Geography Paper 2 Questions and Answers - MECS Cluster Joint Mock Examinations 2022

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Answer all the questions in this section

    1. Name two horticultural crops grown in Kenya (2mks)
    2. Give three reasons why horticulture farming is more developed in Netherlands than in Kenya (3mks)
    1. Define a forest (2mks)
    2. State three significance of forests to man    (3mks)
    1. Differentiate between land reclamation and land rehabilitation (2mks)
    2. Give three methods that are used to reclaim  land (3mks)
    1. What is nomadic pastoralism (2mks)
    2. Give three characteristics of nomadic pastoralism.  (3mks)
    1. State four measures taken to protect wildlife in Kenya apart from establishment of National Parks and Game reserves (4mks)
    2. Name one Marine National Parks in Kenya (1mk) 

Answer question 6 and any other two questions

  1. The table below shows production of selected minerals in Kenya in tonnes in year 2021. Use it to answer question (a).
    Mineral Production in tonnes
    Soda ash
      1. Using a radius of 5cm, draw a pie chart to represent the data (9mks)
      2. Apart from pie chart, name one other statistical method that can be used to represent the data (1mk)
      1. Apart from panning, name two other types of Alluvial mining (2mks)
      2. Describe panning method of mining (5mks)
    3. Explain four economic significance of petroleum mining in Middle East (8mks)
    1. Differentiate between fishing and fisheries (2mks)
      1. Explain three physical factors that have favoured fishing in N.E Atlantic fishing ground (6mks)
      2. Apart from N.E Atlantic fishing ground, name three other major fishing grounds in the world. (3mks)
      1. Give three reasons why marine fisheries are poorly developed in Eastern Africa (3mks)
      2. Explain three economic significance of fishing industry in Kenya (6mks)
    4. Describe drifting method of fishing (5mks)
      1. Apart from Mwea-Tebere, name three other irrigation schemes in Kenya (3mks)
      2. Explain three problems facing rice farmers in Mwea-Tebere (6mks)
      1. What is a polder (2mks)
      2. Describe how a polder land is reclaimed in Netherlands (8mks)
    3. Students from a school in Nyanza carried out a field study on Tsetse fly control in lambwe valley
      1. State three preparations that they carried out (3mks)
      2. Outline three methods of Tsetse fly control they identified (3mks)
      1. Apart from international tourism, name two other types of tourism (2mks)
      2. Outline four problems facing international tourism in Kenya (4mks)
    2. Name three tourist attractions sites in coastal region of Kenya. (3mks)
    3. Highlight four negative effects of tourism in Kenya (4mks)
      1. State four factors that have favoured tourism in Switzerland (4mks)
      2. Explain four economic significances of tourism in Switzerland (8mks)
      1. Name two varieties of tea grown in Kenya (2mks)
      2. Highlight four physical conditions favouring tea growing in Kenya highlands (4mks)
    2. Explain three problems facing small scale tea farmers in Kenya (6mks)
    3. Outline the processes involved in processing of tea in a tea factory (7mks)
    4. Your class intend to carry out a field study on a tea farm near your school.
      1. Give three reasons why it is necessary to carry out a pre-visit (3mks)
      2. State three methods they are likely to use to record data (3mks)


      • Vegetables
      • Fruits
      • Flowers
      • Horticultural farmers in Netherlands have access to capital needed for horticultural farming than in Kenya. 
      • There is more advanced and appropriate technology in Netherland which has enhanced horticultural farming than in Kenya. 
      • Netherlands unlike Kenya has highly skilled labour for production and handling agricultural products
      • There is more advanced horticultural related research in the Netherlands than in Kenya. 
      • Netherlands unlike Kenya has well organised marketing procedures/co-operatives which are conducive for horticultural farming.
      • Netherlands has high urban population than Kenya which provide large market for horticultural crops. 
    1. It is extensive cover of close stand of tall trees on the surface (2mks)
      • Provide timber for construction 
      • Some forest trees provide curative drugs 
      • Some forests are habitat for wild animals who attract tourism and bring in foreign exchange
      • Forests are water catchment areas hence sufficient water for domestic use.
      • Softwood forests provide raw material for industries thus promoting industrialisation (any 3 x1= 3mks)
    1. Land reclamation is the process of recovering waste land for useful purpose eg. Settlement while land rehabilitation is the process of restoring a land that is ruined by human activities for useful purpose. (2 x1= 2mks)
      • Irrigation of arid and semi-arid areas 
      • Tsetse fly control in Tsetse fly infested areas
      • Draining of Swampy areas.
      • Planting trees in semi-arid areas
    1. It is a traditional livestock rearing practise where livestock is kept for subsistence
      • Large herds are kept by an individual farmer.
      • Many kinds of animals are kept
      • Herders move with their livestock from one place to another in search for pasture and water.
      • There is uncontrolled breeding of livestock
      • Livestock is of law grade
      • There is high prevalence of diseases
      • Legislation against disposal of untreated waste to the environment to death of wildlife by pollution.
      • Gazetting forest reserves to protect wildlife habitat.
      • Training personnel in wildlife management to take care of wildlife
      • Employing game wardens to protect wildlife against illegal killing.
      • Encouraging domestic tourism to make the locals appreciate wildlife
      • Educating the public importance of wildlife through mass media
    2. Malindi/Watamu marine national park
      Mombasa marine national park
  6. Ash- 100,000/182,000 x 360˚= 197.8˚
    Diatomite -62,000/182,000 x 360˚= 122.6˚
    Fluorspar- 15,000/182,000 x 360˚= 29.6˚
    Gold - 5,000/182,000 x 360˚= 9.8˚
      • Divided rectangle
      • Simple bar graph
      • Simple line graph
      • Comparative bar graph
      • Compound bar graph/cummulative (any 1 x1= 1mk)
      1. Dredging
        Hydraulic mining (any 2 x 1= 2mk)
        • The miners scoop alluvium containing the mineral from a river valley using a pan
        • The scoped alluvial is added water and swirled to wash the mud. The muddy water is poured. 
        • This is done severally until all the waste is washed away. 
        • The heavy particles that remain are the particles that contain the mineral.
        • It is taken to the factory for processing to obtain the pure mineral
          NB: sequence must be followed (5 x 1 5mks)
      • It is exported to earn the countries foreign exchange which is used to develop other sectors eg. Transport.
      • It has created employment in the drilling and processing thus improving the living standard of people. 
      • It has led to construction of roads to access the wells thus opening the areas for other economic activities eg trade. 
      • The oil companies pay taxes and loyalties which earn the government revenue which is used in development of other sector eg Transport
      • It provides raw material to petroleum related industries thus promoting industrialisation (any 4 x 2= 8mks)
    1. Fishing is catching of fishing and other aquatic animals from water bodies while fisheries are water bodies where fish are caught for commercial purpose (2x1=2mks)
        • Cool climate due to high latitude favour survival of many kinds of fish.
        • Cool waters due to high latitude which favour growth of planktons for fish food 
        • The mountainous landscape and cold war of N.W Eupe countries eg. Norway which discourage farming making fishing an alternative.
        • Indented coastline with many fords which offer sheltered sites for fish breeding and construction of fishing ports and villages.
        • Extended continental shelf where there are many planktons and many fish.  (any 3x2 = 6mks)
        • N.W Atlantic
        • N.E Pacific
        • N.W pacific (any 3 x1 = 3mks)
        • The warm Mozambique current make the water warm and discourage growth planktons for fish food. 
        • The hot tropical climate discourage survival of many kinds of fish.
        • The coastline is fairly smooth with few sites for fish breeding
        • The continental shelf is narrow hence few fish.
        • It offers employment opportunities in the fishing and processing of fish which improve the people living standard. 
        • It is a source of income to the fishermen when they sell fish thus improving their living stand. 
        • It is a source of government revenue by licencing the fishermen, which is used in development of other sectors eg. Agriculture.
        • Roads are constructed to access fishing ground thus opening up the areas for other economic activities e.g trade
        • It is a source of fish for food to feed the population ensuring health population
        • Fish provide raw material to fish related industries thus promoting industrialisation (any 3x 2 = 6mks)
      • A vertical net called drift net is used.
      • It is fitted with floats on top and sinks at the bottom 
      • It is hang near the surface of the sea to catch  pelagic fish 
      • It is operated by a ship called drifter
      • Fish get into the net and are caught by their gills.
      • When enough catch is caught the net is drawn and fish removed 
      • The net is cast for another catch. 
        • Pekerra
        • Ahero
        • Kano
        • Bura/Hola
        • Bunyala (any 3 x 1= 3mks)
        • Water borne diseases eg. Bilhazia and Malaria attack the farmers and lower their labour productivity
        • Scarcity of water for irrigation during dry seasons
        • The maturing rice is fed on by quelea birds making farmers to go at a loss
        • Rapid growth of weed which compete with rice for nutrient lowering production
        • High cost of farm inputs lower the farmers profit margin (any 3 x2= 6mks)
      1. It is a land reclaimed from the sea in Netherlands. (1 x2= 2mks
        • A protective dyke is built to enclose the target part of the sea to be reclaimed
        • A ring canal is dug to take the water back to the sea.
        • Water pumping station is constructed to and water is pumped out of the area
        • Ditches are dug on the land to drain excess water.
        • Soil is desalinated by washing with fresh water or by adding lime.
        • The land is ploughed and salt tolerant plant first planted. 
        • The land is then divided into portions and given to tenant
        • Reading from secondary sources. 
        • Conducting a reconnaissance
        • Drawing a working schedule
        • Assembling the fools required for the study
        • Obtaining field guidelines eg. Route map, questionnaire.
          (any 3x1= 3mks)
        • Clearing bushes to destroy their habitant 
        • Killing of tsetse by spraying them with pestsides
        • Catching the flies with traps and killing them.
        • Sterilising the male fly to control production 
      1. Domestic tourism
        Eco-tourism (2x 1= 2mks)
        • Occasional terrorist attacks scare away tourists.
        • Extinction of some wild animals which attract international tourists eg. White Rhino
        • Negative publicity of Kenya as an unsafe destination abroad.
        • Poor roads to tourist attraction sites discourage tourists
        • Inadequate international campaign on Kenya’s attraction limit the number of tourists.
        • High charges of entry to tourist sites and tourist facilities limit international tourists time of stay. (any 4 x1= 4mks)
        • Historical sites
        • Sandy beaches
        • Culture
        • Water sports e.g yatching
          (any 3 x 1= 3mks)
        • Tourist vehicles in the park scare away wild animals.
        • Tourist litter the national parks by throwing papers and other waste.
        • It encourages trafficking of drugs to the country.
        • It encourage prostitution by tourists who engage in immoral activities.
        • It causes dropping out of school by children to act as guide
        • It encourage spread of communicable diseases. 
        • Variety of tourist attractions in Switzerland eg. Alps Mts, winter and summer sports etc.
        • Her excellent transport network which make tourist attraction sites accessible.
        • High class tourist facilities eg. Hotels make her a preferred destination
        • Her political neutrality makes here a safer tourist destination.
        • Her central location in central Europe makes her accessible to many European tourist.
        • She has well developed financial institutions which make financial transaction by tourists easy.
        • Fair charges to the tourists eg. Special charges for package tours encourage many tourists to visit.
        • Swiss population speak many languages which make communication with many tourists 
        • It has created employment opportunities eg. In Zoos thus raising the living standard of people.
        • It earns Switzerland foreign exchange which is used in development of other sectors eg. Transport 
        • It has facilitated development of roads to access tourist attraction sites thus opening the areas up for other economic activities eg. Trade.
        • It has promoted Switzerland health relation with other nations thus promoting international unity. 
      1. Chinese variety
        Aswan variety
        • High altitude
        • Moderate temperature /cool climate
        • High annual rainfall which is well distributed 
        • Volcanic soil which is deep and well drained. (any  x1= 4mks)
      • High cost of farm inputs while lower their profit margin.
      • Climatic hazards eg. Droughts which lower tea production 
      • Muddy roads in some areas delay transportation of tea leaves to the factory
      • Low and delayed payments lower farmers morale
      • Fluctuation of prices in the world markets makes it hard for the farmers to plan  (any 3 x2= 6mks)
      • It is weighed
      • It is withered by hot steam
      • It is chopped into small pieces
      • It is fermented to change the colour 
      • It is dried
      • It is sieved
      • It graded and packed for market
        NB: Sequence must be followed (7x1= 7mks)
        • To borrow permission from the authority
        • To estimate the cost of study
        • To determine the tools to carry for the study
        • To be able to draw an appropriate working schedule
        • To determine the problems likely to be encountered and prepare adequately. (any 3 x 1 = 3mks)
        • Talking photographs
        • Drawing sketches
        • Tape recording
        • Filling in questionnaires
        • Drawing and filling tables (any 3x 1= 3mks)
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