Business Studies Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Kapsabet Highschool Mock Exams 2022

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Instructions to Candidates
  • This paper consist of six question.
  • Answer any five questions in the spaces provided.
  1.  
    1. Discuss five factors that influence entrepreneurship in Kenya.          (10 marks)                                           
    2. Explain five monetary measures that can be taken to control inflation.                    (10 Marks)
  2.  
    1. On 1st January 2018, Sunlight enterprise had Kshs.95000 cash in hand and Kshs.125000 at bank.
      During the month the following transactions took place;
      2018 
      Jan 3rd; Cash sales kshs.9000 directly banked
      5th ; Purchased goods worth kshs.19500 by cash
      12th; Deposited kshs.25000 into the business bank account from private sources.
      14th ; Obura a debtor settled his account of kshs.15000 by cash less 5% cash discount
      17th; Paid James kshs.3900 by cheque in full settlement of his account less 2.5% cash discount.
      20th; Sold goods worth kshs.13500 to Kim on credit.
      23rd; Settled Kamau’s account of kshs.15000 by a cheque of kshs.13500.
      24th; Received a cheque of kshs.28800 from Leeroy a debtor having allowed a cash discount of 4%.
      25th ; Paid salaries by cheque kshs.36000
      27th ; Bought stationery by cash Kshs.29600
      28th; The cheque received from Leeroy on 24th was dishonoured.
      30th; All cash was banked except Kshs.15000.
      Required;
      Prepare a dully balanced three column cash book.                                                        (10 Marks)
    2. Explain five differences between commercial banks and Non-Bank financial institutions.       (10 Marks)
  3.  
    1. With the aid of an appropriate diagram, Explain how the price of a commodity is determined in a free market.        (10 Marks)
    2. Discuss five trends in forms of business units.                                                                  (10 Marks)
  4.  
    1. Katiba enterprise is a new firm which was established recently. Discuss five factors that the         marketing manager should consider in order to choose an appropriate method of promoting their product.                        (10 Marks)
    2. Describe five features of economic resources.                                                                   (10 Marks)
  5.  
    1. The following information was extracted from the books of Chelule Traders for the year ended 31st December 2019.
       ITEM  KSHS
       Capital  636,000
       Salaries  95,000
       Transport  16,000
       Commission allowed  800
       Commission received  2,800
       Rent income  72,000
       Gross profit  326,000
       Insurance  92,000
       Power & Lighting  2,500
       Discount received  1,200
       Machinery  800,000
       Furniture  150,000
       Debtors  35,000
       Creditors  17,000
       Cash at Bank 89,700
       Cash in hand  74,000
       Advertising  4,500
       N.I.C Bank loan  320,000
       Discount allowed  500
      Stock on 31st December 2019 was valued at Kshs.15,000                                           
      Required;
      • Prepare Chelule Traders profit and loss account for the year ended 31st Dec 2019.      (7 Marks)
      • Extract a balance sheet as at 31st Dec 2019.                                                                   (5 Marks)
    2. Poor services delivery in most counties is caused by inappropriate utilization of public resources,     explain four principles that should guide public expenditure in order to improve service delivery.     (8 Marks)
  6.  
    1. Discuss five characteristics of perfect competitive market .                                         (10 Marks)
    2. Explain five reasons why some countries engage in trade restriction.                              (10 Marks)           


MARKING SCHEME

  1.  
    1. Factors that influence entrepreneural practices
      • Government policy. Some government policies may be favourable to the operations while others are unfavourable. Favourable government policies e.g. decrease in taxes may encourage entrepreneurial practices while unfavourable government policies discourage entrepreneurial activities.
      • Level of infrastructure. Infrastructure refers to the basic systems and services that are necessary for efficient operation of businesses. Infrastructure may include transport network, water systems, electricity, communication etc. Availability of good infrastructure in an area encourages entrepreneurial practices while poor infrastructure discourages entrepreneurial practices.
      • Levels of education and skills. Relevant knowledge and skills are essential for business success. Knowledge and skills on business can be acquired through education, training and experience. An entrepreneur who has appropriate knowledge and skills is likely to succeed in business than the one without appropriate skills and knowledge.
      • Availability of markets. Availability of market determines the profitability of the business. Availability market encourages entrepreneurial activities whereas Inavailability of market discourages entrepreneurship.
      • Availability of resources. For a business to start and run efficiently, resources are required. These resources may include; capital, labour, technology, finances etc. Availability of adequate resources enables the business produce high quality goods and services that will encourage more customers. Availability of adequate resources will therefore encourage entrepreneurial practices while lack of adequate resources discourages entrepreneurial practices.
      • Culture. Culture refers to the norms, values and beliefs of a given community. Culture influences the kind of goods and services that people consume thereby determining the type of businesses to be established in a given area. E.g. Muslims don’t eat pork, therefore a business selling pork will not be suitable in an area with many Muslims.
      • Level of competition. Competition is an attempt by businesses to out-do each other in their efforts to attract and retain available customers. A business will therefore do well where there is minimal competition hence lack of competition encourages entrepreneurship than presence of competition
      • Political stability. Political stability gives a conducive environment for businesses to operate hence encouraging entrepreneurial activities. On the other hand, political instability increases the level of insecurity in a given area hence discouraging entrepreneurial activities.
      • Natural factors. Natural factors such as rainfall, temperatures, earthquakes, pests, wind, drought etc. may influence the type of businesses that are carried out in a certain area. E.g. finishing is only possible in places with water bodies.
    2. Monetary policies of controlling inflation
      • Selling of government securities in an open market operation (O.M.O). the selling of securities such as Bonds and Treasury bills mops money from the economy, reducing the amount of money being held by individuals
      • Increasing the commercial banks cash/liquidity ratio. This reduces their ability to lend and release more money into the economy, reducing their customer’s purchasing power.
      • Increase rate of interest of lending to the commercial banks. This forces them to increase the rate at which they are lending to their customers, to reduce the number of customers borrowing money, reducing the amount of money being added to the economy.
      • Increasing the compulsory deposits by the commercial banks with the central banks. This reduces their lending power to their customers, which makes their customers to receive only little amount from them, reducing the amount of money in the economy
      • Putting in place the selective credit control measures. The central bank may instruct the commercial bank to only lend money to a given sector of the economy which needs it most, to reduce the amount of money reaching the economy
      • Directives from the central banks to the commercial banks to increase their interest on the money being borrowed, to reduce their lending rates
      • Request by the central bank to the commercial banks (the moral persuasion) to exercise control on their lending rates to help them curb inflation.
  2.  
    1. Three Column cash book
                                                                     SUNLIGHT ENTERPRISE
                                                                THREE COLUMN CASH BOOK
                                                                 FOR THE MONTH OF JAN 2018
       Date  Details   F   Discount allowed   Cash   Bank  Date     Details   F  Discount received    Cash  Bank
      2018
      Jan 1
      3
      12
      14
      24th 
      30



      Bal. b/d
      Sales
      Additional
      Investment
      Obura 
      Leeroy
      cash



       c  



        750
        1200

       

      1950
       95000



       14250




      109250
       125000
         900
       25000


       28800
       94250
       

      282850
       2018
      Jan 12
       17
       23rd
       25
      27th
       28
       30
       30

       Purchases

       James
       Kamau
       Salaries
       Stationery
       Leeroy
       bank
       Bal c/.d

       c

        100
        1500





       1600









      109250









      282050
      ½ x 20  =  10 marks
      N/B  Award marks only if the details column is correct
    2. Differences between Commercial banks and Non-bank financial institutions
       Commercial banks   Non-bank financial institution
       i) Provide finance that is not restricted to any sector  Provide finance for a specific sector
       ii) May provide foreign exchange services  Do not provide foreign exchange services
       iii) Provide short term and medium term finance  Mainly provide medium term and long term finances
       iv)provide all types of accounts i.e current, savings and fixed       deposit account  Mainly offer savings and fixed accounts only
       v)They are under direct control of the central bank  NBFI are not under direct control of the central bank
       vi)May offer overdraft facilities  as they operate current account  Do not offer overdraft facilities since they do not operate current   savings account
       vii)Provides facilities of safe keeping of valuable items  Do not provide facilities for safe keeping of valuable
      viii)Provide finance mainly for working capital  Provide finance mainly for capital development
  3.  
    1. Price determination in a free market
      KpBsP2qa3a
      • The price of a commodity is determined by the interaction of demand and supply curves.  The resulting price is referred to as the equilibrium price and represents an agreement between sellers and consumers of the good.  In equilibrium, the quantity of goods supplied equals the quantity demanded.
      • At any price below Pe, there will be excess demand, consumers will be forced to pay higher price in order to attract more supply therefore setting the price back to equilibrium.  Similarly if a price is set above Pe, there would be excess supply sellers would be willing to lower their prices in order to clear their stock. The end result is a reduction in price back to the equilibrium point.
        Award 6 marks for well drawn curves and 4 marks for the explanation
    2. Trends in forms of business units
      • Amalgamation- This is where two or more business organisation combine and form one new business.  The merging companies ceases to exist
      • Privatisation - This is where the government sells their shares to the public. It is the changing of state owned corporations into public limited companies
      • Holding companies - This is where a company acquires 51% or more shares in one or more other companies.
      • Franchising – This is where one company grants another the rights to manufacture, distribute or provide its branded products using the name of the business that has granted the right.
      • Check off system - This is a system where members contribution to Saccos are deducted at source.
      • Performance contract. These are contracts signed by employees in state corporations where they commit perform to set standards.
      • Cartels - A cartel is a group of related companies that agree to work together in order to control output, price and markets of their products.
      • Absorption ( take over)This is where a business buys all assets of another business
      • Burial benevolent funds (BBF).This is a system mostly in SACCOs which is aimed at assisting their members financially during burials
      • Front office savings account (FOSA).This is a service which used in SACCOs to enable their members conveniently deposit and withdraw.
  4.  
    1. Factors to consider when choosing an appropriate method of product promotion
      • Cost of the method of promotion method
        A more affordable method of sales promotion should be chosen.
      • Nature of the product
        Some products because of their nature require to be promoted by specific methods only. For example a product requiring demonstration is best promoted through personal selling. Therefore the firm should chose a method of product promotion that suits its products
      • Target group
        The promoter should a method of promotion that reaches his/her target group so as to reduce wastage.
      • Objectives of the promoting firm
        Sometimes, firms undertake product promotion in order to achieve certain objectives. For instance, if the objective is to correct the bad image of the firm, public relations should be preferred. A firm should therefore choose a method of sales promotion that will help meet the objectives of the firm.
      • Methods used by the competing firm
        Firms should choose methods of promotion that enables them compete favourably with their competitors that is the firm should use a different method of promotion from the one the competitor is using
      • Government policy
        A firm should use only those methods that are allowed by the law of the land
      • Geographical region
        Some products may require countrywide coverage while others will require regional coverage. The firm should therefore choose a method that will cover the geographical area intended
      • Availability of the promotion method
        Some methods of product promotion are easily available than others. A firm should therefore choose a method that is easily available
    2. Characteristics of economic resources
      • They are scarce in supply – economic resources are limited in supply.  This means that resources are less in supply than what is required by human beings.
      • Have money value – economic resources have value at which they can change ownership.
      • Can be combined – Economic resources can be combined to produce other goods and services.
      • Can change ownership - The ownership of economic resources can be shifted from one person to another through trade.
      • Economic resources have utility - This resources have the ability of satisfying human wants.
      • Have alternative uses - Economic resources can be put into different uses.  Individual have to choose the most appropriate use for resources.
      • Can be complimentary- different economic resources may be consumed together.
      • Economic resources are unevenly distributed.  Different places are endowed with different quantities of economic resources.
  5.  
    1.                                                                              CHELULE TRADERS
                                                                             PROFIT & LOSS ACCOUNT
                                                                    FOR THE PERIOD ENDED 31/12/2019
       DR                                                                                                                                                                                                     CR
         
                                                       Ksh
      Salaries                                95,000
      Transport                              16,000
      Commission allowed              8,000
      Insurance                               92,000
      Power & lightning                   2,500
      Advertising                             4,500
      Discount allowed                       500
      Net profit c/d                        190,700
                                                   402,000    
       
      ½ x 14  = 07 marks
                                                             Ksh
      Commission received                    2,800
      Rent income                                  72,000
      Gross profit                                    326,000
      Discount received                           1,200
       
       
       
       
                                                            402,000



                                                                          CHELULE TRADERS
                                                                           BALANCE SHEET
                                                                            AS AT 31/12/2019
      Assets                      Sh.               Sh 
      Fixed assets  
      Machinery            800,000
      Furniture               150,00         950,000
      Current assets
      Stock                     15,000
      Debtors                  35,000   
      Bank                      89,700  
      Cash in hand         74,000          213,700
                                                      1,163,700 
       
      ½ x 10   =  05 marks   
      Capital + liabilities              Sh            Sh
      Capital                          626,000
      Add profit                     190,7000    826,700
      Long term liabilities
      N.I.C Bank loan                               320,000
      Current liabilities
      Creditors                                          17,000
       
       
                                                           1,163,700


    2. Principles of public expenditure
      • principle of maximum social benefit. Any expenditure by the county should ensure that majority of the population will benefit out of any spending in development projects.
      • Sanctions. The principle requires approval of any expenditure by the relevant authority e.g county assembly approvals.
      • Proper financial management .County funds should be well managed.  This should be facilitated by proper financial recording.
      • Economy. Any expenditure by the country government should minimize wastage at all costs.
      • Flexibility /elasticity-The policy on public expenditure should be flexible enough to meet prevailing economic situations i.e. it should be possible to increase or decrease the expenditure on projects depending on the prevailing circumstances e.g. during drought, it should be possible to spend on famine relief.
      • Productivity-The biggest proportion of public expenditure should be spent on development projects and less on non-development projects.
      • Equity-Government expenditure should be distributed equitably to all sectors of the economy in order to reduce income and wealth inequalities.
      • Surplus-Surplus revenue collected should be saved for emergencies or for when collection of revenue is below projections.
  6.  
    1. Features of perfectly competitive product market
      • There is wider knowledge about the market. Consumers in a perfectly competitive product market have adequate knowledge about price, quality and other market conditions. This therefore enables them to make a rational decision on the product to buy
      • The products are homogenous. This implies that the units produced are similar and therefore buyers have no preference between different units.
      • There is no transport cost. This ensures that products are charged the same price irrespective of the regional difference.
      • Large number of buyers and sellers. This widens consumer’s choice on where to buy his/her product.  It also ensures that no player in this market structure can influence the market.
      • Free entry and exit of firms into the market. This ensures that all firms are given equal opportunities to trade
      • No excess supply or demand. This promotes price stability. Therefore the buyers can budget his expenditure.
        Students to be awarded 2 marks only if he/she gives the significance of the feature otherwise award only 1 mark for starting the feature
    2. Reasons for protectionism
      • Protection of local infant industries. Trade restriction protects local infant industries from unfair competition from established foreign industries which are able to sell goods at a cheaper price hence controlling the market
      • Promote self-reliance. Through trade restriction, local producers may be encouraged to increase their productivity in order to ensure a constant supply of goods and services so as to avoid over-reliance on imports which may not be available during times of emergencies
      • Protection of strategic industries. Strategic industries are the very important industries to the country such as those providing security. The country needs to protect these industries to ensure they don’t over depend on foreigners. To do this, the government has to restrict foreign trade
      • Expansion of market for local products. Discouraging imports increases demand for local products.
      • Discourage dumping. Dumping refers to a situation where a country disposes its products cheaply in another country. Dumping brings about unfair competition to local industries hence has to be discouraged.
      • Creation of employment. Discouraging imports encourages local industries to emerge in order to produce goods that could have been imported. These industries will contribute to employment creation.
      • Preservation of the balance of trade. Discouraging imports ensures the balance of trade is always favourable.
      • Protection of cultural and social values. Trade restriction controls the adoption of harmful cultures from foreign countries through interaction during trade activities.

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