History Paper 2 Questions and Answers - MECS Cluster Joint Mock Examinations 2022

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Answer ALL questions in this section

  1. What Pre-history? 1mks
  2. Identify two types of shelters man used during the Middle Stone Age period. 2mks
  3. Give two contributions of Americans to the agrarian revolution. 2mks
  4. Name the two methods of trade. 2mks
  5. State one disadvantage of pack animals in provision of transport. 1mk
  6. Mention two uses of newspapers in the society today. 2mks
  7. State one way in which the use of bronze changed the Africans way of life. 1mk
  8. Identify one factor that facilitated scientific revolution. 1mk
  9. List one factor that undermined Meroe. 1mk
  10. State two functions of the Katikiro among the Buganda in the 19th century. 1mk
  11. Give one source of the British Constitution. 1mk
  12. Identify one African territory that was colonized by the Italians. 1mk
  13. Outline two duties of the emirs in Northern Nigeria during colonialism. 2mks
  14. State one liberation movement that was involved in Mozambique’s struggle for independence. 1mk
  15. Give two reasons why USA was neutral in the First World War up-to 1917. 2mks
  16. State two permanent members of the United Nations Organization (UNO) Security council 2mks
  17. Identify one type of elections in Britain. 1mk

Answer any three questions in this section

    1. State three reasons why Africa is considered as the cradle of mankind. 3mks
    2. Explain six results of the Agrarian Revolution in Britain. 12mks
    1. State five challenges faced by traders in the Trans-Saharan trade. 5mks
    2. Discuss five reasons for the decline of the Trans-Atlantic trade. 10mks
    1. State three advantages of road transport. 3mks
    2. Explain six solutions to challenges facing industrialization in the Third World countries. 12mks
    1. State five causes of the Shona-Ndebele (Chimurenga) war against the British colonization. 5mks
    2. Explain the methods used by nationalists in Ghana in their struggle for independence. 10mks

Answer any two questions in this section

    1. State five political results of the First World War. 5mks
    2. Explain the causes of the Second World War. 10mks
    1. State five achievements of the Commonwealth. 5mks
    2. Explain the challenges facing the Non-Aligned Movement. 10mks
    1. State three levels of elections in the United States of America. 3mks
    2. Explain six functions of the president in India. 12mks


  1. It is the study of human history in the period before recorded events, known mainly through archaeological discoveries, study and research.
  2. Caves
    Rock shelters
  3. The development of the refrigerator
    Crop zoning
    Invented the steel plough
    Improved the reapers
    Cotton picker
    Cotton gin
    Tractors and combine harvesters
  4. Barter trade
    Currency trade
  5. Can be attacked by wild animals
    Slow and tedious
    Stubborn when tired or heavily loaded
    Can only cover a limited distance
    Needs continuous feeding
  6. Advertisements
    Provide news
    Contains an editorial section with opinion on an issue of public interest
    Contains commentaries
    Educates the public
  7. Enabled the make better weapons
    Enabled them make better tools
    Made a variety of ornaments and artistic items
  8. The need to find solutions to daily problems
    Scholarships during renaissance period in Europe
    Discovery of printing press
    Voyages of exploration/discovery of new world
  9. Exhaustion of forests through charcoal burning
    Decline of agriculture due to desertification
    Exhaustion of iron ore deposits
    Decline in trade due stiff competition from Axum
    Attack and conquest by King Ezana
  10. Organized warfare
    Organized the payment of tribute and taxes
    -protected the kabaka
    -organised wars in the name of the kabaka
    -gave permission to those willing to see the kabaka
    -informed the kabaka of court proceedings.
  11. Constitutional milestones e.g magna carta
    Case laws
    Parliamentary custom
    Constitutional conventions
  12. Italian Somaliland
  13. Collected taxes
    Recruited labour
    Headed local governments
    Tried cases in the local customary courts
    Maintain law and order
    Appointed village heads
    Communicated colonial policies
    Supervised construction of roads and markets
  15. Didn’t want to involve herself in European powers quarrels
    Didn’t want the war fought in her soil because there were people of German descent
    Had commercial/trade relations with both parties
    The war had not interfered with her interests
  16. The United Kingdom
    The USA
  17. General elections
    1. There are numerous archaeological sites where early fossils resembling human beings have been found
      The Savanna grasslands provided space for effective hunting and gathering of food
      Tropical climate was suitable for it was warm throughout the year
      There exists many all-seasons rivers that provided adequate fresh water and trapping for wild animals
      It is at the centre of Pangea thus easy for migration to other parts of the world
    2. It led to increase in food production due better methods fo farming
      It led to increased population due to improved diet
      It led to improved standards of living for the farmers
      It led to emigration of the landless into other lands
      It led to the establishment of agro-basd industries
      It led to increased migration into urban areas in search of employment
      It led to emergence of new class of wealthy landowners
      It led to widespread unemployment as peasant farmers were displaced
      It led to the establishment of the Royal Agricultural Society to facilitate the exchange of ideas among farmers
    1. The journey was long and tiresome
      Shortage of water and food
      Insecurity due robbers, Takshifs turning against them and attacks from desert creatures
      The routes changed frequently
      The desert climate was harsh
      Language barrier
      Blinding sandstorms
      Rivalry between traders over monopoly and control of trade and trade routes
    2. The decline of the demand for sugar produced from British territories after 1775
      The independence of USA denied Britain the profits it was getting from slave trade
      The industrial revolution led to mechanization reducing dependence on slave labour
      The anti-slavery movements in the 19th century pressurized governments to pass laws against slave labour
      Influential economists like Adam Smith advanced arguments for a free enterprise economy
      The American civil war of 1865 between the North and South led to the abolition of slavery in USA after the North won the war
      Slave revolts had become more frequent leading to the killing of their masters
      Leading Africans actively campaigned against slave trade
      The French revolution of 1789 spread ideas of liberty, equality and fraternity which challenged the institution of slavery
      Legitimate trade became a more preferred trade than slave trade
      There was increased need to retain Africans in their homeland to produce raw materials
    1. It’s the cheapest form of transport
      It’s flexible
      It’s faster compared to water and rail
      Can be used by many means
      Cheaper to construct
    2. Provision of capital and credit to the people to establish industries
      Improve the purchasing power of their people by increasing income
      Encourage industrial investment by giving incentives and protection to local manufacturing sectors
      Develop and extend the transport and communication infrastructure
      Promoting good governance and democratization to enhance political stability
      Provide a conducive environment to attract foreign investment
      Diversification of the economy and manufacturing industries
      Promote and provide scientific and technological education to their people
      Reduce military expenditures and divert funds for the manufacture of products for the domestic and external market
      Boost and encourage regional cooperation for a wider industrial market
      Develop early warning systems to reduce the impact of natural calamities
    1. The Ndebele and Shona were not happy with their loss of independence as their king and social and political institutions had been done away with
      The Ndebele land been alienated by the British settlers
      The Ndebele had lost their cattle to the BSACo officials who thought they belonged to Lobengula
      Imposition of hut tax that was brutally collected
      Africans were forced to work on European farms and mines
      The Ndebele disliked the Native Police Force that mistreated them
      The Shona were unhappy with the interference of their trade with the Portuguese
      Natural calamities were interpreted religiously
    2. They organized public rallies where they articulated their grievances
      Trade unions boosted the nationalist’s activities as they articulated the workers welfare
      They mobilized protests and demonstrations against the colonial rule
      They wrote publications and literature to voice and popularize the African course e.g the Accra Evening News
      They used international forums such as the Pan-African congress
      They participated in constitutional negotiations e.g the Burns and Coussey Constitutional negotiations
      They formed mass political parties to articulate African issues e.g CPP, NLM, UGCC
    1. It led to creation of new nations in Europe e.g Hungary, Yugoslavia
      USA gained an upper hand in European post-war affairs
      It undermined the existence of greater Turkey after parts of her were granted independence
      The size of Germany was reduced as France regained her lost provinces of Alsace and Lorraine
      It led to the formation of the League of Nations to oversee international peace and security
      It led to the emergence of Communism in Russia which hastened the collapse of the Tsarist regime
      It created revolutionary ideas among the colonized in Asia and Africa
      It led to the rise of dictators e.g Mussolini in Italy and Hitler in Germany.
    2. It was caused by Hitler’s ambition to restore German’s dominance in Europe in total disregard of the Treaty of Versailles
      Germany regarded the Treaty of Versailles as unfair and blamed it for her economic problems making her adopt an aggressive policy
      Lack of international cooperation due to increased nationalism after the depression of 1929
      Many countries were experiencing economic hardships due to increased competition for markets, raw materials and colonies
      The rise of dictators in Russia, Italy, Germany who adopted open aggressive policies against their perceived enemies
      Insecurity caused by increased armaments in various European nations
      The League of Nations was too weak to prevent the growing militarism and armament of Germany and Italy
      The appeasement policy adopted by Britain and France made Hitler realize that he could get away with anything which increased his aggression on other nations
      Formation of military alliances encouraged aggression in the hope of getting support in case of a war with enemies
      Territorial violations further aggravated the already tense situation in disregard of the Versailles Treaty marked the beginning of the war.
    1. It has maintained peace by sending peacekeepers to war-torn member countries
      It has established a fund to assist poor member countries
      Has provided technical assistance to member states
      It has promoted the development of education and research in member contries
      It has promoted mutual understanding and cooperation among member states
      Has promoted consultation in areas of common interest
      Has promoted good governance in member states through Commonwealth parliamentary Association, sending observers during elections
      Has promoted the development of the youth through the Commonwealth Youth Programme
      Has promoted trade among member states by removing trade barriers
    2. There exists many border disputes in Africa and Asia e.g Kenya and Ethiopia, Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam
      Civil wars and military coups in some member states
      Several member states have ailing economies forcing them to continue maintaining ties with their former colonial masters or donors
      Failure by some member states to remit their contributions to the movement in time due to economic constraints
      Poor coordination of its activities due to lack of a secretariat
      Personality differences bar leaders from holding fruitful discussions
      Some members of the movement also belong to other organizations which reduces their commitment in the affairs of the movement
      The collapse of the USSR destabilized the movement as some countries saw no need to align with her anymore
      National interests are at times in conflict with the objectives of the movement.
    1. Presidential elections
      Elections for governors
      Elections for the senate
      Elections for the House of Representatives
    2. Has powers to make rwegulationsfor certain Union territories
      Appoints the chief minister and Lieuteenant Governor of the National Capital territory of Delhi and the Governors of the states or Union territories
      Establishes special councils to arbitrate on inter state
      Pardons convicted criminals
      Is a symbol of national unity
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