History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Lanjet Joint Mock Exams 2022

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Instructions to Candidate

  1. This paper consists of three sections: A, B, C
  2. Answer all questions in section A, three in section B and two section C.
  3.  Answers to all the questions must be written in the answer booklet provided.

QUESTIONS

SECTION A (25 MARKS)
Answer all questions in this section

  1. Identify the main source of History and Government of Kenya communities during the pre-colonial period. (1mk)
  2. Give one community that is classified under southern Cushites. (1mk)
  3. State two factors that caused the decline of the coastal city states after 1500AD(2mks)
  4. Identify two written documents that contain the history of East African coast before 1500AD (2mks)
  5. Give two disadvantages of dual citizenship (2mks)
  6. State one way in which direct democracy is exercised in Kenya (1mk)
  7. Identify one institution that advised the governors in administration in the colonial period (1mk)
  8. Give two methods which were used by the British to establish their rule in Kenya (2mks)
  9. Give two classes of the rights of a child (2mks)
  10. Give the main reason why taxation was imposed on Kenyans during the colonial period (1mk)
  11. State two levels of government in Kenya today (2mks)
  12. Mention two groups which provided formal education in Kenya during colonial period (2mks)
  13. Give one form of ownership advocated by African socialism in Kenya (1mk)
  14. Identify two political events that threatened Kenyans stability between 1975 and 1978 (2mks)
  15. Identify one parliamentary committees that monitor government expenditure (1mk)
  16. Give one type of election held in Kenya (1mk)
  17. State one type of fund established by the constitution of Kenya (1mk)

SECTION B (45 MKS)
Answer any three questions from this section

  1.                          
    1. State five reasons of migration of Maasai community from their original homeland (5mks)
    2. Explain five results of the interaction between the Bantus and Cushites in the pre-colonial period (10mks)
  2.                            
    1. Give three natural factors which facilitated the contact between the East African coast and the outside world (3mks)
    2. Explain six social impacts of the Indian Ocean Trade (12mks)
  3.                          
    1. State five terms of the Devonshire White Paper of 1923 (5mks)
    2. Explain five roles played by the trade union movement in the struggle for independence in Kenya (10mks)
  4.                            
    1. State five functions of the National Land Commission as entrenched in the constitution of Kenya 2010 (5mks)
    2. Discuss five factors that have facilitated industrialization in Kenya since independence (10mks)

SECTION C
Answer any two questions from this section

  1.                    
    1. State three contents of the National Accord and Reconciliation Act of 2008 (3mks)
    2. Explain six features of the new constitution of Kenya 2010 (12mks)
  2.                          
    1. Outline three reasons why general elections are held in Kenya after every five years (3mks)
    2. Describe the law making process in the National Assembly (12mks)
  3.                          
    1. Give the composition of County Assembly in Kenya (3mks)
    2. Explain six challenges faced by the County Governments in Kenya (12mks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1. Identify the main source of History and Government of Kenyan communities during the pre-colonial period (1mark)
    • Oral tradition
  2. Give one community that is classified under Southern Cushite (1mark)
    • Sanye/Dahallo
  3. State two factors that caused the decline of the coastal city states after 1500AD (2marks)
    • Drought
    • Rivalry between city states to control the Indian Ocean trade
    • Portuguese conquest
    • Invasion by Zimba cannibals
    • Lack of water
    • Exhaustion of minerals
  4. Identify two written documents that contain the history of East African Coast before 1500AD (2marks)
    • Greco- Roman documentary
    • Perilus of Erythrean sea
    • Ptolemy's Geography
    • Christian Topography of Cosmo Indigo
    • Arabs documentary of Ibn Batuta and Al-masud.
  5. Give two disadvantages of dual citizenship (2marks)
    • Divided loyalty especially when two countries are involved in conflict
    • Payment of taxes which is a requirement in both countries
  6. State one way in which direct democracy is exercised in Kenya (1mark)
    • Through a referendum
    • Through plebiscite/ consensus
    • Through people initiative
    • Through recall
  7. Identify one Institution that adviced the governors in administration in the colonial period (1mark)
    • The legislative Council
    • The advisory council
    • The executive council
  8. Give two methods which were used by the British to establish their rule in Kenya (2marks)
    • Signing of treaties
    • Military force
    • Construction of administrative posts
    • Treachery
    • Diplomacy
  9. Give two classes of the rights of a child (2marks)
    • Survival rights
    • Development rights
    • Protection rights
  10. Give the main reason why taxation was imposed on Kenyans during the colonial period. (1mark)
    • To compell the Africans to provide labour / work in the European farms.
  11. State two levels of government in Kenya today (2marks)
    • National government
    • County government
  12. Mention two groups which provided formal education in Kenya during the colonial period (2marks)
    • Missionaries
    • Colonial government
    • Africans themselves
    • Asians
  13. Give one form of ownership advocated by African socialism in Kenya. (1mark)
    • Private ownership
    • Nationalization policy/ state ownership
    • Partnership
  14. Identify two political events that threatened Kenyans stability between 1975 and 1978 (2marks)
    • Assassination of J.M Kariuki
    • Death of Jomo Kenyatta
  15. Identify one parliamentary committees that monitor government expenditure (1mark)
    • Public accounts Committee ( PAC)
    • Public Investment Committee (PIC)
  16. Give one type of election held in Kenya (1mark)
    • General election
    • By-election
    • Party election
  17. State one type of fund established by the constitution of Kenya. (1mark)
    • Contingencies funds that cater for emergencies
    • Equalization funds which refer to fixed amount of money set aside to develop marginalised areas.
    • Consolidated funds into which all money raised or received by the national government is deposited.
    • Revenue fund into which all money raised or received by the government is paid.
  18.                          
    1. State five reasons of migration of Maasai community from their original homeland. (5marks)
      • Spirit of adventure
      • Internal conflict
      • Population pressure
      • Search for pasture and water
      • Outbreak of diseases and epidemics (5×1=5)
    2. Explain five results of the interaction between the Bantus and cushites in the pre-colonial period (10marks)
      • Led to intermarriages which strengthen relationships between communities.
      • Some Bantus copied some customs of the Cushites such as circumcision and age set systems.
      • Some Bantus adapted the Islam religion from Cushites.
      • The Bantus and the Cushites raided others for cattle which led to loss of property hence increased warfare.
      • Some Cushites were assimilated by Bantus.
      • Cushites attacked the Bantus which led to further migration/displacement.
      • The cushites and Bantus exchanged goods which led to development of trade.
        (5×2=10)
  19.                  
    1. Give three natural factors which facilitated the contact between the East African Coast and the outside world. (3marks)
      • Existence of deep natural harbours to dock their ships at the East African Coast.
      • The monsoon winds facilitated transport to and from the East African Coast by blowing their ships.
      • Accessibility of the East African Coast by the sea.
    2. Explain six social impacts of the Indian Ocean Trade.( 12marks)
      • It led to intermarriages between East African communities and Arabs , hence the emergence of Swahili people.
      • It led to emergence of Swahili culture.
      • It led to the construction of stone houses/Arabic architecture
      • Introduction of new ways of dressing as women wore buibui and men wore kanzus.
      • Conversion of Africans to Islam and Christianity.
      • Depopulation of the Coast/ loss of lives /slavery.
      • Changes of social roles as families were separated.
      • Inter-community conflicts as a result of slave trade.
      • Some people became wealthy as a result of trade. (2×6=12)
  20.                    
    1. State five terms of Devonshire white paper of 1923 (5marks)
      • The paper stated that Kenya was an African country and African interests were to be paramount.
      • It stated that Kenyan Highlands to be reserved exclusively for white settlers.
      • The paper stated that Indians were to elect five members to the Legco on communal roll.
      • The paper stated that there was to be no racial segregation in residential areas and no restriction immigration.
      • The paper stated that a missionary was to represent African Interests in the Legislative Council.
    2. Explain five roles played by the trade union movement in the struggle for independence in Kenya.( 10marks)
      • Fought for improved working conditions for the workers.
      • They made Kenyans situation recognized abroad / took part in international fora.
      • They mobilised people to support nationalist struggle / promoted the spirit of nationalism.
      • They sensitized workers on the importance of joining political parties that struggled for independence.
      • They provided relevant training ground for potential nationalist.
      • They contributed money to political parties to enable them to sustain the struggle for independence.
  21.                      
    1. State five functions of the National Land Commission as entrenched in the new constitution of Kenya 2010 (5marks)
      • To monitor land use in Kenya.
      • To investigate historical land injustices and recommend remedies.
      • To manage public land on behalf of national and the county government.
      • To recommend a national task policy to the national government.
      • To encourage the application of the traditional land dispute resolution.
      • To conduct research related to task and natural resources.
      • To assess tax on land. (Any 5 points = 1 mark each)
    2. Discuss five factors that have facilitated industrialization in Kenya since independence. (10marks)
      • Good transport and communication network.
      • Availability of modern sources of energy like hydroelectric power.
      • The rich agricultural sector provides raw materials.
      • Availability of skilled and unskilled labour from the large population.
      • Existence of mineral resources have given rise to industries.
      • Presence of both natural and man- made forests have promoted the development of furniture industries in the country.
      • Availability of varied tourist attraction sites in the country has promoted tourism sector.
      • Availability of water source rich in fish processing industries in the country.
      • Availability of market.
      • Government has taken initiative through the establishment of ministries of trade and commerce.
  22.                          
    1. State three contents of the National accord and reconciliation act of 2005. (3marks)
      • Sharing of power between Mwai Kibaki and Raila Odinga/ formation of a coalition government.
      • Creation of the position of prime minister.
      • Creation of two positions of deputy prime ministers from both sides.
      • It increased the number of ministers /cabinet positions.
    2. Explain six features of the new constitution of Kenya 2010 ( 12marks)
      • Reduction of the president’s executive powers.
      • Devolution of power to regions/counties and national government.
      • Creation of senate and national assembly to constitute the parliament/bicameral legislative.
      • On citizenship, birth, registration is the only recognized ways of attaining Kenyan citizenship.
        (Dual citizenship also recognized)
      • Expansion of the citizens Bill of Rights to guarantee equal representation for either gender in all government structures.
      • Supremacy of the constitution.
      • Land ownership.
      • Independent commissions and offices.
      • Leadership and integrity
      • National security organs.
      • Independent Judiciary
      • Independent executive
      • Independent Legislature
      • Procedure of constitutional amendment.
  23.                  
    1. Outline three reasons why general elections are held in Kenya after every five years. (3marks)
      • To keep leaders on their toes.
      • Its a constitutional requirement.
      • To give Kenyans a chance to elect leaders of their choice.
      • To give citizens a chance to exercise their democratic rights.
      • To provide alternative ideas on running of government (any 3× 1)
    2. Describe the law making process in the National assembly (12marks)
      • The bill is drafted by the attorney general and presented to parliament for discussion.
      • The bill is presented for the first reading by the attorney general for discussion. The members are supposed to familiarize themselves with the bill.
      • The bill is presented for the second reading in Parliament, it is debated upon in details. It can either be accepted or rejected.
      • The bill is taken through the committee stage with objectives of making improvements on it.
      • The bill is taken through report stage for members of Parliament to ascertain that the suggestions were accurately effected.
      • Third reading:- Further debate is allowed and amendments to the bill could be made.
      • Presidential assent; the bill is taken to the president for his assent.
      • After signing the bill becomes law or an act of Parliament. Its then gazetted to become Law.
  24.                    
    1. Give the composition of county assembly in Kenya ( 3marks)
      • Elected members from the ward and nominated members by political parties represented in county assemblies
      • Members representing marginalised groups including persons with disabilities and the youth.
      • The speaker who is an ex-official member.
    2. Explain six challenges faced by the county Government in Kenya. (12 marks)
      • The high population stretches the available resources in various counties.
      • Structural overlaps . Management of cities and urban centres differs from that of rural areas, with more services directed to cities and urban centres.
      • Inadequate personnel to run key departments within the county.
      • Rivalry among leaders within the county
      • Delay in remittance of funds to the county government from the national government.
      • Embezzlement and misuse of funds by corrupt county officials.
      • Occurrence of natural calamities like drought and famine.
      • Undeveloped transport and communication network.
      • Interference in their work by the National government.
      • Duplication of roles between National and County government.

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