Geography Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Arise and Shine Mock Exams 2022

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Instructions to Candidates:
  1. This paper consists of two sections: A and B.
  2. Answer ALL questions in section A. In section B answer question 6 and any other TWO questions.
  3. All answers to be written on the answer booklet provided.
  4. Candidates should check the question paper to ascertain that all the pages are printed as indicated and that no questions are missing. 
FOR EXAMINERS USE ONLY

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QUESTIONS

SECTION A
Answer All the Questions In This Section (25 Marks)
  1.                                      
    1. Define eco-tourism. (2 marks)
    2. Name any three big five wild animals? (3 marks)
  2.                    
    1. What is agro-forestry? (3 marks)
    2. Give three characteristics of planted forests.
  3.                                  
    1. Give two types of domestic trade. (2 marks)
    2. State three factors influencing internal trade in Kenya. (3 marks)
  4.                                
    1. Differentiate between environmental management and environmental conservation. (2 marks)
    2. Apart from diseases, give any three natural environmental hazards Diseases, (3 marks)
  5.                                              
    1. Study the sketch map below and answer the questions that follow.
      5 auygda
      Identify two settlement patterns represent by the sketch map. (2 marks)
    2. State three causes of rural to rural migration. (3 marks)
SECTION B
Answer question six (6) and any other two Questions from this section.
  1. The table below shows three main crops produced in Kenya in the years 2008-2010 (amounts in metric tonnes).  Use it to answer questions below.

    Crop

    2008

    2009

    2010

    Maize

    200,000

    380,000

    400,000

    Wheat

    100,000

    130,000

    150,000

    Tea

    250,000

    300,000

    350,000

    1.                      
      1. Using a scale of 1cm represent 50,000 metric tonnes, draw a comparative bar graph to represent the data above. (8 marks)
      2. State two advantages of using comparative bar graph. (2 marks)
    2.                        
      1. Name two counties in Kenya where wheat is grown in large scale. (2 marks)
      2. State three conditions that favour wheat farming in Kenya. (3 marks)
    3. State four benefits of wheat growing in Kenya. (4 marks)
    4. Explain three factors that make Canada produce more wheat than Kenya. (6 marks)
  2.                    
    1. Apart from Mwea name five large irrigation schemes in Kenya. (5 marks)
    2. Explain four conditions that made Mwea a suitable location for irrigation scheme.  (8 marks)
    3. Explain three benefits to farmers in the Pekerra irrigation scheme. (6 marks)
    4. Explain three problems experienced by farmers in the Perkera irrigation scheme. (6 marks)
  3.                            
    1. Name two types of cattle breeds kept by nomadic pastoralist in Kenya. (2marks)
    2. Describe the marketing of the animals by the nomadic pastoralists. (3 marks)
    3. Explain four measures taken by the government of Kenya to improve beef cattle farming. (8 marks)
    4. Explain three factors that favour beef farming in Argentina. (6 marks)
    5.                          
      1. State three problems facing nomadic pastoralism. (3 marks)
      2. Name three products obtained from beef farming in Kenya. (3 marks)
  4. Below is a sketch map showing Lake Victoria.  Use it to answer question (a).
    9 augduygad
    1.                      
      1. Name the ports marked P, Q, R, S (4 marks)
      2. Give four advantages of air transport over water transport. (4 marks)
    2.                        
      1. Name three types of communication. (3 marks)
      2. Explain four problems facing transport and communication in Africa. (8 marks)
    3. Explain the role of the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway to the economies of Canada and the USA. (6 marks)
  5. Use the world map below to answer question (a).
    10 auygda
    1.                    
      1. Name the ocean currents marked x and Y. (2 marks)
      2. Name the fishing ground marked Z. (1 mark)
    2. Explain three physical factors that favour fishing in the fishing ground marked Z. (6 marks)
    3.                    
      1. What is fish farming? (2 marks)
      2. Name two fish species reared in fish farms in Kenya. (2 marks)
      3. Explain four problems which are experienced by fish farmers in Kenya. (8 marks)
    4. Give four uses of fish. (4 marks) 

MARKING SCHEME

  1.                          
    1. Define eco-tourism. (2 marks)
      • It is a type of tourism with emphasis on conservation of the environment
        (2x1=2mks)
    2. Name any three big five wild animals? (3 marks)
      • Elephant
      • Rhino
      • Buffalo
      • Lion
      • Leopard
  2.                        
    1. What is agro-forestry? (2 marks)
      • It is growing of trees alongside/ with crops on the same piece of land.
    2. Give three characteristics of planted forests.
      • Trees are arranged in rows
      • Trees are the same species
      • Trees are softwood
      • Trees are exotic
      • Trees are the same height
  3.                        
    1. Give two types of domestic trade. (2 marks)
      • Wholesale trade
      • Retail trade
    2. State three factors influencing internal trade in Kenya. (2 marks)
      • Common National language/Kiswahili
      • Difference goods produced from different parts of Kenya
      • Efficient road transport
      • Rigorous advertisement of goods to create awareness
  4.                      
    1. Differentiate between environmental management and environmental conservation.(2 marks)
      • Environmental management – It is careful use and control of resources in the environment
      • Conservation – It is protection of resource I the environment with little wastage.
    2. Apart from diseases, give any three natural environmental hazards Diseases, (3 marks)
      • Air pollution
      • Water pollution
      • Noise pollution
      • Soil erosion
      • Wind storms
      • Lightening
      • floods
  5. Study the sketch map below and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Identify two settlement patterns represent by the sketch map. (2 marks)
      • Linear settlement
      • Nucleated settlement
    2. State three causes of rural to rural migration. (3 marks)
      • Wars
      • Search for employment
      • Job transfer
      • Search for land
      • Diseases outbreak
  6. The table below shows three main crops produced in Kenya in the years 2008-2010 (amounts in metric tonnes). Use it to answer questions below.
    1.                    
      1. Using a scale of 1cm represent 50,000 metric tonnes, draw a comparative bar graph to represent the data above. (8 marks)
        6 sfsfsfs
      2. State two advantages of using comparative bar graph. (2 marks)
        • It gives a clear visual impression
        • Values in the same group can be compared easily
        • The individual contribution made by the variables in each group can be easily identified
        • It is easy to draw/construct
        • It is easy to read/interpret
    2.                          
      1. Name two counties in Kenya where wheat is grown in large scale. (2 marks)
        • Nakuru
        • Narok
        • UasinGishu
        • Nyandarua
      2. State three conditions that favour wheat farming in Kenya. (3 marks)
        • Gently sloping land for ease of mechanization
        • High altitude (1500 – 2000m) above sea level
        • Moderate rainfall (500mm – 1270mm)
        • Moderate temperature/warm conditions (15ºc – 20ºc) for at least three months
        • Deep fertile volcanic soils
        • Warm dry sunny spell to enhance ripening and harvesting
          (Any 3x1=3mks)
    3. State four benefits of whet growing in Kenya. (4 marks)
      • Source of income for those involved in the activity
      • Source of food to the Kenyan people
      • Through wheat farming many are employed either directly or indirectly
      • Saves foreign exchange if it was to be imported
      • Promotes industrialization in Kenya
      • Improvement of roads
    4. Explain three factors that make Canada produce more wheat than Kenya. (6 marks)
      • Canada has extensive tracts of land which has enabled large scale mechanization of wheat
      • Canada is a developed country therefore has more capital enabling farmers to sustain production unlike Kenya which has inadequate capital.
      • Advanced scientific research in Canada enables the production of higher yielding seeds, better farming tools, seeds, pest control, disease control etc.
      • Wheat farmers in Canada specialize in wheat unlike Kenya where farmers practice mixed farming
      • There is higher demand for wheat in Canada while in Kenya low demand
      • Farmers in Canada have had a long experience in wheat production spanning over centuries unlike Kenya where wheat farming is relatively new/introduced by white settlers
        (Any 3x2=6 marks)
  7.                    
    1. Apart from Mwea name five large irrigation schemes in Kenya. (5 marks)
      • Ahero
      • West Kano
      • Daua
      • Galole/Hola/bura
      • Mitunguu
      • Katila
      • Taveta
      • Kibwezi
      • Bunyala
      • Perkerra
    2. Explain four conditions that made Mwea a suitable location for irrigation scheme. (8 marks)
      • The area was sparsely populated thus making it easy and cheap to resettle the people.
      • Presence of river Thiba, Nyamindi which would provide water for irrigation.
      • The black cotton soil in the area which was suitable for irrigation because they retain water.
      • Extensive land for future expansion.
      • The gentle land would allow water to reach the farm through gravity
      • The unreliable/inadequate rainfall received in the area made it necessary for irrigation to be practiced
        (Any 4x2=8mks)
    3. Explain three benefits to farmers in the Pekerra irrigation scheme. (6 marks)
      • The people who live in the area were originally nomads but now they led settled lives.
      • Initially the people in the area had no regular sources o income, but nowadays, this is earned from sale of maize and other crops.
      • The establishment of the scheme led to provision of social amenities
      • Infrastructure which have improved people standard of living
      • Tenants are able to grow food crops. This has improved their sufficiency if food/has improved their diet.
      • The establishment of the scheme has created employment opportunities for the people in the area.
        (Any 3x2=6mks)
    4. Explain three problems experienced by farmers in the Perkera irrigation scheme. (6 marks)
      • The stagnant water in the scheme encourages breeding of snails and mosquitoes which spread diseases.
      • Silting of canals/weeds growing in the canals reduce the flow to water into the fields. The farmers spend extra time and money dredging the canal.
      • Delayed low payment discourages the farmers.
      • Fluctuation of papaw, onions prices in the market
      • Competition discourages/demoralize the farmers.
      • Diseases and pest that attack the crops leading to low yields.
      • Weeds compete with crops for nutrients lowering crops yields.
      • Salination lowers quality of soils hence lower yields.
      • Shortage of labour leading to use of hired labour which is very expensive.
        (Any 3x2=6 marks)
  8.                    
    1. Name two types of cattle breeds kept by nomadic pastoralist in Kenya. (2marks)
      • Zebu
      • Boran
      • (indigenous breeds) (2x1=2mks)
    2. Describe the marketing of the animals by the nomadic pastoralists. (3 marks)
      • Some cattle are sold to slaughter houses/to individual
      • Some pastoralists sell their livestock through community groups/ranches
      • Some livestock are sold o the livestock marketing department
      • Some pastoralists sell their animals to the Kenya meat commission (3x1=3mks)
    3. Explain four measures taken by the government of Kenya to improve beef cattle farming.
      • It encourages research the cross breeding of traditional cattle breeds with exotic ones in order to improve the quality of animals and in diseases resistance.
      • Order to improve the quality of animals and its diseases resistance
      • It strengthens community education to teach beef cattle farmers’ better livestock management.
      • It sets up demonstration ranches for farmers to learn new trends in livestock management
      • It constructs roads to make services accessible to farmers
      • It encourages the replacement of the coarse grass with nutritious pasture to improve the quanlity of animals
      • It has sunk boreholes and wells and dams to provide water for the animals
      • It has revived KMC a government parastatal that takes animals from farmers for slaughter
      • It encourages formation of group ranches for easier management
        (Any 4x2=8mks) (8 marks)
    4. Explain three factors that favour beef farming in Argentina. (6 marks)
      • Replacement of coarse grasses with alfalfa and corn has improved the quality of pastures of the beef cattle
      • Crossbreeding of the traditional wit higher quality breeds/Hereford, Aberdeen. Angus shathorn has improved the quality of the yields
      • The maritime climate of the area makes grazing of cattle possible throughout the year
      • Availability of water supplied using wind pumps ensures constant supply of water for cattle.
      • Availability of vast lands suitable for cattle grazing
      • Availability of refrigeration facilities enables beef to reach far off markets in good condition.
        (3x2=6mks)
    5.                      
      1. State three problems facing nomadic pastoralism. (3 marks)
        • Pests e.g. ticks
        • Diseases e.g. foot and mouth
        • Drought
        • Inadequate pasture
        • Inadequate water
      2. Name three products obtained from beef farming in Kenya. (3 marks)
        • Meat
        • Hides/skin
        • blood
  9. Below is a sketch map showing Lake Victoria. Use it to answer question (a).
    1.                      
      1. Name the ports marked P, Q, R, S (4 marks)
        • P – Kisumu
        • Q – Musoma
        • R - Bukoba
        • S - Entebbe
      2. Give four advantages of air transport over water transport. (4 marks)
        • It is the best means fo transporting perishables and light cargo
        • Planes help people in Africa land in remote areas war.
        • Planes can perform other different functions such as spraying farms (4x1=4mks)
    2.                          
      1. Name three types of communication. (3 marks)
        • Verbal communication
        • Written communication
        • Audio-visual communication
      2. Explain four problems facing transport and communication in Africa. (8 marks)
        • It is the fastest means of transport
        • lack of an integrated traffic system – different countries have different traffic rules
        • Landlocked countries –A number of African counters are located far inland and away from oceans, thus denying them direct link to the sea.
        • Shortage of navigable rivers – fluctuations in river levels and presence of obstacles
        • Uninhabited land –Vast areas are uneconomical
        • Thick vegetation – it makes it different and expensive to construct transport system.
        • Different railway gauges make difficult to have an integrated railway system.
        • Political barriers _ political animosity between countries
        • Inadequate capital –Heavy capital investment is required
        • Poor technology and shortage of skilled labour
        • High fuel costs –Africans are unable to cope with the ever icnreasin prices of petroleum
        • Security – vandalism of communication facilities, road sign, Terrorisms, wars in several countries.
          (Any four well explained 4x2=8marks)
    3. Explain the role of the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway to the economies of Canada and the USA. (6 marks)
      • Supply of hydro – electric power
      • Creation of employment opportunities
      • Promotion of tourism
      • Development of town
      • Improved navigation
      • Development of Agriculture
      • Development of industries
        (6x1=6mks)
  10. Use the word map below to answer question (a).
    1.                            
      1. Name the ocean currents marked x and Y. (2 marks)
        • X- Warm North pacific drift
        • Y – Cold Peruvian ocean currents
      2. Name the fishing ground marked Z. (1 mark)
        • North East Atlantic fishing ground
    2. . Explain three physical factors that favour fishing in the fishing ground marked Z.(6 marks)
      • Extensive continental shelf host a lot of planktons the basic food for fish
      • Indented coastlines suitable site for fish breeding/port development
      • Rugged landscape not ideal for Agriculture hence fishing is ideal alternative.
      • Cool water s favours growth of varieties of fish species.
    3.                      
      1. What is fish farming? (2 marks)
        • It is artificial rearing o fish in fish ponds/rice field
      2. Name two fish species reared in fish farms in Kenya. (2 marks)
        • Tilapia
        • Trout
        • Nile Perch
      3. Explain four problems which are experienced by fish farmers in Kenya. (8 marks)
        • Poor feeder roads-delay transportation of fish to the market.
        • Pour feeder roads-delay transportation of fish to the market
        • Exploitation by middlemen reduces profit
        • Inadequate market due to low purchasing power
        • Some cultures despises eating fish hence low market.
        • Inadequate capital to expand fish farming.
      4. Give four uses of fish. (4 marks)
        • Food
        • Sold to earn income
        • Raw material for making feeds
        • Alleviates chest problems e.g. cod liver oil

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