Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Kakamega Evaluation Mock Exams 2022

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Answer ALL the questions in this section.

  1. Give four reasons why ranching is important in the arid and the semi-arid areas of Kenya. (2mks)
  2. Explain three ways on how good transport and communication net-work improves agricultural production. (11/2mks)
    1. A maize farmer at Lumakanda ploughed his land twice using a tractor-drawn disc plough. What name do we give to the second ploughing. (1/2mk)
    2. State three reasons why rolling of land is recommended before planting some crops. (11/2mks)
  4. Define the following terms as used in agriculture. (2mks)
    1. Drainage
    2. Pumping of water
    3. Piping of water
    4. Irrigation
  5. What is soil fertility? (1/2mk)
    1. A farmer at Bulimbo would obtain Kshs.240,000, if he grew beans, Kshs.200,000 for maize and kshs.300,000 if he grew sugarcane on his 2 acres piece of land. He chooses to grow sugarcane. What was the opportunity cost? (1mk)
    2. Give two conditions under which opportunity cost exists. (1mk)
    1. What is elasticity of demand? (1mk)
    2. State two conditions that exists for a market to be purely competitive. (1mk)
  8. Maize is grown in a plot measuring 4m x 3m at spacing of 7cm x 30cm, 2 seeds per hole.
    The outer rows begins 35cm all ground the width of the plot.
    1. Calculate the number of rows falling on the width side of the plot. (1mk)
    2. Calculate the number of plants per row. (1mk)
  9. Give two activities carried out during hardening off of tomato seedlings. (1mk)
    1. State three disadvantages of traditional stores. (11/2mks)
    2. Give the meaning of the following practices in crop production. (11/2mks)
      1. Changing of cycle
      2. Training
      3. Tipping
    1. Name three early maturing cabbage varieties. (1/2mk)
    2. Give a reason why well rotten manure is not recommended in production of carrots. (1/2mk)
    1. Explain two ways how trees help in soil and water conservation. (1mk)
    2. Differentiate between level and graded terraces. (1mk)
  13. Distinguish between the intensity of defoliation and frequency of defoliation in pasture management. (1mk)
    1. List two signs shown by crops when they are attacked by nematodes. (1mk)
    2. Define the term “economic injury level” (EIL) of a crop. (1mk)
  15. Give two reasons why a bean plant growing in a carrot crop field may be treated as a weed. (1mk)
  16. Fill in the missing blanks in the table below. (2mks)
    Fixed factor land (Ha) Variable input NCK fertilizer (kg)  Total product maize (90kg bag)  Marginal product maize (90kg bag) Average products maize (90kg bag)
    1 30 10 10 c
    1 60 27 a 13.5
    1 90 42 15 14
    1 120 56 b d
    1. What is the meaning of the following in agroforestry. (1mk) (
      1. Pruning
      2. Looping
    2. Name two trees that are used as livestock feeds. (1mk)

Answer ALL the questions in this section.

  1. The Sacred Heart Girls High School, Mukumu Form Four student was to apply a compound fertilizer 5:20:10 at the rate of 200kg/Ha on her agricultural project plot measuring 3m x 4m.
    1. What do the figures 5 and 10 in the compound fertilizer stand for? (2mks)
    2. Calculate the amount of fertilizer she would require for the plot. (show your working) (3mks)
  2. The diagram below illustrates an experiment on soil.
    1. State the aim of the experiment. (1mk)
    2. If the volume of water illustrated in the measuring cylinder was observed after the hour. Identify the soil sample A and B. (2mks)
    3. State two ways in which the soil structure of the sample labelled C above can be improved. (2mks)
  3. The diagram below shows a crop disease. Use it to answer questions that follow.
    1. Identify the crop disease. (1mk)
    2. Name two other crops apart from the one shown above that are attacked by the same disease. (2mks)
    3. State two control measures of the above disease. (2mks)
  4. The diagrams below show some common weeds in East Africa.
    1. Name the class of weeds that in which the above weeds belong basing on morphology. (1mk)
    2. Identify two weeds that lower the work output of human labour on the farm. (2mks)
    3. Give two reasons why it is difficult to control weed B by cultivation. (2mks)

Answer ANY TWO questions in this section.

    1. Describe the production of tomatoes (Lycoperscon escalentum)
      1. Ecological requirements. (3mks)
      2. Transplanting (3mks)
      3. Field management practices (4mks)
    2. State five measures of which are taken to minimize water pollution in the farm. (5mks)
    3. Describe precautions to be observed when harvesting pyrethrum. (5mks)
    1. Describe six physical /structural methods of controlling soil erosion. (6mks)
    2. Explain four practices of maintaining soil fertility. (4mks)
    3. Describe five principles of crop rotation. (5mks)
    4. State five conditions that necessitate effective settlement of people. (5mks)
    1. Describe six importances of budding and grafting in crop propagation. (6mks)
    2. State six factors that will lead to wider spacing when planting a crop. (6mks)
    3. The following information was obtained from Mr. Oseso’s Farming Enterprise. Use it to prepare cash analysis for the year. (8mks)
      30/6/2003 - Cash at bank (opening balance) 50,000
      01/7/2003 - Bought 20 empty egg trays             400
      01/7/2003 - Bought 5 bags of DAP fertilizer  10,000
      01/7/2003 - Sold 10 trays of eggs                  12,000
      01/7/2003 - Bought 5 bags of broilers starter  7,500
      01/7/2003 - Sold milk 200kg bag                     4,000
      20/7/2003 - Sold maize                                   6,000
      30/7/2003 - Bought milk churn                           500
      31/12/2003 Closed the financial year


  1. Animals can survive and do well in these areas where crop production is not possible.
    Pasture improvement in these areas help to increase the land carrying capacity.
    Animals can be moved with ease inside an enclosed area in search of food and water.
    It is an important way of earning a livelihood in the dry areas helping to relieve population pressures.
    It improves beef production in the dry areas in Kenya (4x ½ = 2mks)
  2. Agricultural goods from production units reach the intended consuners in good time.
    Highly perishable goods reach the market quickly before going bad.
    Farmers pay less to transport their goods due to efficient communication system.
    Farmers get market and research information in time enabling them improved economy.
    It has become easy to import education and change in technology through improved and fast network systems. (4x ½ = 2mks)
    1. The second ploughing is; second primary tillage. (1 x ½ = ½ mks)
    2. Importance of rolling;
      increase the contact of seed with the soil for ease germination
      To crash large soil clods;
      To compact the soil preventing wind erosion (2x ½ = 1 ½ mks)
      To prevent seeds from being blown away by wind;
    1. Drainage – is the removal of excess water from the soil through lowering the water table;
    2. Pumping – is the process of lifting water from sorce using mechanical force;
    3. Piping – is the process of conveying water from from the source through pipes to where is used.
    4. Irrigation – is the artificial application / provision of water to crops. (4 x ½ = 1 ½ mks)
  5. soil fertility – is the ability of the soil to provide required nutrients to crops in proper proportions;
    1. Opportunity cost is Kshs. 240,000 (beans) (1x1=1mk)
    2. Opportunity cost exists under;
      when there is alternatives;
      when resources are not free (monetary value attached)
      when resource are scarce (2 X ½ = 1mk)
    1. Elasticity of demand – is the degree of responsiveness of demand to charge in price; (1x2=2mks)
    2. Conditions for purely competitive market (perfect).
      Many buyers and sellers;
      Homogeneity of the product/ identical product.
      Free entry and exit
      Perfect knowledge of the market
    1. Number of rows
      300cm - (15cm+15cm)+1 = 270cm
                       75cm                    7cm
      = 3.6 + 1 = 5.6 rows
      = 5 rows (1mk)
    2. Number of plants per row;
      400cm-(15cm+15cm) = 370cm x 2
                    75cm                 30cm
      = 12.33x2= 25+1
      = 26 plants (1mk)
  9. Herdening off activities.
    Reducing frequency of water / gradual reduction in watering.
    Gradual removal of shade. (word gradual must be there); reject shed. (2 x ½ = 1mk)
    1. Rats and weevils attack is common
      Loss of grains through rotting
      Theft is prevalent
      Problems of fire outbreaks is common; (3x ½ = 1mk)
      1. Changing of cycle – is the replacement of old bearing stems by suckers;
      2. Training – is the practice of manipulating the growth of crops in a desired direction;
        Tipping – is the cutting back of shoots to the desired table height; (3x ½ = 1 ½ mks)
  11. Brushswick
    Sugar loaf
    Early jersey
    Gloria hybrid
    Copen hagen market
    Golden acres
    Main crop (3x ½ = 1 ½ mks)
    1. As wind breaks thus reduces the carrying away of top soil by wind;
      Leaves intercept rain drops reducing their impact on the soil resulting in less splash erosion.
      Fallen leaves upon decay help to improve soil structure by binding the soil particles thus making the soil less vulnerable to erosion.
      Trees reduce the speed and volume of run –off by encouraging infiltration
      The high infiltration encouraged trees aids in replenishing underground water reservoirs.
      (must explain; 2x ½ = 1mk)
    2. Level terraces are constructed with no outlet channels and act as retention channels while graded terraces are constructed in a way that they direct excess water out of the farm.
  13. Differentiate between intensity and frequency of defoliation.
    Intensity of defoliation is the proportion of herbage removed through grazing and that of residual forage while frequency of defoliation is how often forage stand is grazed on/cut for feed.
    1. stunted growth
      decolouration of foliage
      gal formation/ root knots (2 x ½ = 1mk)
    2. Is a point at which the damage on a crop by pest is beyond tolerance and has to be controlled (1x1=1m)
  15. Bean plant in carrot crop is a weed because;
    When its economic disadvantages outweigh its economic and advantages.
    When it is growing out of place;
  16. A - 17
    B. - 14
    C. – 10
    D. – 14
      1. Pruning – cutting of lower branches
      2. Looping – cutting of higher branches
    2. Trees used as livestock feeds
      Calliandra calothyrsus/ callindra
      esbania sesban/ sesbania (2 x ½ = 1mk)
    1. 5 stand for N
      20 stands for K2O reject K alone (2x ½ = 1mk)
    2. If 10,000m2 requires 200kg of 5:20:10 (3x1 = 3mks)
      (4x5)m2 = 20m2
      Therefore (20m2/10,000 x 200)
      = 0.4kg of 5:20:10
    1. Aim of experiment
      To compare porosity / drainage / water holding capacity of different soil samples;
    2. A- sandy soil
      B- Loam soil; (2x1=2mks)
    3. Ways of improving soil structure of sample C.
      Adding organic matter / manure
      Draining away excess water, (2x1=2mks)
    1. maize smut disease; reject smut alone
    2. sugarcane
    3. Crop rotation
      Use of certified seeds
      Field hygiene
      Hot water treatment
    1. Broad leaved weeds
    2. A-double thorn (oxygonuum sinuatam) (2x1 = 2mks)
      C- stinging nettle (urtica massaica)
    3. Broken pieces of stem readily take root again
      Have underground stems with pale, reduced leaves
      Often produce flowers hence seed;
      1. Production of tomatoes
        Elcological requirement;
        Rainfall – 760mm-1300mm p.a well distributed
        Low rainfall – requires irrigation / watering
        Altitude -0-2100m a.s.1
        Temperature 18ºC-29ºC
        Soil-deep well drained fertile soils
        Soil pH = 6.0 – 6.5 (any 3x1 = 3mks)
      2. Transplanting
        Done late in the evening or during cloudy days.
        Dig holes 15cm deep
        Spacing 90cm x 60cm or 100cmx50cm
        Put a handful of well rotten manure/ teaspoonful of DSP fertilizer per hole;
        Mix them with soil thoroughly;
        Place each seedling in the hole, cover and firm the soil around it (should be at the height and shade it;
        Mulch and shade it;
        Water seedlings before transplanting;
        Lift the seedlings using a garden trowel with a lump (ball) of soil around the roots.
        (any 3x1=3mks)
      3. Top dress with CAN two times at 25cm height at rate of 100kg/ha and during fruiting at the rate of 200kg/Ha;
        Field should be free of weeds;
        Irrigation is recommended where rainfall inadequate;
        Staking should be done
        Pest control using appropriate method
        Disease control using appropriate method; (any 4x1 = 4mks)
    2. Fencing of water sources to keep off pollution;
      Application of soil conservation measures to control soil erosion
      Avoid watering animals directly from water sources
      Good disposal of effluent from processing factories
      River bank should be vegetated by planting grass to minimize siltation in rivers;
      Employ adequate storm water control methods and disposal systems especially in areas with heavy rains;
      Use non-chemical methods of farming such as organic farming; (5x1=5mks)
    3. Deliver flowers soon after harvesting;
      Picked flowers should be put in open woven baskets for ventilation;
      Tins or polythene bags should not be used because they may lead to fermentation of flowers;
      Wet flowers should not be picked because they may heat up and ferment
      Flowers should not be compacted during picking to avoid heating up and fermentation;
      The flowers should not be picked with the stems hence picked by twisting the head;
      Avoid contamination of flower; (5x1=5mks)
    1. Stone lines- rows of stones heaped along the contours which trap the soil and reduce speed of running water;
      Bunds heapof soil along the counters that reduce the speed of run off;
      Trash line- rows of heaped trash along the contours that trap soil and also add nutrients up on decomposition;
      Ridging – soil is dug to form a furrow and heaped on the upper side to form a hedge.
      Gabions/ porous dams- boxes of galvanized wire which are held with stones in gulleys to slow down the speed of flowering water and trap soil;
      Cut off drains/diversion ditches are deep channels that drain excess water.
      Terraces – embankments constructed along contours to slow down the speed of running water;
      Check dam-is a barrier that reduces speed of run off; (4x1=4mks)
    2. Control soil erosion – this ensures that the top soil remains in situation for crop use; crop rotation ensures maximum utilization of all nutrients uniformly;
      Control soil pH- this gives suitable conditions for the activities of living organisms;
      Proper drainage – prevents accumulation of certain nutrients to toxic levels in soil.
      Use inorganic fertilizer and manures – manures maintain soil structure as well as release nutrients when the decompose while organic fertilizer add more nutrients to the soil; (4x1=4mks)
    3. Cover crops should alternate with those which do not cover the ground.
      Deep rooted should alternate with shallow rooted crops
      Crops from the same family should not follow each other;
      Grass ley should be included in the rotation program
      Legumes / crops that are easy to weed with those that are not easy to weed;
      Alternate crops that are easy to weed with those that are not easy to weed
      Fallow should be included in the rotation program;
      Heavy feeders alternate with light feeders; (5x1=5mks)
    4. There should be high population pressure in reserves
      There should be adequate economic incentive to preserver;
      The social costs of moving from home community and the discipline imposed for sound agriculture and extra cost should be affordable;
      Settlers should come from far distance from the schemes in order to be able to break from traditional society and stay on scheme. This particularly is important settlers are to adopt new changes;
      Settlers should have enough capital; (5x1 = 5mks)
    1. Plants with desirable root characteristics may be utilized to produce desirable products;
      Facilitate changing of the top of the tree from being undersirable to desirable;
      Make it possible to grow more than one type of fruit or flower on the same plants;
      Help to propagate clones that cannot be propagated in any other way;
      Grafting helps rapair damaged trees; help shorten the maturity age; (6x1=6mks)\
    2. Use of machinery/mechanization;
      Less soil fertility need wider spaces
      Tall crop varieties require wider space
      Low Rainfall need wider spacing;
      Crop used for forage/silage require narrow spacing
      When controlling pest and disease
      Spreading and tillening crop varieties require wider spacing (6x1=6mks)
      DATE PURCHASES AND EXPENCES                    
        Description Amount Dairy  Maize  Poultry  Date Description Amount Dairy Maize Poultry
      1/7/2003 20 empty trays 400     400 30/6/2003 Cash at hand 50000      
      1/7/2003 5 bags of DAP 10000    10000   1/7/2003 Sold eggs 10 trays 12000     12000
      1/7/2003 5 bags Broiler starter 7500   7500   1/7/2003 Sold Milk  4000 4000    
      30/7/2003 Bought milk churn 500 500     20/7/2003 Sold maize 6000   6000  
      31/12/2003 Closing bal. 18400 500 17500 400     72000 4000 6000 12000
      31/12/2003 Cash at hand 53600                  
          72000           72000      
      Heading – 1mk
      Columns – Purchases & expenses – 1mk
      - sales and income – 1mk
      Correct entries 8 x ½ = 4mks
      Closing balances = 1mk
      Cash at hand - 1mk
      TOTAL 8 mks
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