Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - MECS Cluster Joint Mock Examinations 2022

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QUESTIONS

SECTION A 30 MARKS.ANSWER ALL QUESTION

  1. Differentiate between olericulture and pomoculture as used in crop production. (1mark) 
  2. Give two methods of farming  (1marks) 
  3. Give two examples for each of the following types of cost incurred in broiler production. 
    1. Variable cost(1 mark) 
    2. fixed cost (1 mark) 
  4. Give four advantages of crop rotation. (2marks)
  5. State four factors to consider when choosing seed rate. (2marks)
  6.      
    1. Give four reasons for using certified seeds for planting. (2marks)
    2. Give four disadvantages of using  non capped multiple stem pruning in coffee (2marks)
  7. State two reasons why cassava should be grown as the last crop in crop rotation programme. (1mark)
  8. State four importance of farm records.  (2marks)
  9. Name two aspects of light that affect crop production. (1mark)
  10.      
    1. What is tissue culture? (1mark)
    2. State two importance of tissue culture in crop propagation. (1marks)
  11.      
    1. Apart from the identity of owner, title number and size of land, name other two essentials contained on a land title deed. (2marks)
    2. Give four importance of a land title deed. (2marks)
  12. List four methods of fertilizer application. ( 2marks)
  13. State four advantages of growing maize in rows instead of broadcasting. (2marks)
  14. Name four factors that determine the choice of a nursery site.(2marks)
  15. Name two post-harvest practices in beans.  (1marks)
  16. Give four reasons why burning is discouraged as a method of land clearing. (2marks)

SECTION B 20 MARKS 

  1. The table below shows output of maize in response to increase in D.A.P fertilizers on one hectare of land.
    Fixed input land (in ha) Variable input D.A.P in 30kg-bag Total product maize yield in 90-kg bag Average product (AP) maize in 90kg bag Marginal product (M.P) in 90kg bag
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    0
    1
    2
    3
    4
    2
    5
    14
    21
    26
       
    Fill in the table for average product (A.P) and marginal products (M.P) 5marks
  2. The diagram below shows a structure used in crop production.
    1
    1. Identify the structure above.  (1mark)
    2. Give a reason for carrying out each of the following practices in the structure shown above       
      1. Pricking out. (1mark)
      2. Hardening off. (1mark)
    3. State two importance of the part labelled A in the above structure.  (2marks)    
  3. Form two student put some soil sample in a measuring cylinder, added some water and sodium carbonate and then covered the cylinder with the hand and shook the cylinder for about two minutes.   He left the cylinder on the bench for one hour. The result was as shown below.
    2
    1. Name the layers marked b,c, and d.  (3marks) 
    2. What was the function of sodium carbonate in this experiment? (1mark)
    3. What was the aim of this experiment ?  (1mark)
  4. Study the diagram below and answer the questions that follow.
    3
    1. Name the crop production practice illustrated above. (1mark)
    2. Name a material that may be used as part B in the diagram (1mark)
    3. State three reasons why the practice is done in crops. (3marks)

SECTION C 40 MARKS( ANSWER ONLY TWO QUESTIONS)

  1.      
    1. Outline any ten marketing functions (10marks)
    2. Discuss any five  problems in marketing of agricultural produce  (10marks) 
  2. Describe the production of tomatoes (Lycoperiscon esculentum) under the following subheadings.
    1. Ecological requirements  (4marks) 
    2. Nursery establishment  (4marks) 
    3. Transplanting  (4marks) 
    4. Seed bed preparation  (4marks) 
    5. Field management practices  (4marks)
  3.      
    1. Explain eight factors that encourage soil erosion. (8marks)
    2. Describe seven management practices that should be carried out on a vegetable nursery after sowing until the seedlings are ready for transplanting. (7marks)
    3. Describe the harvesting of sugarcane. (5marks)


MARKING SCHEME 

  1.      
    • Olericulture –Growing of flowers  
    • Pomoculture –growing of fruits                                                                                
  2.    
    • mixed farming  
    • Nomadic pastoralism  
    • shifting farming  
    • Organic farming  
    • Agro-forestry                                                                                                           
  3.      
    1.    
      • cost of the feed   
      • cost of drug 
      • cost of chick 
    2.    
      • cost of feeders and waterers  
      • Cost of structure/Depreciation of poultry house 
  4.      
    • Improve soil structure 
    • Control  pest and diseases  
    • Maximum utilization of nutrient                               
    • Aids in weed control  
    • Control soil erosion  
    • Add nitrogen through N-fixation by Rhizobium  bacterial when legume are included                          
  5.      
    • Seed purity
    • Germination percentage
    • Spacing
    • Number of seeds per hole
    • The purpose of the crop                                                                                   
  6.      
    1.      
      • For increased crop yields
      • Higher resistance to diseases
      • Good adaptation to recommended ecological zones
      • Reduced spread of pests and diseases                                                          
    2.      
      • Rotting of stump with age
      • Difficult in spraying the tall bushes
      • Difficult in gathering the berries from top
      • Breaking of stem and branches  
  7. Less feeder
    Require little cultivation after establishment
  8.      
    • Show history of the farm
    • Compare performance in farm enterprises
    • Help in insurance claims
    • Show profit or loss in a farm
    • Help in planning and budgeting
    • Show farm assets and liabilities/ value for the farm
  9.    
    • Light intensity
    • Light duration
    • Light wavelength
  10.      
    1. Biotechnology used to clone vegetatively propagated plants
    2.      
      • Propagate pathogen free plants
      • Mass production of propagules
      • Fast and requires less space                   
  11.      
    1.      
      • Location/plot number
      • Serial no
      • The seal
      • Signature of issuing officer
      • Date of issue
      • Type of ownership i.e. leasehold, absolute or free hold
      • Conditions of ownership if any
    2.      
      • It is a proof of ownership
      • Reduce land ownership disputes
      • Can be a security in acquisition of loan
      • It is an incentive for investment by the farmer on long-term project
      • The owner can courageously lease out whole or part of his land for income
  12.      
    • Hole placement
    • Broad casting
    • Side dressing or banding
    • Foliar application
    • Top dressing
    • Drip method
  13.      
    • Easy to establish plant population
    • Allow easy use of machines
    • Gives economical use of seeds i.e. Lower seed rate
    • Undertaking of management practices
    • Ensures uniformity of growth
  14.      
    • Topography
    • Nearness to a reliable water source
    • Type of crop previously planted
    • Security
    • Well sheltered place
    • Type of soil
    • Nearness to the final field
  15.      
    • Drying
    • Threshing 
    • Winnowing
    • Dusting with suitable pesticides
    • Sorting out.
    • Packaging
  16.      
    • Leads to destruction of organic matter or humus
    • Useful soil organisms may be killed.
    • Exposes the soil to agents of erosion
    • Release of potash raises the soil PH
    • Soil moisture is lost
    • Mineral salts may be lost through volatilization
  17.    
    Fixed input land (in ha) Variable input D.A.P in 30kg-bag Total product maize yield in 90-kg bag Average product (AP) maize in 90kg bag Marginal product (M.P) in 90kg bag
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    0
    1
    2
    3
    4
    2
    5
    14
    21
    26
    0
    5
    7
    7
    6.5
    2
    3
    9
    7
    5
  18.      
    1. Nursery bed                                                                                                           
    2. Pricking out
      To avoid overcrowding of the seedlings /allow seedling to grow strong and healthy
      Hardening off 
      To prepare seedlings to the ecological conditions in the main field/ reduce transplanting shock.                                                                                     
    3.    
      • To reduce the amount of water loss through vaporization/ evaporation / transpiration.
      • To modify nursery temperature.
      • To reduce the impact of rain drops / hailstones there by minimizing damage on the seedlings.
      • Reduce splash erosion.                                                                                  
  19.      
    1. b- Water with fine clay particles and dissolved mineral salts.
      c- Sand
      d- Gravel 
    2. It aids in the dispersion of the soil particles.                                       
    3. To show that soil is made up of different sized particles                           
  20.    
    1. Trellising 
    2. Wires
      Twine/ sisal strings 
    3.    
      • Easy to carry out crop management practices/ weeding, spraying
      • Effective spray application
      • crop receives adequate light/ suitable micro-climate
      • Avoid contamination of fruits by soil
  21.    
    1.          
      • Buying and assembling
      • Transporting and distribution
      • Storage
      • Packing
      • Processing
      • Grading and standardization
      • Packaging
      • Collecting market information
      • Selling
      • Financing
      • Bearing risks
    2.      
      • Perishability
      • Seasonality
      • Bulkiness
      • Poor storage facilities
      • Poor transport system
      • Changes in market demand
      • Limited elasticity of demand
      • Lack of market information
        NB stating 1 mk Explanation 1 mark
  22.      
    1.      
      • rainfall – 760mm – 1300mm p.a, well distributed
      • Low rainfall requires surface irrigation to be done
      • Altitude – 0-2100m a.s.l
      • Temperature - 18ºc - 29ºc
      • Soil- deep well drained fertile soils
      • Soil pH = 6.0- 6.5
        ANY FIGURE WITHIN GIVEN RANGE    
    2.      
      • Clear the vegetation
      • Dig deeply to achieve a fine tilth
      • Raise the soil slightly above the ground
      • Make drills and sow the seeds
      • Cover the seeds with a thin layer of the soil
      • Mulch and water
    3.      
      • Done early in the morning or late in the evening
      • Dig holes 15cm deep
      • Spacing 90cm x 60cm or 100cm x 50cm
      • Put a handful of manure or a teaspoonful of D.S.P fertilizer per hole
      • Mix them well with the soil
      • Water nursery bed two hours before transplanting.
      • Transplant healthy and vigorously growing seedlings.
      • Use a garden trowel to lift seedling with a lump of soil.
      • Place each seedling in the hole at same depth as it was in nursery bed.
      • Cover and firm the soil around it
      • Mulch and shade it 
      • Water
    4.      
      • Done early during dry season
      • Plough deeply
      • Remove all weeds
      • Harrow the land to medium tilth
    5.    
      • Top dress with C.A.N two times at 25cm height (100kg/ ha) and during fruiting (200kg/ ha)
      • Field should be weed free
      • Irrigation  recommended where rainfall is inadequate
      • Staking
      • Prunning
      • Mulching
      • Pest control and Disease control
  23.    
    1.      
      • Lack of ground cover exposes soil to agents of soil erosion/ removal of cover crops.
      • Steep slopes increase the speed of surface run-off hence erosive power of water.
      • Light/ sandy soils are easily carried away by agents of soil erosion.
      • Shallow soils are easily saturated with water and carried away.
      • Frequent cultivation / over cultivation pulverizes the soil making it easy to detach and be carried away.
      • Overstocking leads to overgrazing which destroys ground cover exposing it to agents of erosion. 
      • High amount of rainfall increases saturation of soil with water thus increasing soil erosion.
      • Cultivation of the river banks destroys river line vegetation exposing it to soil erosion agents.
      • Ploughing up and down the slopes creates water channels which encourage soil erosion.
      • High rainfall intensity increases impact of raindrop thus encouraging raindrop erosion.
      • Burning of vegetation leaves land bare exposing it to erosion agents.
      • Cultivating soil when too dry or too wet destroys soil structure making soil easily eroded.                                                                                         
    2.      
      • Mulching to conserve moisture
      • Erection of a shade to minimize evapotranspiration.
      • Weed control to reduce competition with seedlings.
      • Pests and disease control to ensure healthy seedlings
      • Pricking out to minimise competition.
      • Watering to ensure adequate moisture supply.
      • Hardening off/ removing shade/ reducing watering to acclimitise the seedlings to conditions in the field
    3.      
      • Sugarcane mature 18-20 months whereas ration take 16mths in western.  In coast it takes 14months and ratoon crop take 12months.
      • Samples should be taken for quality testing in the factory.
      • If the quality is ok harvesting should start immediately.
      • Cut the cane at the ground level to avoid loss of the yield.
      • After cutting cane the green tops are removed immediately.
      • The leaves should be stripped. 
      • Harvesting is done using a cane harvesting matchettes.
      • Harvested cane should be delivered to the factory within the first 24hrs. 

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