- Write your name and admission number in the spaces above.
- Question one and two are compulsory.
- Choose any one question in question three.
- Check to ascertain that the paper has all questions.
2. Compulsory Set Book Essay
3. Optional Set Book Essay
- Imaginative composition
- Write a composition ending with the sentence.
… this event marked a turning point in my life.
- Write a composition to illustrate the saying.
A bird in hand is worth two in the bush. (20mks)
- Write a composition ending with the sentence.
- The Compulsory Set Text
The past always catches up with the present, sometimes with some unintended consequences. Using the play, A Doll's House by Henrik Ibsen, explain this statement. (20mks)
- The Optional Set Texts (20 Marks)
Inheritance By David Mulwa
Abuse of power has led to failure of many countries in Africa and elsewhere in the world. With relevant examples from Inheritance, write an essay to illustrate this statement.
- The Novel
The Pearl by John Steinbeck
Materialism and greed are inherent nature of human beings. Discuss the statement basing your arguments on The Pearl.
- The Short Story
Chris Wanjala (Ed.), Memories We Lost
Using illustrations from Rolf Schmid’s short story, “No Need to Lie”, write a Composition on the agonizing effects of cancer. (20 marks)
Question 1. (20mks)
- must be a story if not deduct 4 marks AD
- Must end with the given sentence. If not deduct. 2 marks AD
- Must clearly narrate the event that become a turning point in his/her life.
- Must be a story if not deduct 4 marks AD
- Must illustrate the proverb
- A student can give a story where a character can lose what they already have due to greed or lack of contentment
The Imaginative Composition (awarding of marks) falls under four categories: A, B, C and D. This is well explained below.
- Must be a story if not deduct 4 marks AD
D CLASS (01 - 05) - Generally, there is little or no communication.
The candidate either does not communicate at all or his language ability is so minimal that the examiner practically has to guess what the candidate wants to communicate. The candidate fails to connect the English words he knows into meaningful sentences. The subject is glanced at or distorted. Practically no valid punctuation. All kinds of errors are evident. The English is grossly ‘broken’.
- D - 01 - 02 Chaotic, little meaning whatsoever. Question paper or some word from it simply copied.
- D - 03 Flow of thought almost impossible to follow. The errors are continuous.
- D+ - 04 - 05 Although the English is often broken and the essay is full of errors of all types one can at least guess what the candidate want to communicate.
C CLASS Generally, there is difficulty in communication.
- (06 - 10) The candidate communicates understandably but only more or less clearly.
He/she is not confident with their language. The subject is often undeveloped. There may be some digressions. Unnecessary repetitions are frequent. The arrangement is weak and the flow of jerky. There is no economy of language; mother tongue influence is felt in Spelling; there is direct translation.
- C - 06 - 07 The Candidate obviously finds it difficult to communicate his / her ideas. He / she is seriously hampered by his / her very limited knowledge of the language of structure and vocabulary. This results in many gross errors of agreement spelling misuse of preposition tense, verb agreement and sentence construction.
- C - 08 The candidate communicates but not with consistent clarity. His / her linguistic abilities being very limited, he/she cannot avoid frequent errors in sentence structure. There is little variety or originality. Very bookish English, links are weak, incorrect, and at times repeated.
- C+ 09 - 10 The candidate communicates clearly but in a flat and uncertain manner. Simple concepts and sentences are often strained. There may be an overuse of clichés or unsuitable idioms. Proverbs are misquoted or misinterpreted. The flow is still jerky. There are some errors of agreement, tenses and spelling.
B CLASS Generally, there is fluency in communication.
(11 – 15) This class is characterized by greater fluency and ease of expression. The candidate demonstrates that he / she can use English as a normal way of expressing himself / herself. Sentences are varied and usually well-constructed. Some candidates become ambitious and even over-ambitious i.e., the candidate may use too much vocabulary in an effort to impress. There may be items of merit and the one word or one expression type. Many essays in this category may be just clean and unassuming but they still show that the candidate is at ease with the language.
- B (11-12) The candidate communicates fairly and with some fluency. There may be little variety. In sentence structure. Gross errors are occasional.
- B 13 The sentences are varied but rather simple and straight forward. The candidate does not strain himself in an effort to impress. There is a fair range of vocabulary and idiom. Some items or merit, economy of language. The candidate seems to express themselves naturally and effortlessly.
- B+ 14 - 15 The candidate communicates his ideas pleasantly and without strains. There are few errors and slips. Tenses, spelling and punctuation are quite good. A number of items of merit of the “whole sentence” or the “whole expression” type are evident.
A CLASS Communication is efficient.
(16 – 20) The candidate communicates not only fluently, but attractively, with originality and efficiency. He / She has the ability to make the reader share his deep feelings, emotions, enthusiasms. He / She expresses himself freely and without any visible constraint. The scripts give evidence of maturity, good planning and a tinge of humour. Many items of merit which indicate that the candidate has complete command of the language. There is no strain, just pleasantness, clever arrangement and felicity of expressions.
- A - 16 - 17 The candidate shows competence and fluency in using the language. He may lack imagination or originality which usually provide the “spark” in such essays. Vocabulary, idioms, sentence structure, links and variety are impressive. Gross errors are very rare.
- A 18 Positive ability. A few errors that are felt to be slips. The story or argument as has definite impact. No grammar problem. Variety of structures. A definite spark.
- A+ 19 - 20 The candidate communicates not only information and meaning, but also and especially the candidate’s whole self: his / her feelings, tastes, points of view, youth and culture. This ability to communicate his/her deep self-many express itself in many ways wide range effective vocabulary, original approach, vivid and sustained account in the case of a narrative, well developed and ordered argument in the case of a debate or discussion. Errors and slips should not deprive the candidate of the full marks he deserves. A very definite spark.
- Almost any error of agreement.
- Serious tense errors.
- Errors of elementary vocabulary spelling and misuse of words.
- Punctuation errors or missing punctuation which causes serious lack of communication.
- Elementary errors of sentence construction.
- Ridiculous use of idioms thus affecting communication.
- Misuse of common prepositions.
- Misuse of capital letters.
It should be remembered that the quality of an essay is how effectively it communicates.
If any essay looks too short, the examiner should take the time to count the exact number of Words. Not to exceed 450 words.
- KENYA ENGLISH
A good number of words and expression are understood and currently used by all Kenyans. They can be used in essays without any need for quotation marks or explanations. We can include among those;
Panga, rungu, shamba, murram, matatu
Wananchi, ugali, madarasa, harambee, matoke
Maendeleo ya Wanawake, Salaam, aya, askari
Debe, duka, boma, sukuma wiki, goat party, manyatta, magendo, nyama .
2. COMPULSORY SET TEXT (20mks)
The past always has a way of catching up with the present.
The choices that we made in the past have consequences that show up in our present lives, sometimes, influencing it negatively.
Nora made a choice in her first year of marriage that later leads to the breakdown of something for which she had worked so hard and persevered a lot of humiliation to preserve. It was a choice she had made out of her great love for her husband. Torvald Helmer was seriously sick because of overwork and the doctors had recommended that he takes a holiday in the warmer climes in Italy. Nora tried giving hints to make him get a loan for the trip and eventually told him to get it, but he would hear none of it In this society, only men could get loans with minimal obstacles. Nora takes a loan of 250 pounds to save her husband. The loan is given by Krogstad who gives almost 'impossible conditions' and Ann has to forge not only her father's name but also his signature. Three days after the loan was extended, her father dies.
She patiently repays the loan for eight years. She has to skim some household expenses, work long hours on her knitting and get a copy typist work to put together enough to repay the loan and also keep her home running. By 'good luck', her husband gets a job at a bank as a manager. Krogstad is also employed in the same bank. In a twist of fate, Krogstad engages himself in some indiscretion, forgery, and in Helmer's housecleaning task, the first assignment is to get rid of Krogstad as he cannot work with the likes of him. Krogstad blackmails Nora to plead his case to keep his job or else he reveals her past indiscretion. But there are some complications. First, Mrs. Linde, an old school friend of Nora, and a girlfriend to Krogstad has requested for the job through Nora, and it has been given. In any case, Nora's guiles and white lies will not sway Helmer who has even written a dismissal letter.
Matters go from bad to worse. Krogstad relents about the letter and tries to retrieve it. This is after they have had a discussion with his old girlfriend Mrs. Linde, and made up. Mrs. Linde is of the opinion that the letter should be read to end the lies and the hypocrisy in the house. Though apparently Krogstad tried to retrieve the letter from the mailbox, he did not succeed, Helmer discovers the secret the wife has kept hidden for years. He is upset that his image in the society will suffer a battering due to his wife's thoughtless actions. Ironically, he does not even pause to ask why she had done it in the first place. In his estimation, his wife should not even be a mother. She will contaminate the children, a belief current in the society that vices among parents destroy the children eventually. He does not even contemplate living as man and wife with such a contaminated wife and tells her that they can only live as brother and sister for appearance's sake. Nora is upset. She feels betrayed that this is what her husband feels. In fact, she is disappointed because he does not even take the burden of her shame, or even try to understand. His cruel judgment is devastating considering that she did it for him. She has always tolerated his openly condescending attitude towards her, petting her with the diminutive little this or that, reducing her to a play thing, a doll. She was Little Squirrel, Little Skylark, Little Doll, terms degrading whatever the intention. She has always lived in his shadow in accordance with social expectations.
Helmer 'offers' her a lifeline, and 'forgives' her for her treachery. The chutzpah of the man is truly unbelievable. Nora has had enough of the marriage and she feels she is not the woman for the patronizing and utterly insensitive Helmer. She will no longer be a pet, a doll for him or the society to play with and she is walking out of the marriage to go and rediscover herself. NO pleading or even appeal to her religion or conscience is going to change her.
Thus, we can conclude that our present circumstances are usually the consequences of the choices we have made in our paste Nora made a decision out of a deep love for her husband, not to lose him, but ironically the decision comes back to split them up. The marriage she sought to preserve is broken up. The consoling grace though, is that she comes to realize the kind of man he is.
3 a. Inheritance (20mks)
Generally, explain with examples tied to the question on the despotic nature of African leaders
Eg: in Africa, there is massive corruption, extra-judicial killing and inefficiency which jeopardize the lives of the people.
Or give a contextualised introduction.
Valid introduction, award 2mks
Points of interpretation
- Lacuna Kasoo is a corrupt person. He collaborates with foreign investors and steals money meant for development and stashes it in his foreign accounts.
- Lacuna Kasoo is lustful. This is because he wants to forcefully marry lulu and even confines her in his palace in preparation for the ceremony.
- Lacuna Kasoo is murderous. He plans to eliminate Bengo by sending Judah Zen Melo. He says that he has a thorn in his political side and therefore wants Judah to pluck it out.
- Lacuna Kasoo is dictatorial. This is portrayed when he orders Meshak to crush the dissidents, starve and impose a curfew to the citizens.
- Lacuna Kasoo is traitorous. He abuses power bestowed on him in order to lead the people. He vehemently goes against the wishes of his people and ancestors.
Give an opinion e.g African leaders should not emulate leaders like Lacuna Kasoo.
Any other valid conclusion, award up to 2mks.
3b. The Pearl
General or context-based
E.g.: It is the nature of human beings to wrongly desire what isn’t theirs. Such is the case in the pearl as seen through characters like the doctor, the priest, the pearl buyers etc.
Points of interpretation
- The Doctor: wants to take advantage of Coyotito’s sickness to get the pearl. Upon learning that Kino has found a pearl, he visits Kino and yet he had turned him away earlier. He tries to trick Kino into giving him the pearl. He also observes Kino’s eyes with the intention of knowing where the pearl could be buried.
- The Priest: wants to take advantage of Kino’s and Juana’s marriage. He pays Kino a visit with intentions of getting some of the proceeds of the pearl. He is keen to remind Kino to give thanks in church. He also wishes to baptize Coyotito. This is because they can now pay for this.
- Pearl Buyers: They conspire on how to deal with Kino who has found the Pearl of the World. They lie to him about the actual cost of the pearl. They offer little when in actual sense it is a very expensive pearl.
- The Trackers: They track Kino and follow him all the way with intentions of forcefully taking the pearl from him. From Juana, we learn that they will not spare Kino, his wife and son in their efforts of getting the pearl.
- The Attackers: They attack Kino on several occasions and injure him. They burn down Kino’s house and destroy his boat – his source of livelihood.
Expect 4 points, award 3:3:3:3
Give opinion or recap of the highlighted points
Any other valid conclusion, award up to 2 mks.
3. (c) Introduction:
The cancer scourge continues to cause pain, suffering and loss of lives amongst Kenyan families. The greatest challenge has been that it’s difficult to detect the disease early and most patients cannot afford the medical care. Although Rolf Schmid in the story No need to Lie, discovers the cancer early, he goes through hell before he fully discovers.
- Cancer makes eating nightmares to the victims. When Rolf experienced the pain for the first time, it was unbearable and he could hardly swallo Pg. 122. He was also scared to eat. The thought of food passing through his mouth scared him. Dr. Rupani threatened to feed him intravenously. Rolf opted to feed himself through rubber pipe inserted in his throat. The experience was still painful and torturous. He had raw lips, gums and sore throat and when food touched any this, he could groan in pain.
- The pain associated with cancer is unbearable. After going through radiation, Rolf felt excruciating pain in the nec His moth was full of ulcers, skin covering the gums had peeled off. Furthermore, chemotherapy was so painful and led to loss of hair, nausea and vomiting. An eight-inch cut on his neck had to be cleaned and he often fainted during the procedure.
- Cancer causes deformation. In the patient room, Rolf saw patients who had lost hair. He lost weight significantly. The muscles were was Once he was 125kg but now was weighed 87.3kg. Chemotherapy also led to loss of hair and brought a lot of misery to the patients. In fact, Rolf lost his hair and a beard, his head was swollen such that one could not see the neck. A number of patients were paralyzed.
- Cancer leads to psychological torture. When Rolf was required to see the doctor, we are told fear gripped him. He didn’t know what he was suffering from. When he thought of cancer, he was scared to death. The family could not sleep that night when they waited for biopsy results. His wife Asmanham cried when news broke that he had cancer. Again Rolf was intimidated when he saw the radiation apparatus. He also felt ashamed when his friends paid him a visi They heard him scream and thought he was critically ill. When he was driving to town, he felt angry such that he almost caused an accident. We dreaded chemotherapy because those who went through it died one week later. They died out of despair. Pg. 133.
- Cancer leads to loss of friends making one feel lonely. Rolf lost several fiends because of his health; those who hanged around discouraged him.
- Cancer leads to financial strain. Rolf thought that his insurance company would pay all his medical expenses, however, the company paid only up to a certain amount forcing him to raise the remaining cash from friends and other well-wishers.
- In conclusion, we can win war on cancer if the government declares it a national disaster. By doing this, all resources would be directed towards combating the scourge thus preventing loss of lives, pain and suffering.
For a candidate to score a full, the following demands of the question must be met:
- Episodes/background information
- Details of the agony – agony must come out
- Details of the effects of cancer