain five ways in which the independence of the Judiciary is guaranteed in Kenya
      • The independence of the judiciary is spelt out in the constitution and the government has to respect it
      • The judges and magistrates are appointed by the judicial service commission which is an independent body from the public service commission
      • The tenure of office of the judges is longer than that of civil servants (75 years)
      • Judges enjoy security of tenure of office
      • Judges are bound by oath of office to perform their duties without the favor or fear (oath of allegiance)
      • The judiciary has a separate system of command, its head is the chief justice
      • Salaries and allowances of judges and magistrate are fixed by statutes and are not discussed in parliament
      • Judges and magistrates are not answerable to the executive   5x2=10mks
  2.  
    1. Identify three sources of revenue for the county government.
      • Allocation from the national government
      • Loans or grants from the national government
      • Local taxes such as property rates and entertainment taxes
      • Charges and fees such as cess on agriculture produce entry fees to country parks and parking fees
      • Foreign loans and grants
      • Rent from premises
      • Any other grants and donations
      • Revenue collected will be deposited into the following funds           3x1=3mks
    2. Explain six ways in which the national government uses its revenue.
      • Revenue is used to maintain government facilities such as roads and buildings.
      • It is used to initiate new developments / projects by the government (e.g. constructing new roads, constructing government offices.
      • It is used to subsidize public services (e.g. Health, education)
      • It is used to finance recurrent government expenditures such as paying of salaries for civil servants.
      • It is used to service loans that have been borrowed by the government for development.
      • It is used to pay subscription to international bodies / organizations e.g. OAU, UN and PTA)
      • It is used to finances security expenditure by the government such as training soldiers, paying body guards and buying arms.
      • It is used to meet any emergency needs that may arise (e.g. due to floods, outbreaks of diseases.)
      • It is used to assist countries that may experience emergencies (e.g. natural disasters)        6x2=12mks

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