Geography Paper 1 Questions and Answers - ACK Diocese Mumias Joint Evaluation Mock 2022

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INSTRUCTIONS :   
  • This paper consists of two sections A and B.
  • Answer all the questions in section A.
  • Answer question six and any other two questions from section B

SECTION A       
Answer all questions in section A

  1.  
    1. What is the relationship between geography and mathematics. (2mks)
    2. State two reasons why it is important to study geography. (2mks)
  2.  
    1. What is a line of longitude? (2 marks)
    2. What is the local time of Alexandria 30°E when the local time at Malindi 40°E is 12.00  noon? (2 marks)
  3.  
    1. State three causes of earth movement (3 marks)
    2. Name two main earthquake zones in the world             (2 marks)
  4.  
    1. Name three features found on emerged highland coast             (3 marks) 
    2. State three conditions necessary for the formation of a spit (3 marks)
  5.  
    1. Highlight any three factors that necessitate the occurrence of an artesian basin             (3 marks)
    2. Apart from lakes, rivers and sea, name any other two sources of underground water    (3 marks)

SECTION B    
Answer question 6 and any other two questions from this section.

  1. Study the map of NYERI 1:50,000(sheet 120/4) provided and answer the following questions.
    1.  
      1. What is the title of the map extract (1 mk)
      2. Name two districts covered by the map extract (2 mks)
      3. Give three physical features found in grid square 5085 (3 mks)
    2.  
      1. Give the longitudinal extent of the area covered by the map.                  (2mks)
      2. What is the magnetic declination shown on the map?                             (2mks)
    3.  
      1. What is the altitude at the peak of Nyeri hill?                                           (2mks)
      2. Give three methods used to represent relief on the map.                         (3mks)\
      3. Measure the length of the dry weather road (Naivasha road) from Tusha welfare centre junction school to the edge of the map towards North Kinangop and Naivasha in kilometres (2mks)
    4. Describe the drainage of the area covered by the map.                                (5mks)
    5. Citing evidence from the map, identify three social services offered in Mweiga municipality (3mks)
  2.  
    1.  
      1. Name three types of faults   (3mks)
      2. Apart from compressional forces, explain two other processes that may cause faulting (4mks)
    2.  
      1. With the aid of a well labeled diagram, describe how a rift valley is formed by compressional forces   (6mks
      2. Explain three ways in which faulting may influence drainage system   (6mks
    3. Explain three ways in which faulting is of significance to human activities  (6mks)
  3.  
    1.  
      1. What is micro-climate? (2mks)
      2. State two negative effect of desertification (2mks)
    2. Draw a sketch map Africa and indicate the ocean currents.
      1. Benguela, Guinea, Agulhas/ Mozambique   (4mks)
      2. State two effects of Benguela Current on the adjacent coastlands   (2mks)
    3. Describe the characteristics of the Equatorial type of climate  (8mks)
    4. Explain how the following factors influence climate:
      1. Altitude (4mks)
      2. Distance from the sea (3mks)
  4.  
    1.  
      1. Differentiate between a watershed and a drainage basin (2 marks)
      2. State three processes of river erosion (3 marks)
    2.  
      1. Give three ways in which river transport its load (3 marks)
      2. State four factors which influence river deposition   (4 marks)
    3. Give three characteristics of a river in its middle stage   (3 marks)
    4.  
      1. Name two features produced by river rejuvenation.    (2 marks)
      2. Describe how river capture occur.   (4 marks)
      3. Explain two positive effects of rivers to the human environment        (4 marks)
  5.  
    1.  
      1. What is an ice sheet?                                                 (2 marks)
      2. Give two reasons why there are no ice sheets in Kenya                (2 marks)
      3. Explain three factors that influence the movement of ice from the place of accumulation (6 marks)
    2. Describe how an arête is formed  (4 marks)
    3. The diagram below shows types of moraines in a valley glacier
      GeoP1q10c
      1. Name the type of moraines marked S, T and V                                           (3 marks)
      2. Explain four positive effects of glaciations in lowland areas                       (8 marks)


MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A

  1.  
    1. What is  the relationship  between geography and mathematics (2 mks)
      • Mathematics  principals / formulae are used in Geography to calculate distance /area/population.
      • Geography information can be analysed / presented accurately through the application of mathematics technique.
      • Geographical concepts are applied in calculating direction / bearing in mathematics.
    2. State four reasons why it is important to study Geography  (2mks)
      • It enables learners to understand / appreciate different environmental influences.
      • It encourages international awareness / co-operation 
      • It helps learners to develop important social values.
      • It promotes positive attitudes towards protection of resources.
      • It leads to development of career opportunities.
      • It help learners to manage time properly.
      • It enables learners to explain  the origin and function of the earth and land forms
  2.  
    1. What is a line of longitude
      • Is a line based on angular distance of a place east or west of prime meridian (00 longitude).
        Or
      • An imaginary line drawn on a map from North pole to South Pole and is measured in degrees east or west of the prime meridian. (0 degree)                                                         (1×2= 2 marks)
    2. What is the local time of Alexandria 30°E when the local time at Malindi  40°E is 12.00 noon?
      Degree difference 400-300=100
      If 10 = 4 min
      100 = 4 X 100 = 40 min
      10 = 4
      Time at Alexandria 12.00 noon –40 min
            = 11.20 am       
                                                                          (2 marks)
  3.  
    1. State three causes of earth movement.
      • Istatic adjustment.
      • Gravitative preassure.
      • Magma movement within the crust.
      • Conventional currents in mantle. (3×1= 3 marks
    2. Name two main earth quake zones in the world.
      • The circum pacific belt.
      • The mid-atlantic ridge.
      • The Mediterranean-Himalayan belt.
      • Rift valley. (2×1= 2 marks)
  4.  
    1. Name three features found on emerged high coast.
      • Raised cliffs, raised wave cut platform, raised beaches, raised caves,  archs, stacks, stump blow holes, goes      (3 marks
    2. State three conditions necessary for the formation of a spit.
      • The waves must carry large amounts of load/ the supply of sand being transported.
      • The long shore drift must be weak.
      • It must be a shallow shore/ continental shelf.
      • Waves must have a strong wash and weak backwash/ constructive waves.  (3 marks)
  5.  
    1. Highlight any three factors that necessitate the occurrence of an artesian basin. 
      • The aquifer must lie between two permeable rocks.
      • The aquifer must outcrop in a region which is a source of water.
      • The aquifer must dip from a region of water intake and the rock layer must form a broad syncline or basin.
      • The the north of the well must be lower than the intake area.
    2. Apart from lakes, rivers and seas, name any other two sources of underground water.
      • Rain water.
      • Melt water.
      • Magmatic/ plutonic water.                                                                (3 marks)

SECTION B

  1. Study the map of NYERI 1:50,000(sheet 120/4) provided and answer the following questions.
    1.  
      1. What is the title of the map extract (1 mks)
        • East Africa 1:50,000 (Kenya)
      2. Name two districts covered by the map extract (2 mks)
        • Nyeri
        • Laikipia
      3. Give three physical features found in grid square 5085 (3 mks)
        • River
        • River Valley
        • Steep slope
        • Scrub vegetation
    2.  
      1. Give the longitudinal extent of the area covered by the map.                  (2mks)
        • 36°45’-37°00’
      2. What is the magnetic declination shown on the map?                        (2mks)
        • 1° 31’
    3.  
      1. What is the altitude at the peak of Nyeri hill?                                           (2mks)
        • 2216m
      2. Give three methods used to represent relief on the map                     (3mks)
        • Trigonometrical station
        • Use of contour lines
        • Spot-heights
      3. Measure the length of the dry weather road  (Naivasha road) from Tusha welfare centre junction school to the edge of the map towards North Kinangop and Naivasha in kilometres (2mks)
        • 10.7km ± 0.1
    4. Describe the drainage of the area covered by the map                     (5mks)
      • There are many permanent rivers
      • Rivers chanya and Ambone are the main rivers
      • Most rivers flow eastwards
      • Aberdare forest is the source of many rivers
      • River chanya and its tributaries form dendritic drainage pattern
      • There is trellis drainage pattern in grid 7360
    5. Citing evidence from the map, identify three social services offered in Mweiga municipality                        (3mks)
      • Education -presence of schools
      • Administration- Presence of district office.
      • Security- police station.
      • Water supply- presence of water tank.
  2.  
    1.  
      1. Name three types of faults.  (3mks)
        • Normal Faults
        • Reverse Fault
        • Thrust Fault
        • Tear. Shear/Slip Fault.
        • Anticlinal Fault
      2. Apart from compressional forces, explain two other process that may cause faulting. (4mks)
        • Faulting may be caused by force acting horizontally away from each other which cause tension in the crystal rocks.  Due to tensional forces the rocks stretch and fracture causing faults
        • Faulting may occur where horizontal forces act parallel to each other in the opposite/ same direction resulting in shearing
        • Faulting may also occur due to vertical movement which may exert a strain in the rocks making them to fracture.
      1. With, the aid of a well labeled diagram, describe how a rift  valley is formed by compressional forces.  (6mks)
                GeoP1qa07bi
        • Compressional forces may push the outer blocks towards each other.  The outer blocks ride over the middle block and the middle block sinks/ subsidies/ may remain stable.  The sunken middle part forms a depression called a rift valley.
      2. Explain three ways in which faulting may influence drainage system.  (6mks)
        • Some rivers may end up flowing along faults lines, thus forming a fault guided drainage pattern .
        • Uplifting of land which follows faulting may block a river.  This may cause it to reverse / change its direction of flow.
        • When faulting occurs across a river valley, it may cause the river to disappear into the ground through a fault line.
        • If rift valley occurs in an enclosed area, a basin may be formed.  When rivers flow into the basin a lake may be formed.  This basin may become an area of inland drainage.
        • When faulting occurs across a river valley, vertical displacement of land may occur.  The river forms a waterfall where it descends the newly formed escarp.
        • Faulting may lead to the formation of escarpments with springs forming at the base due to exposure of the water table.
    2. Explain three ways in which faulting is of significance to human activities.  (6mks)
      • Faulting leads to formation of features that form beautiful scenery which attracts tourists.
      • Faulting leads to formation of lakes that are important fishing grounds /tourists sites/ provide water for irrigation / for domestic use.
      • Faulting causes displacement of rocks which exposes minerals that are mined.
      • Faulting may lead to the formation of mountains /horst which experiences rainfall on the windward  side that give rise to rivers which provide water for industrial / domestic/ agricultural use.
      • Block mountains formed through faulting lead to formation of relief rainfall on the windward side which favors agriculture/ forestry settlements.
      • Faulting may cause subsidence of land which may lead to loss of life /property .
      • Faulting creates deep faults which are passage of steam jets which may be utilized for geothermal power production.
      • When faulting occurs a ridge it may provide a dip which could form a mountain pass where transport /communication lines can be constructed/may hinder development of transport.
  3.  
    1.  
      1. What is micro-climate? (2mks)
        • It is a climate condition in a restricted area due to small differences such as aspects, slopes, vegetation and human land-escapes.
      2. State two negative effect of desertification. (2mks)
        • It leads to shortage of water/destruction of water catchment area.
        • Leads to drying up of vegetation.
        • Leads to dying up of soils /development of infertile soils.
        • Causes migration of people /animals .
        • Causes destruction of vegetation.
    2. Draw a sketch map Africa and indicate the ocean currents.
      1. Benguela, Guinea, Agulhas/ Mozambique.  (4mks)
        GeoP1qa08bi
      2. State two effects of Benguela Current on the adjacent coastlands.  (2mks)
        • Cold currents lower the temperatures of the adjacent coastland.
        • Cold currents lowers humidity in the adjacent areas.
        • It causes fog/mist in the adjacent areas.
        • It might cause aridity in the adjacent coastland.
    3. Describe the characteristics of the Equatorial type of climate.  (8mks)
      • Temperatures are high/270 C throughout the year.
      • It experiences high rainfall /1500-2000mm.
      • The rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year.
      • Rainfall comes in two seasons /double maximum.
      • It experiences high humidity.
      • It experiences high evaporation rates.
      • Rainfall is mainly convectional.
      • Rainfall is mainly in the afternoon.
      • Experiences small annual range of temperatures 30c to 40c .
      • There is extensive cloud cover.
      • Has long hours of sunshine.
    4. Explain how the following factors influence climate.
      1. Altitude. (4mks)
        • This is the highly above sea level.
        • Temp. decreases with increasing height.
        • It makes the higher areas to have lower temp. that lower areas.
        • A rise in altitude causes a fall in temp. and a cooling effects which causes condensation.
        • Precipitation increases on the windward side and lowering of altitude leads to warming effect on the leeward side.
        • Altitude causes variation in pressure gradients.
        • Altitude causes anabatic and katabatic winds/ subsequent temperature inversion
      2. Distance from the sea. (3mks)
        • Areas closer to the sea are water than those far from the sea due to maritime influence.
        • During summer ,land surfaces are warmer than sea surfaces so that inland areas are warmer than those nearer the sea.
        • In winter the land surface are colder than the sea bodies hence the land near the sea is cool while away from the sea the land is cold.
        • Winds blowing over the sea pick moisture and shed it as rainfall on the coastal areas.  They blow as dry winds further inland causing inland aridity.
  4.  
    1.  
      1. Differentiate between a watershed and a drainage basin. (2 marks)
        • A watershed is a region where a river starts while a drainage basin is the area drained by a  river system.
      2. State three processes of river erosion.            (3 marks)
        • Hydraulic action - This is the action caused by the force of moving water.
        • Abrasion/Corrasion - Its weaving down of the river channel by the load carried in the water.
        • Solution - River water contains weak inorganic acids which react with some rocks to form new minerals which are soluble in water.
        • Attrition - This is the process by which the load carried by river water is itself broken down.
    2.  
      1. Give three ways in which river transport its load. (3 marks)
        • Through suspension
        • Through saltation.
        • Through traction.
        • Through solution.
      2. State four factors which influence river deposition. (4 marks)
        • obstacles in the stream channel.
        • width of the river bed when the river channel become wide, the water spreads out over a wider surface area hence the speed reduces thus deposition .
        • When river water freezes the load its carrying is brought to a standstill. When the water flow, the load is deposited.
        • When river gradient reduces, velocity is also reduced hence deposition.
        • When volume of water reduces, rivers capacity to transport also reduces hence deposition.
        • Nature and amount of load. Heavy load is transported over short distances.
        • Obstacles in the stream channel.
      3. Give three characteristics of a river in its middle stage. (3 marks)
        • Lateral erosion is more dominant .
        • The river has a large volume of water.
        • The river valley has a u-shaped valley.
        • The concave bank is eroded and undercut steeping it to form river cliffs.
        • Deposition start to take place the last middle stage
        • Features formed include river meander, river bluffs. 
  5.  
    1. Name two features produced by river rejuvenation.       (2 marks)
      • Knick points
      • River terraces.
      • Incised meanders.
      • Rejuvenation gorges.
    2. Describe how river capture occur.            (4 marks)
      • Initially there are two rivers which are adjacent to each other.
      • The river with more erosive power due to its volume of water flow over soft rocks.
      • The more powerful river erode its valley through head ward erosion.
      • The river valley of more powerful river therefore becomes deeper and wider and so the river flows at a lower level than the weaker river. 
      • The powerful river extend its valley backwards by head ward erosion.
      • Eventually it joins the valley of the weaker river.
      • The head waters of the weak river start flowing in to the valley of the pivate river.
    3. Explain two positive effects of rivers to the human environment. (4 marks)
      • Provide water for both domestic and industrial purposes / irrigation.
      • Some rivers are navigable hence used as transport routes.
      • Some rivers are rich fishing grounds.
      • Rivers are dammed and their water used for generation of hydroelectric power.
      • Some alluvial sediments may contain valuable minerals e.g. gold and diamond.
      • Features formed by rivers e.g. waterfall, gorges, meanders, attract tourists who bring in foreign currency.
  6.  
    1.  
      1. What is an ice sheet?                                                                   (2 marks)
        • It is a continuous mass of ice covering a large area / surface.
      2. Give two reasons why there are no ice sheets in Kenya                  (2 marks)
        • Kenya experience high temperatures under which ice sheets cannot form.
        • Most parts of Kenya have low altitudes.
        • Kenya is found at low latitudes
      3. Explain three factors that influence the movement of ice from the place of accumulation    (6 marks)
        • Gradient of the land -  Ice move faster when the slope is steep.
        • Temperatures / Seasonal changes -  higher temperatures result in to thawing, leading to faster movement of ice.
        • Nature of the surface -  When the surface on which ice is moving is rough, it causes friction lowering the speed of the movement of ice / smooth surface increase speed of movement of ice.
        • Size / thickness of glacier -  large masses of ice exert pressure which lead to melting of ice  underneath. This increases the speed of ice movement.    (3 × 2 = 6 marks)
    2. Describe how an arête is formed (4 marks)
      • Two adjacent cracks / hollows exists on a mountain side.
      • The two hollow / cracks are filled with ice.
      • The ice erodes the sides through plucking and deepens the hollow through abrasion.
      • Through erosion, the back walls of the hollows slowly recede.
      • Eventually the hollows / cirques are separated by a knife edged ridge .
      • The ridge is called an arête      (Any 4 × 1 = 4 marks)
    3. The diagram below shows types of moraines in a valley glacier.
      1. Name the type of moraines marked S, T and V. (3 marks)
        • S  -   Medial            (1 mark)
        • T  -  Lateral       (1 mark)
        • V -  Terminal                              (1 mark)
      2. Explain four positive effects of glaciations in lowland area.                (8 marks)
        • Glacial till provide fertile soils for arable farming.
        • Ice sheets in their scouring effect reduce the land surface and depth to expose mineral seams  which become easy to extract.
        • Outwash plains comprises of sands and gravel which are used as materials for building and construction.
        • Lakes formed through glaciation can be exploited for various economic uses such as fishing, transportation or as tourist attraction.
        • Glaciated lowlands are generally flat due to erosion and depositions and are ideal for construction of buildings and communication lines. (4 × 2 = 8 marks)

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