INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
- The exam has FOUR sections.
- All the sections are compulsory.
1. COMPREHENSION 20 marks
Read the passage below and then answer the questions that follow.
The insect is not a blind automation. There is a ray of conscious thought running through its whole life. This view will meet opposition: to some people, the insect is a machine without emotion; to others, it is just a shade over the mechanical, process of something called `discernment,’ but without the slightest gleam of reason.
Ants, however, show great intelligence as excavators. The ordinary plan of excavation is for ants to carry out earth and throw it outside the nest. There is nothing particular to note about it; all the ants engaged at the task behave in the same way. But one day I noticed a deviation. Some ants had made a nest on the side of a bank. The ejected earth ran down from it in a shoot, like a landslide on the face of a hill. The shoot was very steep and crumbling, and as each ant carried out its load it slipped on the loose material and tumbled down to the bottom of the slope. The ants, however, refused to be defeated. After some days of slipping and falling they managed to devise an ingenious plan for surmounting the serious difficulty. They assigned to one particular ant the duty of consolidating and hardening the ground. This ant set about collecting pebbles which it found near the base of the shoot. These pebbles it carried up the shoot and then spread them out in the form of a platform at the very top; just outside the mouth of the nest.
This was tremendous labour for one ant. The carrying of the pebbles up the slippery slope was a task that lasted several days. It required the entire labourer’s strength, and caused it innumerable falls. It was interesting to see selection at work. The ant never took the first pebble that offered. Several were examined, picked up and tested, until one was found that fitted the job. Moreover, it did not place its pebbles in a haphazard way: it carefully found a suitable spot for fitting of each load. The final result was a platform of pebbles on which the excavators walked easily, and no more of them fell down the slope.
Can we deny intelligence to this? Is this the action of automation, a thing that works blindly like a machine? No. intelligence runs all through the act. There is divergence from the accustomed habits; there is choice in the selection of pebbles; there is design in the making of the platform; there is the end in view, and one very much to the advantage of the ants. It was not instinct but reason at work.
I can no more deny intelligence to this ant than I can to a man who builds a parapet to prevent people from tumbling down a hill.
- Why does the writer believe that the insect is not a blind automation? (2marks)
- Identify and illustrate the figure of speech used in the second paragraph. (2marks)
- How did the ants overcome the problem of tumbling down the slope? (2marks)
- State how this problem was solved. (3marks)
- Make notes on the procedure followed by the particular ant in making the platform. (6marks)
- Why was there a divergence from accustomed actions of the ant? (2marks)
- Explain the meaning of the following as used in the passage. (3marks)
2. EXCERPT 25 MARKS
Read the excerpt below then answer the questions that follow.
Krogstad: (controlling himself) Listen to me, Mrs. Helmer. If necessary, I am prepared to fight for my small post in the Bank as if I were fighting for my life.
Nora: So it seems.
Krogstad: It is not only for the sake of money; indeed, that weighs least with me in the matter. There is another reason- well, I may as well tell you. My position is this. I dare say you know, like everybody else, that once, many years ago, I was guilty of discretion.
Nora: I think I have heard something of the kind.
Krogstad: The matter never came into courts; but every way seemed to be closed to me after that. So I took to the business that you know of. I had to do something; and, honestly, I don’t think I’ve been one of the worst. But now I must cut myself free from all that. My sons are growing up; for their sake I must try and win back as much respect as I can in the town. This post in the bank was like the first step for me – and now your husband is going to kick me downstairs again into the mud.
Nora: but you must believe me, Mr. Krogstad; it is not in my power to help you at all.
Krogstad: Then it is because you haven’t the will; but I will have the means to compel you.
Nora: You don’t mean that you will tell my husband that I owe you money?
Krogstad: Hm! - suppose I were to tell him?
Nora: it would be perfectly infamous of you. (Sobbing) To think of his learning my secret, which has been my joy and pride, in such an ugly, clumsy way- that he should learn it from you! And it would put me in a horribly disagreeable position-
Krogstad: Only disagreeable?
Nora: (impetuously) Well, do it, then! – and it will be the worst for you. My husband will see for himself what a blackguard you are, and you certainly won’t keep your post then.
Krogstad: I asked you if it was only a disagreeable scene at home that you were afraid of?
Nora: If my husband does not get to know of it, of course he will at once pay you what is still owing, and we shall have nothing more to do with you.
Krogstad: (coming a step nearer) Listen to me, Mrs Helmer. Either you have a very bad memory or you know very little of business. I shall be obliged to remind you of a few details.
- What happens just before this excerpt? (3marks)
- Discuss any two themes evident in this excerpt. (4 marks)
- Why is Krogstad prepared to fight for the post in the bank? (4 marks)
- Discuss the character traits of; (4marks)
- What stylistic devices are used in the excerpt above? 4 marks
- Explain the meaning of the following words as used in the excerpt. 2marks
- “I shall be obliged to remind you of a few details.” Which details are referred to here? (4 marks)
3. ORAL NARRATIVE 20marks
Read the narrative below and answer the questions that follow.
One day on a farm, cat took out her walking stick and started to walk laboriously along the road, leaning heavily on her stick. Hen, who was pecking at the ground nearby, looked up and said, “Aunty Aunty, where are you going?”
The cat said, “I am off to the holy city to give my annual offering”. Hen said, “May I come with you? I will accompany you on your long journey and at the same time perform my pilgrimage as well”. Cat replied “If you must, there is no stopping you”. So both of them started moving further on the road. Then they met Duck. Duck said, “Aunty, where are you going?”
Cat replied, “Come if you must,” Duck joined them.
A little ahead they met Mouse. Mouse asked, “Aunty where are you going?” Cat replied, “I am going to the holy city,” Mouse asked, “May I come along with you?”Cat said, “If you want to dear.” They walked along the road for some time then cat said, “Oh my old bones, now they ache ohoo.” The three stopped and offered to rest along with her. Cat said, “Hen may wait with me if she likes, the two of you go on ahead. We will catch up with you.” The cat pounced on the Hen and ate her up.
After a few hours, Cat caught up with Duck and Mouse. When they enquired about Hen, Cat said, “Oh, she had forgotten her offering at home and has gone back for it,” And they walked on.
The next day Cat began to groan again, and this time asked Duck to stay with her. Mouse went on ahead. When Cat caught up with Mouse she said Duck has forgotten her offering as well.
At this Mouse got suspicious for if Duck forgotten her offering as well she would have turned back with Hen. Meanwhile, Cat thought: “Now it is the turn of Mouse, what a delicacy! The taste will linger for a long time in my mouth.”
Then she said to the Mouse, “Mouse let us stop for a rest.” After a while she said, “It is long since I played catch and catch with anyone. Why don’t I fulfill this desire for who knows how long I have to live?”
Mouse began to play; he ran here and there; soon he realized that Cat was out to get him so he quickly darted into a hole in the ground. Now cat know she could not get Mouse so she said, “Mouse, Mouse, come out. I want to tell you a story,” Craftily Mouse replied, “You tell the story and I will listen to it in here.”
So, you see whenever Mouse sees Cat, he runs quickly to hide for he knows that Cat is after him. He has not forgotten the uncompleted journey to the holy city.
- Giving a reason, classify this narrative. (2 marks)
- What features of oral narratives are evident in this story? Explain any 4. (4 marks)
- Briefly explain any two character traits of the Cat in this story. (4 marks)
- What two lessons do we learn from the story? (4 marks)
- Why do you think the Duck did not complete the journey? (2 marks)
- What does the story reveal about the community from which the story was taken? (2 marks)
- Explain the two problems you could encounter when collecting this type of oral genre. (2 marks)
4. GRAMMAR 15 marks
- Rewrite the following sentences according to the instructions given. (3marks)
- John never reported late to work last year. (Beginning with “Not once”)
- If I had not missed the train last night, I _______________________ (give) my first lecture now. (use the correct tense of the verb in brackets)
- As soon ass the man left, they started talking. (rewrite using No sooner…)
- Fill in the blank with the suitable prepositions. (2marks)
- The thief who snatched my bag walked ____________ a limp.
- Liverpool won because the spectators cheered them ____________
- Rewrite the following sentences inserting appropriate question tags. 2 marks
- It is cold.
- They haven’t come.
- Rewrite the underlined phrasal verbs with appropriate verbs in each sentence. (2 marks)
- The students’ performance did not measure up to the expected standards.
- After the disagreement, he walked out on her family.
- Fill in each blank space with the correct form of the word in brackets. (3marks)
- It is easy to spell a word from his ___________________ (pronounce)
- Do not wait for the train, it comes to this town very________________ (regular)
- The hunt for the criminals has been ________________ (intense)
- Rewrite the following sentences punctuating them appropriately. (3marks)
- Definitely said Liam I will finish the novel next month.
- Do you take meals daily asked mutual.
- if you need anything the lady said call my number.
1. COMPREHENSION PASSAGE 20MARKS
- There is a ray of conscious thought running through its whole life.
- B. Personification- ants showed great intelligence as excavators. The ordinary plan of excavation is for them to carry out earth and throw it outside the nest.
- They managed to devise an ingenious plan for surmounting the serious difficulty.
- They assigned to one particular ant the duty of consolidating and hardening the ground.
- The ant se about collecting pebbles which it found near it and near the base of the shoot
- These pebbles it carried up the shoot and then spread them out in the form of a platform at the very top; just outside the mouth of the nest
- The ant never took the first pebble that offered.
- Several were examined, picked up and tested, until one was found that fitted the job.
- Moreover, it did not place its pebbled in a haphazard way: it carefully found suitable spot for fitting of each load.
- The final result was a platform of pebbles on the excavators walked easily, and no more of them fell down the slope.
- There is divergence from the accustomed habits; there’s in the selection of pebbles; there’s design in the making of the platform; there’s the end in the view, and one very much advantage of the ants.
- process of converting the control of something
- getting over
2. EXCERPT 25MARKS
- Krogstad tells Nora to approach Helmer with the request to reinstate him(Krogstad) 1mk. Nora threatens to throw him out 1mk
Nora says she’s no longer afraid of Krogstad 1mk
- Desperation- Krogstad fights to retain his job at the bank as Nora struggles to conceal her loan secret
- Blackmail- Krogstad threatens Nora with exposing the loan secret if she doesn’t intercede for him.
- He has been guilty of indiscretion. He was never taken to court but all his ways closed to him after that. He fights to free himself from this. He wants to win back respect for the sake of his sons- the post in the bank is the first step up for him. Helmer is threatening to kick him out but he vows to resist.
- Adamant- he insists that Nora must plead his case with Helmer
- Persistent- He would not give up his quest to retain the job
- Regretful- He regrets his past actions
- Fearful- She fears that Krogstad may reveal her secret about the loan
- Optimistic- She believes that her husband would pay off the debt with Krogstad.
- Defiant- She tells Krogstad to go ahead and let out her secret because she believes it would only worsen for him.
- Simile- “I am prepared to fight as if I were fighting for my life”
- Metaphor- “…your husband is going to kick me downstairs against the mad…” …that weighs least with me… “I must cu myself”
- Immoral person
- Nora borrowed 250 pounds from Krogstad when her husband was ill, he gave conditions which included drawing a bond as security, which was to be signed by her father. He left the date blank and the father was to insert his signature and the date. The date inserted appeared to be days after her father had died, 2nd October and yet the father died on 29th September.
3. ORAL NARRATIVE 20MARKS
- Aetiological/Explanatory narrative -1mark
- Explains why the mouse runs quickly when it sees a cat. 1mark
- opening formulae (1) one day……………………. (1)
- personification (1) Hen said…../ Cat said…………… (1)
- dialogue (1) Hen/ Cat/ Mouse hold different conversations (1)
- Ending formulae (1)- so you see……………… (1)
- Timelessness (1) One day, the next day ……………. (1)
- Fantasy (1). The Hen, Cat, Duck, Mouse behave like human beings/audience appears to agree with this fantasy (1) Any 2 x2= 4 marks
NB. No mark for illustration without identification
- Religious (1) –goes to the holy city to give annual offering (1)
- Scheming/cunning (1) – tricks Hen and Duck and feeds on them (1)
- Greedy (1) –says “now its turn of the Mouse ……..The taste will linger for a long time in my mouth
Any 2x 2 =4 marks
NB. No mark for illustration without identification
- We should be wary of our friends/ those posing to help us.
Illustration: The cat posed as a good friend, both Hen and Duck trusted her to their demise
- We should not involve ourselves into other peoples affairs arbitrarily. (1)
Illustration: Hen, Mouse and Duck joined Cat when they saw her going along the road/
Cat only told them to join her if they wanted to. (1)
NB. Accept proper/ relevant illustrations
(Accept other plausible morals)
2 x2 = 4 marks
- We should be wary of our friends/ those posing to help us.
- The Cat must have eaten her up, just as she had done with Hen. 2 marks
- Religious – homage to the holy city for annual offering 2 marks
- Artistic- The cat says she would tell a story to Mouse……… “You tell the story…….”
Illustration -1 mark
Any 1 x2=2 marks
- Uncooperative/ incompetent/ forgetful informant.
- Language barrier.
- Hostile community.
- Adverse weather conditions.
- Breakdown of recording devices
(Accept an explanation) Any 2x1=2 marks
4. GRAMMAR 15MARKS
- Not once did John ever report late to work last year.
I would be giving
No sooner had the man left than they started talking
- It is cold, isn’t it?
They haven’t come, have they?
- “Definitely,” said Liam, “I will finish the novel next month.”
“Do you take meals daily?” asked Mutua.
“If you need anything,” the lady said, “call my number.”