History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - KCSE 2022 Mock Exams Set 2

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Questions

Instructions to Candidates

  • This paper consists of three sections A, B and C.
  • Answer all questions in section A, three from Section B and two from Section C.

SECTION A (25 MARKS)
ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION

  1. Give TWO examples of early inhabitants of Kenya. (2 marks)
  2. Identify TWO cultural practices introduced by the Cushites in Kenya. (2 marks)
  3. Identify the TITLE given to the war leader among the Luo community. (1 mark)
  4. What was the MAIN negative effect of plantation agriculture on the people of Kenyan coast? (1 mark)
  5. Give TWO diplomatic methods used by the British to establish colonial rule in Kenya (2marks)
  6. Give the MAIN importance of the Devonshire white paper of 1923. (1 mark)
  7. State TWO economic benefits of the Kenya Uganda railway during the colonial period. (2 marks)
  8. Give TWO advantages of Representative democracy (2 marks)
  9. Give ONE reason why Africans were denied equal educational opportunities with other races during the colonial period.(1 mark)
  10. Identify TWO features of African socialism as spelt out in the sessional paper no. 10 of 1965. (2 marks)
  11. Identify TWO ways of becoming a Kenyan citizen. (2 marks)
  12. Given ONE reason why the government of Kenya may limit a person’s freedom of speech. (1 mark)
  13. Give TWO ways through which parliamentary supremacy in Kenya can be limited. (1 mark)
  14. Give ONE house committee of parliament which deals with government financial matters. (1 mark)
  15. What was the MAIN contribution of professor Wangari Maathai. (1 mark)
  16. Give the MAIN constitutional change in Kenya in 2008 (1 mark)
  17. State ONE type of public expenditure (1 mark)

SECTION B (45 MARKS)
ANSWER ANY THREE QUESTIONS

  1.      
    1. State three ways through which the Bantus interacted with the Cushites during the pre-colonial period.( 3 Marks)
    2. Describe the social organization of the Abagusii during the pre-colonial period.(12 Marks)
  2.   
    1. Give three reasons why the early visitors came to Kenyan coast before 1500 A.D. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six factors that contributed to the development of trade between Kenyan coast and outside world by 1900 (12 marks)
  3.       
    1. Give three grievances of the Kikuyu Central Association which were Presented by Jomo Kenyatta to the colonial secretary in 1929.(3 marks)
    2. Explain six roles played by trade unions to improve the lives of the people of Kenya during the colonial period (12 marks)
  4.  
    1. Identify three education commissions established in the post-colonial Kenya. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six challenges facing the health sector in Kenya today. (12marks)

SECTION C (30 MARKS)
ANSWER ANY TWO QUESTIONS

  1.      
    1. State three reasons why national integration is important in Kenya.(3 Marks)
    2. Explain six methods of conflict resolution.(12 marks)
  2.          
    1. State three functions of cabinet secretaries (3 Marks)
    2. Explain six functions of the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission. (12 marks)
  3.    
    1. State three functions of a governor in Kenya (3 Marks)
    2. Explain six possible solutions to challenges facing County Government in Kenya (12marks)

Marking Scheme

  1. Give two examples of early inhabitants of Kenya. (2 marks)
    • Gumba / Athi
    • Dorobo / Okiek
    • Okuro
    • Ongunye (Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)
  2. Identify two cultural practices introduced by the Cushites in Kenya. (2 marks)
    • Cirumcision.
    • Age set
    • Taboo against eating fish. (Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)
  3. Identify the title given to the war leader among the Luo community. (1 mark)
    • Osumba Mrwayi (1 x 1 = 1 mk)
  4. What was the main negative effect of plantation agriculture on the people of Kenyan coast? (1 mark)
    • It promoted slave trade 1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)
  5. Give two diplomatic methods used by the British to establish colonial rule in Kenya (2marks)
    • Signing of treaties.
    • Use of missionaries to pacify Africans.
    • Treachery.Luring of local leaders.
  6. Give the main importance of the Devonshire white paper of 1923. (1 mark)
    • It declared that African’s interests are to be given a priority. 1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)
  7. State two economic benefits of the Kenya Uganda railway during the colonial period. (2 marks)
    • It facilitated the transportation of goods and services.
    • It led to the development of urban centres.
    • It facilitated the movement of traders/promoted trade
    • It opened up the interior for economic development e.g. plantation, agriculture and industry.
    • It led to the creation of employment opportunities.
    • It led to the development of other forms of transport and communication e.g. roads and telecommunications.
    • It was a major source of revenue for colonial authority. Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)
  8. Give two advantages of Representative democracy (2 marks)
    • People elect leaders of their own choice.
    • Easy to make decisions.
    • Elected leaders are accountable to the people.
    • Supreme power is vested in the people. (any 2x1 = 2mks)
  9. Give one reason why Africans were denied equal educational opportunities with other races during the colonial period. (1 mark)
    • Europeans aimed to produce and maintain a semi-skilled labour force for the colony.
    • Fear of competition from educated Africans/racial discrimination/claims for their rights. Any 1x1=1mrk
  10. Identify two features of African socialism as spelt out in the sessional paper no. 10 of 1965. (2 marks)
    • Political democracy.
    • Natural social responsibility.
    • Various forms of property ownership.
    • Equal opportunities.
    • Progressive taxation.
  11. Identify two ways of becoming a Kenyan citizen. (2 marks)
    • By birth
    • By registration
  12. Given one reason why the government of Kenya may limit a person’s freedom of speech. (1 mark)
    • If one makes untrue/malicious utterances about another individual/ government
    • If one publishes/reveals the governments secrets
    • If one incites others against government/ other people
  13. Give two ways through which parliamentary supremacy in Kenya can be limited. (1 mark)
    • Parliament cannot make laws that contradict traditional customs and practices of the people
    • Parliament cannot pass a law that contradicts Kenya’s constitutionPresident can limit the supremacy by making independent decisions
    • Parliament supremacy can be limited by the application of international laws
  14. Give one house committee of parliament which deals with government financial matters. (1 mark)
    • The public investment committee
    • The public accounts committee
  15. What was the Main contribution of professor Wangari Maathai. (1 mark)
    • Environmental conservation / tree planting. 1 × 1 = 1 mark
  16. Give the main constitutional change in Kenya in 2008 (1 mark)
    • The signing of a National Reconciliation Accord act which led to the creation of a coalition government and the creation of the Post of prime Minister
  17. State one type of public expenditure (1 mark)
    • Capital / development
    • Recurrent
    • Supplimentary. (1 × 1 = 1 mark)
  18.             
    1. State three ways through which the Bantus interacted with the Cushites during the pre-colonial period.( 3 Marks)
      • Through inter community wars.
      • Through trade
      • Through intermarriage
      • Through social activities e.g. dancing
    2. Describe the social organization of the Abagusii during the pre-colonial period.
      • The clan was the basic social unit made of people who claimed a common ancestry.
      • Circumcision of both boys and girls formed part of their initiation rites.
      • The initiated boys formed an age-set which provided warriors who defended the community.
      • They believed in the existence of a powerful being (God) who was known as Engoro.
      • They believed in the ancestral spirits who acted as mediators between mankind and God
      • They also had special people such as Diviners, seers and priest.
      • Diviners interpreted God‟s message to the people while priest offered prayers. (6*2=12)
  19.            
    1. Give three reasons why the early visitors came to Kenyan coast before 1500 A.D. (3 marks)
      • They wanted to participate in the trade/ control of the commercial activities along the coast
      • Some came as political/ religious refuges
      • Same came as explorers/ wanted to find out about the resources along the coast
      • They wanted to spread their religion
      • They wanted to establish settlements along the coast
    2. Explain six factors that contributed to the development of trade between Kenyan coast and outside world by 1900 (12 marks)
      • Availability of items of trade encourage traders to come to the coast
      • The high demand goods/trade items from Kenyan coast by consumers in the outside world led to increased trade
      • The existence of local trade among the Africans along the coast provided a base upon which Ocean trade developed
      • The Monsoon winds facilitated the movement of vessels/ship to and from the coast thus enabling the merchants to take part in trade
      • The Indian ocean provided access to traders from Asia and Europe
      • The relative peace /political stability provided conducive environment for trade
      • The availability of credit facilities from Indian Bayans/ money lenders enabled many people to take part in trade
      • Existence enterprising merchants at the coast/ foreign lands promoted trading links enabled trade to flourish
      • The natural harbors along the coast ensured safe docking for ships for loading and unloading of items of trade
      • Advancement in ship/boat building led to better sailing vessels thus increased trading activities to and from the coast
  20.            
    1. Give three grievances of the Kikuyu Central Association which were Presented by Jomo Kenyatta to the colonial secretary in 1929.(3 marks)
      • Land alienation
      • Taxation of Africans
      • Lack of African representation of legco
      • Lack of quality/poor education for Africans.
      • Release of Harry Thuku
      • Abolition of forced labour
      • Abolition of Kipande system.
    2. Explain six roles played by trade unions to improve the lives of the people of Kenya during the colonial period (12 marks)
      • They educated people on their political rights through seminars and public meetings
      • They opposed racial discrimination/ colour bars among the workers to enhance unity
      • Trade unions provided training grounds for nationalistic leaders who took part in the struggle of independence
      • They provided an alternative forum for independence struggle after the banning of political organizations by the colonial government
      • They aired grievances of the workers to the employees/ colonial government
      • They managed to achieve better conditions for workers through strikes and collective bargaining
      • They achieved better wages for Africans and Asians under the colonial government
  21.           
    1. Identify three education commissions established in the post-colonial Kenya. (3 marks)
      • The Kenya education commission / Ominde ( 1964)
      • The national committee on education objectives and policies / Gachathi Report ( 1967)
      • Presidential working party on the second university / Mackay report ( 1982)
      • The Kamunge commission ( 1988 _ - Davy Koech commission (Any 3 x 1=3 marks)
    2. Explain six challenges facing the health sector in Kenya today. (12marks)
      • Inadequate medical amenities due to the fast rising population
      • Cost sharing policy introduced by the Government has prevented making poor people from going to hospital
      • The spread of HIV and Aids and other diseases e.g. diabetes and heart diseases have worsened the situation
      • Some cultural practices e.g. FGM have made provision of medical services more challenging
      • Pollution of the environment has increased allergy – related ailments, many of which have no cure
      • Poverty and malnutrition render many people vulnerable to diseases
      • Illegal abortion and early pregnancies endanger the lives of mothers
      • High rate of accidents and injuries especially on roads.
      • Covid 19 outbreak and its high rate of spread in Kenya have had a devastating effects on stretching of health facilities available and personnel required (Any 6 x 2= 12 marks)
      • Corruption and mismanagement of money meant for procuring health equipment in the ministry of health.
      • Strikes among the health personnel e.g doctors, nurses over remuneration and good working conditions hinders provision of health services
  22.           
    1. State three reasons why national integration is important in Kenya.
      • Promotes national unity.
      • Promotes collective responsibility in times of need
      • Promotes political stability.
      • Promotes cooperation and excellence in nation building.
      • Reduces incidences of fear and power struggle that can lead to civil war.
      • Promotes peaceful coexistence of different ethnic groups and races.
      • Enables the country to develop a sense of national direction - the national goals and policies are geared towards the desired direction.
      • Enables efficient and accurate communication.
    2. Explain six methods of conflict resolution. (12 marks)
      • Negotiation - discussion between two parties or people who are trying to reach and agreement.
      • Arbitration - This is provided by the Kenyan laws / Arbitrators.
      • Diplomacy/conciliation – negotiations between individuals to create understanding and room for reconciliation.
      • Legislation - passing of laws that controls conflicts. It criminalizes activities that lead to conflicts.
      • Traditional society - elders of communities using their experience to resolve a conflict.
      • Religious action - Religious figures are called upon to resolve political, social & economic conflicts and give guidance on the emerging social trends and Issues.
      • Court action/litigation - parties take other parties to court for arbitration.
      • Policing - used to maintain law and order.Presence of police help to control crime that bring about conflicts.
      • International agreements - International agreement on security or sharing of Natural resources e.gEgypt & Kenya on waters of Nile)
      • Mediation - A situation where a person who is not involved in a dispute tries to reach two conflicting parties reach an agreement Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks)
  23.        
    1. State three functions of cabinet secretaries. (3 marks)
      • Supervise government ministries as they are the heads of the various ministries.
      • Assist and advise the president on the day to day running of government.
      • They decide on government policy
      • Defend government policy both inside and outside parliament.
      • Supervise policy implementation by civil servants in various ministries.
      • Co-coordinating government activities.
      • They participate in the law making process by suggesting bills pertaining to their ministries. (Any 3x1=3 marks)
    2. Explain six functions of the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission. (12 marks)
      • Conducting or supervising referenda and elections to any elective body or office established by the constitution.
      • Conducts any other elections as prescribed by an act of Parliament.
      • It ensures the continuous registration of citizens as voters.
      • The Commission regularly revises the voters’ roll.
      • It is in charge of delimitation of constituencies and wards.
      • It regulates the process by which parties nominate candidates for elections.
      • It settles electoral disputes, including disputes relating to nominations but excluding election petition and disputes subsequent to the declaration of election results.
      • Ensures registration of candidates for election.
      • Conducts voter education.
      • Facilitates the observation, monitoring and evaluation of elections.
      • Regulates the amount of money that may be spent on behalf of a candidate or party in respect of any election.
      • Ensures development of a code of conduct for candidates and parties contesting elections.
      • Monitors compliance with the legislation relating to nomination of candidates by parties. (Any 6x2=12 marks)
  24.               
    1. State three functions of a governor in Kenya (3 Marks)
      • Planning, financing and management of counties
      • Oversees the sharing of power between the National and county governors
      • Authorize market decentralization to service providers
      • Plan for taxation at local level to provide county revenue
      • Helps in preparation of legislation for consideration by the county assembly
      • Exercise executive authority over the county
      • He/She appoints the deputy governor
      • He/she appoints the county executive committees. (3 x 1 = 3 marks)
    2. Explain six possible solutions to challenges facing County Government (12marks)
      • Civil education to help people understand and support the government
      • Faster implementation of the constitution
      • Settling disputes between the county and National government amicably
      • National legislation should prevail over county legislation
      • County government should be allowed to supplement their budget by local taxation
      • Commission to protect the right of county governments should be formed
      • Fair distribution of resources among the counties
      • The senate should decide on how much each county gets
      • Counties be allowed to be semi independent
      • Free flow of information to enhance capacity building
      • Consider population distribution in the counties
      • Less interference from the National government
      • Minimize leadership wrangles in the counties
      • Fight corruption and mismanagement of resources in the counties
      • Faster remittance of funds from the central government
      • Avoid duplication of roles with the central government (6 x 2= 12 marks)

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