History Paper 2 Questions and Answers - KCSE 2022 Mock Exams Set 1

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INSTRUCTIONS

  1. This paper consists of three sections: A, B and C
  2. Answer all questions in section A, Three questions in section B, and Two questions in Section C.
  3. Answers to all questions must be written in the answer booklet provided.
  4. Candidates should answer the questions in English.

SECTION A

1-17

SECTION B

 

SECTION C

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

 

                 

QUESTIONS

SECTION A(25MKS)-Answer all questions in this section

  1. Give the relationship between “History” and “Government”. (1mk)
  2. Name two types of dwellings used by the early man during the Early Stone Age period (2mks)
  3. Give two inventions that led to the Agrarian Revolution in Britain. (2mks)
  4. State any two improvement which were made on macadamized roads in the 19th century (2mks)
  5. Give two advantages of the use of electricity in industries during the industrial revolution (2mks)
  6. Give two reasons why early urban centers in Egypt developed in the Nile valley (2mks)
  7. Identify one form of picture writing during the early civilizations (1mk)
  8. State one way in which centralization of the authority contributed to the success of the Buganda Kingdom (1mk)
  9. State one political factor which leads to the scramble for colonies in Africa (1mk)
  10. Name one community in West Africa which resisted European invasion in the 19th century (1mk)
  11. Give two resolutions of the Berlin conference of 1884 to 1885 (2mks)
  12. Give two reasons. Why the League of Nations was formed in1919 (2mks)
  13. State one major event that led to the outbreak of the First World War (1mk)
  14. Identify two major ways used by the superpowers to fight during the cold war (2mks)
  15. Give one main function of the international labour organization (ILO) (1mk)
  16. Name the philosophy that Tanzania adopted at independence to spearhead her development (1mk)
  17. Give one disadvantage of a federal system of government (1mk)

SECTION B (45 Marks)
Answer any three questions from this section

  1.                                  
    1. Give five reasons why hunting of wild animals was mainly a group activity during the Stone Age period. (5 marks)
    2. Describe five ways in which the development of the upright posture improved the early man’s way of life. (10 marks)
  2.                          
    1. Give three uses of wind as a source of energy in ancient times. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six effects of iron working technology on African communities before the 19th Century. (12 marks)
  3.                                      
    1. Identify the three methods used by the French to acquire colonies in West Africa (3mks)
    2. Explain six factors that led to the defeat of Samori Toure by the French. (12mks)
  4.                            
    1. State three ways used by nationalists in Ghana to fight for independence. (3mks)
    2. Explain six factors that led to the development of African Nationalism in Ghana (12mks).

SECTION C (30 MARKS)
Answer any two questions from this section.

  1.                            
    1. Give three reasons why the British used direct rule in Zimbabwe. (3mks)
    2. Explain six reasons why indirect rule was not successful in Southern Nigeria. (12mks)
  2.                            
    1. Name three permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six ways in which the United Nations provides humanitarian assistance. (12 marks)
  3.                                              
    1. State five objectives for the formation of Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) (5 marks)
    2. Explain five challenges facing the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa. (COMESA) (10 marks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1. Give the relationship between “History” and “Government”. (1 mark)
    • History is the study of man’s past activities while Government is the study of how people are governed 1 x 1 =1 mark
  2. Name two types of dwellings used by the early man during the Early Stone Age period (2 marks)
    • Rock shelters.
    • Tree trunks.
    • On trees.
    • Caves/stone caves.
    • In forest Any 2 x 1 =2 marks
  3. Give two inventions that led to the Agrarian Revolution in Britain. (2 marks)
    • The seed drill by Jethro Tull.
    • The horse-drawn hoe by Jethro Tull.
    • Selective breeding of livestock by Robert Bakewell.
    • Introduction of fertilizer by Sir John Lawes.
    • Mechanical thresher by Andrew Melkel.
    • Mechanical reaper by Patrick Bell Any 2 x 1 =2 marks1. Give any two
  4. State any two improvement which were made on macadamized roads in the 19th century
    • Tar was put on the top surface
    • Roads were widened to create highways
    • Roads were straightened.
    • Were hardened by adding more layers of gravel/stones and cement. (Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)
  5. Give two advantages of the use of electricity in industries during the industrial revolution
    • Supply could by regulated
    • Could be used in many different ways
    • Could be used far from the source/industries could be established anywhere
    • There was a clean working environment
    • The cost of production of goods was made cheaper. (Any 2 x1 = 2 marks)
  6. Give two reasons why early urban centers in Egypt developed in the Nile valley
    • River Nile provided water for the population in these centers and good means of transport and communication.
    • The historical importance of Egypt attracted many visitors making it a tourist and cultural center.
    • Centers of worship like shrines centers holy centers grew into urban centers.
    • Some administrative canters also attracted large populations.
    • Defense consideration led to the emergence of urban centre.
    • People were attracted by commercial activities eg trading in the farm products.
    • Availability of fertile lands led to high production of goods hence attracting large population growth rate. (Any 2x1=2 marks)
  7. Identify one form of picture writing during the early civilizations
    • Cuneiform
    • Hieroglyphics (Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark)
  8. State one way in which centralization of the authority contributed to the success of the Buganda Kingdom (1mark)
    • It enhanced effective control of the kingdom
    • It promoted control of other traditional leader eg clan leaders and thus brought about unity.
    • It enhanced loyalty to one single leader.
    • It led to the emergency of able Kabaka who propelled the kingdom to strength.(Any 1x1=1mark)
  9. State one political factor which leads to the scramble for colonies in Africa
    • Rise of nationalism in Europe
    • The unification of Germany
    • Militarism, search for military supremacy
    • Public opinion in Europe (1x 1 = 1mark)
  10. Name one community in West Africa which resisted European invasion in the 19th century
    • The Mandika (1x1=1marks)
  11. Give two resolutions of the Berlin conference of 1884 to 1885
    • Congo river was declared free for navigation by ships of all the represented nations
    • Congo basin was declared neutral area in case of war
    • Religion toleration was to be observed in the Congo basin,
    • Doctrine of effective occupation was draw, which required maintenance of occupation army in the claimed area and the occupier power to inform other signatories of the Berlin Act. Any 2x1 = 2 marks
  12. Give two reasons. Why the League of Nations was formed in1919
    • To prevent the occurrence of another world war.
    • To maintain peace and security in the world. (2X1=2 marks)
  13. State one major event that led to the outbreak of the First World War.
    • The Sarajevo assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austrian throne and his wife Sophie. (1x1= 1 mark)
  14. Identify two major ways used by the superpowers to fight during the cold war.
    • Malicious propaganda
    • Military pacts/treaties ie Warsaw pact and NATO
    • Economic aid to rivals i.e Marshal Plan and COMECON plan. (Any 2x1= 2 marks)
  15. Give one main function of the international labour organization (ILO)
    • To try and secure international agreements on matters of workers welfare in the whole world e.g wages, working hours and general conditions at the workplace. (1x1 = 1 mark)
  16. Name the philosophy that Tanzania adopted at independence to spearhead her development
    • Socialism/Ujamaa (1x1= 1 mark)
  17. Give ONE disadvantage of a federal system of government
    • There is a great temptation for succession by parts of the country
    • It can lead to unequal development (2 x 1 = 2mks)
  18.                        
    1. Give five reasons why hunting of wild animals was mainly a group activity during the Stone Age period. (5 marks)
      • Wild animals are dangerous/could kill people.
      • They could surround the animals.
      • Spotting/locating the animal was easier.
      • Less time was taken to catch the animals.
      • To give moral encouragement/team spirit.
      • They could catch more animals. Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks
    2. Describe five ways in which the development of the upright posture improved the early man’s way of life. (10 marks)
      • The early man was able to move/walk/run faster with long strides.
      • Man could use the hands to carry out farming activities.
      • Man could use the hands to grasp items conveniently.
      • Man could spot/sight the animals/wild fruits which he used to hunt/gather from far distances.
      • Man could see the impending danger from a distance and take appropriate measures.
      • Man used hands to make tools/ weapons which were used for different purposes.
      • Man used the hands to defend himself/attack the enemies.
      • Man used the hands to perform/carry out domestic chores/young ones. Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks
  19.                      
    1. Give three uses of wind as a source of energy in ancient times. (3 marks)
      • To winnow grains.
      • To drive/turn windmills.
      • To propel boats/sailing ships.
      • To drive water pumps.
      • To dry grains Any 3x1=3 marks
    2. Explain six effects of iron working technology on African communities before the 19th Century. (12 marks)
      • The use of iron tools made cultivation of the land easier/faster as they were more efficient.
      • Iron tools were used to clear forests thereby enabling people to migrate/settle in new areas.
      • Iron weapons were used to fight other communities thereby increasing warfare/ conflicts.
      • It led to the rise of professional smiths who were accorded high status in the community
      • The demand for iron tools enhanced trade between communities.
      • Communities were able to protect themselves better using iron we were directive.
      • Powerful states emerged as iron weapons were used to conquer/annex weaker communities/territories
      • Iron implements were used as a medium of exchange thereby facilitating trade transactions.
      • The use of iron tools/implements led to increased food production. Since more land was brought under cultivation
  20.                                
    1. Identify the three methods used by the French to acquire colonies in West Africa
      • Signed treaties with the African rulers/ used diplomacy
      • Played off one community against the other/ divide and rule/ treachery
      • Used force to conquer the African / Military expedition (Any 3 x 1= 3 mks)
    2. Explain six factors that led to the defeat of Samori Toure by the French
      • The constant movements of his army and people denied them time to concentrate on gainful activities. This resulted to inadequate food supplies
      • The scorched earth policy that he used when fighting made his people to be impoverished and thus turned against him.
      • Some African communities in the area supported the French against Samori Toure. E.g., Liebba of Sekosso & Ahmiadu Sekou of Tuklor
      • The Diplomatic tactics of playing off the British against the French worked against him as the British refused to give him support when attached by the French
      • The determination by the French to establish an overseas empire made them to use their superior weapons on Samori Toure
      • The non- Mandinka and non-Muslim communities in his empire supported the French against him because he had conquered/ mistreated them.
      • The British refused to support Samori Toure against the French due to their policy of non-interference.
      • The French besieged Samori Capital/ blocking his retreat thereby forcing him to surrender
      • The establishment of the second empire from the East denied him access to the coast thus affecting supply of arms
      • The loss of Baire gold mine cleared him the finances to sustain his forces.
  21.                    
    1. State three ways used by nationalists in Ghana to fight for independence.
      • They formed political parties.
      • They used boycotts/demonstrations/strikes/go-slows.
      • They organized political rallies to mobilize mass support.
      • They used newspapers to articulate their views.
      • They used the legislative council
      • They composed songs/poems to attack colonialism.
      • They used trade unions.
      • They used international forum. Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks
    2. Explain six factors that led to the development of African Nationalism in Ghana.
      • Inadequate African representation in the Legislative council-based discontent among the Ghanaians.
      • Loss of powers by the traditional African chiefs created discontent against the colonial government.
      • The need to guard against possible land alienation by the British united the Africans.
      • Introduction of taxation by the colonial government was resented by Ghanaians.
      • The meagre earnings by Africans from the sale of cocoa to Europeans created discontent among them.
      • The order by the colonial government that farmers uproot their crops due to prevalence of the “swollen shoot” disease upset them.
      • Then involvement of the ex-servicemen in the Second World War inspired them to fight for their independence.
      • The attainment of independence by India/Pakistan in 1947 encouraged the Ghanaians to demand for their right to govern themselves.
      • The existence of young, educated Ghanaians who had understood the ideals of democracy/freedom who inspired the masses towards a worthy cause.
      • High rate of unemployment among the Africans created resentment/discontent.
      • The United Nations Charter’s declaration of the importance of political independence for all people inspired the Ghanaians and other leaders.
      • The charismatic leadership provided by Kwame Nkrumah united the people in their struggle against colonial domination.
      • The selective granting of trading licenses to Europeans traders while denying the same to the Africans created discontent. Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks
  22.                                  
    1. Give three reasons why the British used direct rule in Zimbabwe.
      • They desired to control the economy of Zimbabwe to maximize profit.
      • The indigenous/ local political institutions based on Induna had been destroyed during the British occupation of Zimbabwe.
      • To ensure complete control of Africans.
      • Existence of British south Africa company personnel on the sport who were familiar with the area as well as British system of administration (3x1 = 3 marks)
    2. Explain six reasons why indirect rule was not successful in Southern Nigeria.
      • Southern Nigeria did not have centralized indigenous system of Government that was necessary for the application of indirect rule.
      • There were many ethnic groups, languages and customs which needed to be streamlined before indirect rule could be introduced and be successful.
      • The introduction of new ideas such as forced labour and direct taxes which infuriated the people of Southern Nigeria.
      • The failure of the British administrators to fully understand how social, economic, and political system of southern Nigeria (based on the office of the Oba) operated, made them fire up easily.
      • Opposition from the educated elite who felt out of the administration of their own country/leadership.
      • The educated people resented the chiefs appointed by the British because they were illiterate.
      • The Obas in Southern Nigeria had defined powers such as mediation so when they were given wide ranging powers people became uncomfortable.
      • Communication barriers between the British supervisors, the warriors, chiefs, and the people often led to misinterpretation and misunderstanding.
      • Misuse of power by the warrant chiefs who raised taxes for their own benefits. They also harassed women sexually.
      • Use of excessive force to suppress any form of resistance provoked resentment e.g., the shooting of women during a demonstration against British administration. (6x2=12marks)
  23.                                
    1. Name three permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. (3 marks)
      • France
      • China
      • Russia
      • Britain/United Kingdom
      • United States of America Any 3x1=3 marks
    2. Explain six ways in which the United Nations provides humanitarian assistance. (12 marks)
      • It assists refugees / displaced persons with clothes to preserve human dignity.
      • It assists in resettling displaced persons by negotiating for their resettlement in safe
      • It provides relief food in drought-stricken areas to avert loss of lives.
      • It provides medical supplies to the victims of war/other calamities to restore human health.
      • It provides shelter to the deserving cases by building houses/giving materials for construction.
      • It provides education to vulnerable groups to promote literacy.
      • It assists in evacuating people affected by flood to safer grounds to avert suffering.
      • It protects refugees by ensuring their respect/observance of basic human rights.
  24.                                  
    1. State five objectives for the formation of Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) (5 marks)
      • To cooperate in creating a conducive environment for foreign/cross border/domestic investment
      • To cooperate in the promotion of peace/security/stability among member states
      • To strengthen relations between COMESA members and the rest of the world/adopt a common position in international for a
      • To cooperate in realizing the objectives of the African economics community
      • To promote a more balanced/harmonious development of its production/marketing structures
      • To promote joint development in all economic fields to raise the living standards of the people. (Any 5x1 = 5 marks)
    2. Explain five challenges facing the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa. (COMESA) (10 marks)
      • Poor transport network has hampered movement of goods/services between member states
      • The member countries produce similar goods thus limiting the market
      • Some member countries belong to other regional economic blocks/hence not fully committed to COMESA
      • Civil wars in some members states hamper smooth flow of goods due to insecurity hence lowering the volume of trade
      • Border disputes among some members states make it difficult for them to cooperate
      • Some members states prefer trading with their former colonial masters thus posing stiff competition to products from COMESA region
      • Failure of some member states to harmonize tariffs has undermined free flow of goods/services
      • Withdrawal of some members’ states has undermined the planning/financial of COMESA operations.
      • Member states pursue their national interests thereby working against the objectives of COMESA
      • Personality differences btw leaders e.g., Museveni and Al-BashirQuarrels over trading rights under COMESA Egypt and Kenya.
      • Natural calamities e.g., draughts, floods leading to massive food shortages and famine.

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