History Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Sunrise 2 Evaluation Mock Exams 2022

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Instructions to Candidates

  1. This paper consists of three sections A, B and C.
  2. Answer all questions in section A, three from Section B and two from Section C.
  3. Answers to all the questions must be written legibly in the answer booklet provided.

FOR EXAMINERS USE ONLY.

Section

Question

Maximum score

Candidate’s score

A

1-      17

   

B

18

   

19

   

20

   

21

   

C

22

   

23

   

24

   

                    TOTAL

   

QUESTIONS

SECTION A (25 MARKS)
Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet provided.

  1. Identify two sources of information which historians use to write the history of Africa (2 marks)
  2. State two reasons that explain why agriculture began along river-valley in Egypt and Mesopotamia (2 marks).
  3. Identify two factors that led to the growth of Athens as an urban Centre (2 marks)
  4. Give one use of wind as a source of energy apart from pumping water our out of ponds (1 mark)
  5. Identify two scientific discoveries which improved food preservation in the 19th century (2 marks)
  6. Give one material on which the earliest messages were recorded (1 mark)
  7. Identify one trade route that connected trading centers in Western Sudan and North Africa during the Trans-Saharan trade (1 mark)
  8. Outline two factors which facilitated the acquisition of slaves from the interior of the West Africa during Trans-Atlantic trade ( 2marks)
  9. What was the main role of the Lukiko among the Buganda in the pre-colonial period (1 mark)
  10. State the main political factor that sparked off the scramble and partition of Africa. (1 mark)
  11. Give two factors that contributed to success of assimilation policy in four communes in Senegal (2 marks)
  12. Identify two types of Nationalism in South Africa (2 marks)
  13. Give the main reason why the League of Nations was established (1 mark)
  14. State one major threat to the world peace (1 mark)
  15. Identify the main factor which brought the cold war to an end (1 mark)
  16. Identify two united Nations organization agencies in the developing world (2 marks)
  17. Name one major political party in the United States of America.(USA)

SECTION B(45MARKS)
Answer any three questions from this section

  1.                        
    1. Give five reasons why Africa is considered as the cradle of mankind. (5 marks)
    2. Describe the way of life of man during the Early Stone Age period. (10 marks)
  2.                              
    1. Give five advantages of human transport. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five disadvantages of air transport. (10 marks)
  3.                              
    1. State five functions of London as an urban centre. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five factors responsible for the growth of early urban centres in Africa. (10 marks)
  4.                              
    1. Identify five reasons for the growth of nationalism in Mozambique. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five reasons for the slow decolonization process in Mozambique. (10 marks)

SECTION C(30 marks)
Answer any two questions from this section

  1.                          
    1. State three reasons why the Ashanti leaders of National Liberation Movement differed with Kwame Nkrumah in Ghana. (3 Marks)
    2. Explain six problems nationalists encountered in their war against the Portuguese colonialism in Mozambique. (12 Marks)
  2.                      
    1. Identify three countries that were part of the Central powers during World War 1 (3 Marks)
    2. Explain six reasons for the Allied Forces’ victory in the 1st World War. (12 Marks)
  3.                          
    1. Give three ways through which one can become a member of House of Lords in Britain. (3 Marks)
    2. Explain six functions of the queen of Britain (12 Marks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1. Identify two sources of information which historians use to write the history of Africa (2 marks)
    • Oral tradition
    • Anthropology
    • Linguistic
    • Archeology (Any 2 points X1 = 2 marks)
  2. State two reasons that explain why agriculture began along river-valley in Egypt and Mesopotamia (2 marks).
    • The presence of water for domestic, plant and animal use /irrigation
    • The availability of fertile soil deposit
    • The availability indigenous crops
    • The availability of labour from the large population. (Any 2 points X1=2marks)
  3. Identify two factors that led to the growth of Athens as an urban centre (2 marks)
    • Trade: Anthenians had to trade to obtain food since the soils around Athens were poor to support agriculture.
    • Good security
    • Religion
    • Education (Any 2 points X1 mark =2marks)
    • Culture
    • Strategic position
  4. Give one use of wind as a source of energy apart from pumping water our out of ponds (1 mark)
    • Generate electricity
    • Winnowing and dry grains (Any 1 point x 1 = 1 mark)
    • Propelling sailing ships
  5. Identify two scientific discoveries which improved food preservation in the 19th century (2 marks)
    • The canning process by Nicholas Appart (Any two points x 1 = (1 mark)
    • Pasteurization by Louis Pasteur
  6. Give one material on which the earliest messages were recorded (1 mark)
    • Stone tablets
    • Parchments (Any 1 point x 1 = (1 mark)
    • Scrolls
    • Rocks (in caves)
  7. Identify one trade route that connected trading centers in Western Sudan and North Africa during the Trans-Saharan trade (1 mark)
    • Fez → sijilmasa → Tumbuktu → Niger
    • Tunis → Kano → Hausa
    • Tripoli → Bilma → Jane
      (Any 1 point x1=1mark)
  8. Outline two factors which facilitated the acquisition of slaves from the interior of the West Africa during Trans-Atlantic trade ( 2marks)
    • Existence of the institution of slavery in West Africa
    • Availability of firearms from the European traders who sold them to African who used them to carry out slave trade.
    • Existence of well defined routes leading to the interior slave markets.
    • Great demand for slaves in the colonies in the new world.
      (Any 2 points x 1 = 2 marks)
  9. What was the main role of the Lukiko among the Buganda in the pre-colonial period (1 mark)
    • It made laws of the Buganda Kingdom (1X1= 1 mark)
  10. State the main political factor that sparked off the scramble and partition of Africa. (1 mark)
    • The imbalance of power in Europe/the defeat of France by Germany during Franco-Prussian war of 1870-1871.
      (1X1- 1 mark)
  11. Give two factors that contributed to success of assimilation policy in the four communes in Senegal (2 marks)
    • There was high percentage of mullato population. (Half cast) in the four communes.
    • These people readily accepted French culture.
    • Many people in the region had converted into Christianity
    • Africans in the four communes were familiar with the Europeans due to their long interaction them during trade.
      (Any 2 points X 1 = 2 marks)
  12. Identify two types of Nationalism in South Africa (2 marks)
    • Afrikaner Nationalism (Dutch Vs British)
    • African Nationalism (Black Africans Vs British)
    • British Nationsalism
      (Any 2 points X 1 = 2 marks)
  13. Give the main reason why the League of Nations was established (1 mark)
    • It was formed to maintain international peace and security (1X1=1 mark)
  14. State one major threat to the world peace (1 mark)
    • Nuclear weapon (1X1=1mark)
  15. Identify the main factor which brought the cold war to an end (1 mark)
    • The disintegration of the soviet union (1X1=1 marks)
  16. Identify two united Nations organization agencies in the developing world (2 marks)
    • World food programme (WFP)
    • Food and agriculture organization (FAO)
    • WHO-World Health Organisation
  17. Name one major political party in the united States of America (1 mark)
    • Republican Party
    • Democratic Party (1x1=1 mark)
  18.                      
    1. Give five reasons why Africa is considered as the cradle of mankind. (5 marks)
      • The availability of forests provided possible shelter/habitat/settlement for the early man.
      • African is centrally located and it is from here that man may have migrated to other parts of the world/centre of Pangea.
      • Compared to other continents, the oldest fossils of man were discovered in Africa/archaeological sites are many.
      • The savanna grasslands available in the continent provided suitable hunting grounds for the early man.
      • Africa has many rivers/lakes which provided water for use by the early man.
      • African continent has relatively good climate which may have favoured human settlement/warm.
        Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)
    2. Describe the way of life of man during the Old Stone Age period. (10 marks)
      • They made simple stone tools for domestic use/ Oldowan tools/pebble tools
      • They lived in small groups in order to assist each other
      • They obtained their food through hunting and gathering
      • They used simple hunting methods such as chasing wild animals and laying traps
      • They ate raw food because fire had not been discovered
      • They had no specific dwelling places
      • They sheltered from predators by climbing trees and hiding in caves
      • They wore no clothing but their hairy bodies kept them warm
      • They lived near rivers and lakes
      • They communicated by use of gestures and whistling
        Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)
  19.              
    1. Give five advantages of human transport. (5 marks)
      • It was readily available
      • It was cheap
      • It was flexible
      • accidents
      • It was convenient
        Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)
    2. Explain five disadvantages of air transport. (10 marks)
      • It is expensive to procure, maintain and use aircrafts.
      • Construction of air strips requires a lot of resources like land.
      • They can only take off and land in designated areas thus inconveniencing the users.
      • Aircrafts cannot carry bulky goods as compared to other forms.
      • Its operations are affected by weather conditions.
      • They cause air pollution
      • Using aircrafts has contributed to terrorism and drug trafficking
      • Use of aircrafts in military has led to massive destruction of property and deaths of many people.
      • Accidents involving aircrafts are fatal.
      • It requires skilled personnel to manage its operations
        Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)
  20.                    
    1. State five functions of London as an urban centre. (5 marks)
      • It is transport and communication centre e.g. airports, seaports, road convergence and railway stations.
      • It is a political and administrative center as the monarchy, prime minister and the cabinet is based there.
      • It is a commercial center due to availability of banks, car marts, and insurance.
      • It is an industrial center as many industries are situated there like textile industries, iron and steel industries and food processing industries.
      • It is an education center as many institutions are there some being the oldest in Europe like Oxford and Cambridge.
      • It is a historical and cultural center e.g. presence of museums, and theatres.
      • It is a residential centre
        Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)
    2. Explain five factors responsible for the growth of early urban centres in Africa. (10 marks)
      • Discovery of crop farming led to the development of farming centers which attracted population and later became towns
      • Trading activities between different communities led to the development of trading centres which later became towns.
      • Trading centres that were used for religious activities developed into towns.
      • Areas that had adequate security attracted population concentration and thus led to the development of towns.
      • Places that were used for administrative functions developed into towns
      • Places along the coast where ships stopped for supplies developed into towns.
      • Mining centres developed into settlements which became towns for example Meroe.
      • Places where water for use was available attracted settlements and grew into towns.
      • Towns developed at cross roads
      • Development of centres of learning e.g. Alexandria
        Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)
  21.                          
    1. Identify five reasons for the growth of nationalism in Mozambique. (5 marks)
      • The arbitrary replacement of the traditional rulers by the Portuguese administrators whenever they felt they were not performing.
      • The massive alienation of African land by the Portuguese who pushed Africans to regions of unfavourable conditions.
      • The exposure of Africans to severe economic exploitation like forced labour where the labourers faced mistreatment.
      • The rampant racial discrimination by the Portuguese
      • The Portuguese imposed many restrictions on Africans, limiting their freedom of expression and intellectual advancement/censorship of the press.
      • The security police treated Africans with great cruelty.
        Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (10 marks)
    2. Explain five reasons for the slow decolonization process in Mozambique. (10 marks)
      • Portugal was reluctant to part with the economic wealth of Mozambique/source of revenue for the Lisbon government.
      • Portugal was ruled by kings who had no regard for human rights/authoritarian regime
      • Portugal regarded Mozambique as one of its provinces and not a colony.
      • Portugal had succeeded in suppressing revolts by Africans before nationalism took root in Mozambique.
      • There was lack of unity among Africans until 1960’s.
      • Illiteracy among Africans in Mozambique/few educated elites to spearhead liberation struggle.
      • Many Portuguese settlers had invested heavily in farming, mining, building, construction and in other sectors thus were reluctant to leave.
      • The support, which the colonial government got from South Africa, enabled them to get uranium, which they used, for making bombs used to suppress African independence riots
        Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)
  22.                    
    1. State three reasons why the Ashanti leaders of National Liberation Movement differed with Kwameh Nkrumah in Ghana. (3 marks)
      • Nkrumah came from a little known ethnic community in Southern Ghana
      • Ashanti chiefs advocated for a federal system of government while Nkrumah favored a unitary system
      • Kwameh Nkrumah had radical ideas unlike those of conservative traditonal leaders of the Ashante
    2. Explain six problems nationalists encountered in their war against the Portuguese colonialism in Mozambique. (12 Marks)
      • Severe shortage of basic needs e.g. food, clothes and medicine
      • The Catholic church regarded FRELIMO as a terrorist movement making Africans not to support the movement
      • Internal division due to ideological and selfish ambitions
      • Competition from rival COREMO who were unhappy with FRELIMO leaning towards socialism
      • The assassination of their leader Eduardo Mondlane in Feb.1969 weakened their struggle
      • The Portuguese adopted Cruel methods in fighting African nationalists e.g. Wiriyamu massacre of Dec. 1972
      • The Apartheid regime and UDI in Southern Rhodesia combined efforts against FRELIMO
      • They were denied western aid since leaders were seen to favor socialism – they only got financial assistance from Russia and China
      • Mozambique was made up of many ethnic groups hence difficult to unite all of them in the initial stages of nationalism
  23.                    
    1. Identify three countries that were part of the Central powers during World War 1. (3 marks)
      • Germany
      • Hungary
      • Austria
      • Bulgaria
      • Italy
      • Turkey
    2. Explain six reasons for the Allied Forces’ victory in the 1st World War. (3 Marks)
      • Many countries supported the Allied forces compared to Central powers
      • They had better financial and industrial resources
      • Had more sophisticated weapons
      • Had sea supremacy
      • Had strong and able leaders
      • Allied Forces were more united and well coordinated
      • Entry of USA was a boost to their power
  24.                                
    1. Give three ways through which one can become a member of House of Lords in Britain. (3 Marks)
      • By virtue of office
      • Hereditary
      • Appointment by the Monarch
    2. Explain six functions of the queen of Britain (12 marks)
      • Enforcing national laws (every law requires the consent of the crown)
      • Appoints and dismisses country/s officers.
      • Management of foreign policy including the enactment of treaties.
      • Summoning, proroguing or dissolving parliament
      • Appointment of Judges
      • Pardoning and giving reprieve to people who have been accused of committing various offences.
      • Leadership of the Anglican church in England (appoints bishops and archbishops

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