History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - KCSE 2022 Mock Exams Set 1

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INSTRUCTIONS
  1. This paper consists of three sections: A, B and C
  2. Answer all questions in section A, Three questions in section B, and Two questions in  Section C.
  3. Answers to all questions must be written in the answer booklet provided.
  4. Candidates should answer the questions in English.

SECTION A

1-17

SECTION B

 

SECTION C

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

 

                 

QUESTIONS

SECTION A (25 MARKS)
ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS FROM THIS SECTION
  1. State two ways through which archeologists obtain information on the History of Kenya.   (2mks)
  2. State one similarity in the political organization of the Ameru and Abaluyha of Kenya during the 19th century. (1mk)
  3. Name two important landmarks that were built by the Portuguese along the coast of East  Africa.   (2mks) 
  4. Give two reasons why the government may limit a person’s freedom of speech.(2mks)
  5. Identify the constitutional amendment that made Kenya return to a multi-party state. (1mk)
  6. State the main function of the Kenyan Bill of Rights. (1mk)
  7. Give two reasons why the British used the Imperial British East Africa Company (IBEACo) to administer its possession in Kenya. (2mks)
  8. Name the body that made laws in Kenya during the colonial period. (1mk)
  9. Give the main reason why the colonial government created African Reserves in Kenya.(1mk)
  10. State two grievances raised by the Asians in Kenya that were addressed by the Devonshire white paper of 1923. (2mks)
  11. Give the main political contribution of Christian missionaries in Kenya during the struggle for independence up to 1939. (1mk)
  12. State two challenges that the independent schools faced in Kenya during the colonial period. (2mks)
  13. What was the main contribution of Joseph Thomas Mboya to the History of Kenya.  (1mk)
  14. Name two finance committees of Kenyan parliament.(2mks)
  15. State the military power of the president in Kenya.  (1mk)
  16. Name two superior courts in the Kenyan Judiciary. (2mks
  17. Name one elective seat in the county government in Kenya. (1mk) 
SECTION: B (45 MARKS)
ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION
  1.                              
    1. State three political functions of the council of elders among the Luo in Pre-Colonial Kenya. (3mks)   
    2. Describe the social organization of the Agikuyu during the Pre-Colonial period.  (12mks)
  2.                                      
    1. Give three reasons why the British used direct rule in some parts of Kenya during colonial period  (3mks)
    2. Explain six negative effects of the British colonial rule on the people of Kenya  (12mks)
  3.                                
    1. Outline five roles played by President Daniel Arap Moi in the development of education sector between 1979-2002 (5mks)
    2. Explain five factors that promoted the rise of nationalism in Kenya after 1945 (10mks)
  4.                            
    1. Outline five grievances expressed by Kikuyu Central Association presented by Jomo Kenyatta to the colonial secretary in 1929 (5mks)
    2. Describe five political roles played by African Elected Members Organization during the struggle for independence in Kenya (10mks) 
SECTION: C (30 MARKS)
ANSWER TWO QUESTIONS FROM THIS SECTION
  1.                                        
    1. State three ways through which direct democracy is exercised in Kenya  (3mks)   
    2. Explain six rights of the arrested person in Kenya (12mks)
  2.                          
    1. Name three categories of members of the County Assembly (3mks)
    2. Explain six functions of a returning officer in the general elections in Kenya (10mks)
  3.                              
    1. Identify five internal sources of revenue for the National Government in Kenya (5mks)
    2. Explain five ways in which the County Government ensure effective utilization of public finance (10mks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1. State two ways through which archaeologists obtain information on the History of Kenya. (2mks)
    • Locating Pre-Historic sites
    • Excavating the Historic sites
    • Dating the fossils
    • Recording the findings
  2. State one similarity in the political organization of the Ameru and Abaluyha of Kenya during the 19th century (1mk)
    • The clan formed the basic political unit
    • The council of elders settled disputes
    • Leadership was by the council of elders
  3. Name two important landmarks that were built by the Portuguese along the coast of East Africa. (2mks)
    • Fort Jesus in Mombasa
    • Vasco da Gama Pillar in Malindi
  4. Give two reasons why the government may limit a person’s freedom of speech. (2mks)
    • If one makes untrue/malicious utterances about another individual/government.
    • If one publishes seditious documents/reveals government secrets.
    • If one incites others against government/other people.
    • If one talks ill against the president.
  5. Identify the constitutional amendment that made Kenya return to a multi-party state. (1mk)
    • Repeal of section 2A of the constitution
  6. State the main function of the Kenyan Bill of Rights. (1mk)
    • To recognize and protect fundamental human rights and freedom
  7. Give two reasons why the British used the Imperial British East Africa Company (IBEA Co) to administer its possession in Kenya. (2mks)
    • It was familiar with the weather
    • They lacked sufficient funds/inadequate funds
    • They lacked a clear policy on the administration of colonial possessions.
  8. Name the body that made laws in Kenya during the colonial period. (1mk)
    • Legislative Council (Leg Co)
  9. Give the main reason why the colonial government created African Reserves in Kenya. (1mk)
    • To create room for European farming settlement.
  10. State two grievances raised by the Asians in Kenya that were addressed by the Devonshire white paper of 1923. (2mks)
    • They demanded equal rights with the whites
    • They wanted to own land in the Kenyan highlands
    • They opposed restrictions on their migration into Kenya.
  11. Give the main Political contribution of Christian missionaries in Kenya during the struggle for independence up to 1939. (1mk)
    • They represented the Africans in the legislative council
  12. State two challenges that the independent schools faced in Kenya during the colonial period. (2mks)
    • They lacked trained teachers
    • Inadequate funds/Lack of facilities
    • Leadership squabbles
    • Completion from mission schools
    • They were constantly threatened with closure by the colonial government
  13. What was the main contribution of Joseph Thomas Mboya to the History of Kenya. (1mk)
    • He led/ organized the trade union movement
  14. Name two finance committees of the Kenyan parliament. (2mks)
    • Public Accounts Committee
    • Public Investment Committee
  15. State the military power of the president in Kenya. (2mks)
    • Commander in Chief of the armed forces
  16. Name two superior courts in the Kenyan Judiciary. (2mks)
    • Supreme Court
    • Court of Appeal
    • High Court
  17. Name one elective seat in the county government in Kenya. (1mk)
    • Governor
    • Members of County Assembly
  18.                                
    1. State three political functions of the council of elders among the Luo in Pre-Colonial Kenya. (3mks)
      • Settling disputes on murder, theft, etc
      • Admitting strangers to the community and expelling undesirable individuals.
      • Elders carried out ritual ceremonies
      • The council declared war or negotiated for peace
      • It was the custodian of land
    2. Describe the Social Organization of the Agikuyu during the Pre-Colonial period. (12mks)
      • The smallest social unit was the Family.
      • Several related families formed a clan (Mbari) which lived in a defined area (ridge).
      • The Agikuyu practiced circumsion for boys and clitoridectomy for girls.
      • Members of the age set system (riika) worked together and considered each other as brothers and sisters.
      • Marriage was highly regarded among the Agikuyu as one would raise a family and also own property.
      • The Agikuyu believed in the existence of a supreme God called Ngai who was believed to live on Mount Kenya (Kirinyaga).
      • The Agikuyu prayed and offered sacrifices to God in various occasions.
      • They had sacred places of worship like the mugumo tree.
      • The Agikuyu also believed in the existence of Ancestral spirits who acted as intermediaries between God and the people.
      • The Agikuyu had some specialists like prophets, medicine men, and rainmakers who were consulted in time of need.
  19.                                
    1. Give three reasons why the British used direct rule in some parts of Kenya during colonial period (3mks)
      • Many communities did not have an elaborate system of government
      • Most communities resisted the British rule so they had to be controlled directly
      • It had been successfully used elsewhere
      • They wanted to establish full control of the people
      • They had enough personnel
      • Most of the communities had been weakened by civil wars/famine
    2. Explain six negative effects of the British colonial rule on the people of Kenya (12mks)
      • Africans lost their independence
      • Africans lost their land to the European settlers leading to landlessness
      • Led to creation of African reserves and squatter system
      • Creation of colonial boundaries split African communities that affected social cohesion
      • It undermined African cultural practices due to influence of the missionaries activities
      • It destroyed traditional African political systems replacing traditional chiefs with appointed leaders
      • The use of divide and rule bred ethnicity in Kenya
      • Led to introduction of taxation on Africans in Kenya
  20.                              
    1. Outline five roles played by President Daniel Arap Moi in the development of education sector between 1979-2002 (5mks)
      • He introduced 8-4-4 system of education
      • Initiated development and expansion of schools, colleges and universities
      • Introduced Nyayo Milk Programme to motivate students to attend schools
      • He gave scholarship to students from poor families
      • Organized harambee to develop learning institutions
    2. Explain five factors that promoted the rise of nationalism in Kenya after 1945 (10mks)
      • Many Africans had acquired western education that enabled them to articulate their grievances
      • The experience of African ex-soldiers after the Second World War
      • The granting of independence to India and Pakistan in 1947 motivated the African nationalists
      • The signing of Atlantic Charter in 1941 that declared that all people should enjoy their rights and freedoms
      • The coming to power of Labour Party in Britain. The party was sympathetic to the plight of Africans in the colonies
      • The activities of Pan African Movement inspired African nationalist to demand for political independence
      • Formation of the United Nations Organization which advocated for granting of political freedom for African countries
  21.                            
    1. Outline five grievances expressed by Kikuyu Central Association presented by Jomo Kenyatta to the colonial secretary in 1929
      • Land alienation
      • High taxation of Africans
      • Release of Harry Thuku
      • Lack of African representation in the Legco
      • Forced labour
      • Abolition of Kipande system
      • Lack of quality education for Africans
    2. Explain five political roles played by the African Election Members of the Legislative council during the struggle for independence in Kenya. (15mks)
      • They demanded for the release of detained/imprisoned African nationalists.
      • They networked with other Pan-Africanists to hasten the achievements of independence.
      • They presented African grievances in international Fora.
      • They formed political parties /improvements to demand for independence /African’s rights.
      • They popularized Kenyatta thereby making him acceptable as a National leader.
      • They took part in writing of the independence constitution.
      • They advocated for an increase in African representation in Legco
  22.                                      
    1. State three ways through which direct democracy is exercised in Kenya (3mks)
      • Referendum
      • Recall
      • Initiative
      • Plebiscite /consensus
    2. Explain six rights of the arrested person in Kenya (12mks)
      • To be informed promptly, in language that the person understands of reasons for the arrest.
      • The right to remain silent.
      • To communicate with an advocate and other persons whose assistance is necessary
      • Not to be compelled to make any confession or admission that could be used in evidence against the person.
      • To be held separately from persons who are serving a sentence.
      • To be brought before a court as soon as reasonably possible, but not later than 24 hours
      • To be charged or informed of the reasons for the detention continuing or to be released.
      • To be released on bond or bail on reasonable condition.
  23.                                  
    1. Name three categories of members of the County Assembly (3mks)
      • Elected members of the wards in a general election
      • Nominated members
      • The speaker
    2. Explain six functions of a returning officer in the general elections in Kenya (10mks)
      • Distributes election materials to various polling stations
      • Receives nomination papers from candidates
      • Receives poll results from polling stations
      • They supervise the voting process and counting of votes in the constituency
      • They appoint presiding officers in each polling station
      • Announces results of the parliamentary elections
      • Sets up polling booths in each polling station
      • Tallies and relays presidential results to national tallying center
  24.                          
    1. Identify five internal sources of revenue for the National Government in Kenya (5mks)
      • Profits from parastatals and government shares in companies
      • Fines charged in courts
      • Issuance of licenses such as trading licenses, driving license
      • Domestic borrowing/sales of government bonds and Treasury Bills
      • Charges on services offered by the government e.g. electricity and water,
      • Taxes
      • External borrowing from financial institutions such as International Monetary Fund
      • Grants from friendly countries
    2. Explain five ways in which the County Government ensure effective utilization of public finance
      • Each county government prepares its own budget at the beginning of each financial year
      • The county assembly approves the use of funds by the county government
      • The cabinet secretary for may temporarily stop money due to county government in the to prevent mismanagement
      • County government adhere to mechanism of open tendering of procurement and disposal of public goods and services under national legislation
      • The Controller of Budget supervises the implementation of county budget and submits reports to parliament every four months
      • County revenue and expenditure is audited by Auditor General and submits a report after every four months
      • The Governor is accountable to the County Assembly for financial management within the county and reports matters pertaining to finance
      • Kenya Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission investigates and recommends for prosecution of public officers who misappropriate funds

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