Geography Paper 2 Questions and Answers - ACK Diocese Mumias Joint Evaluation Mock 2022

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INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES    
  • This paper has two sections: A and B Answer all questions in section A.
  • In Section B answer Question 6 and any other TWO questions.

SECTION A     
Answer all the questions in this section.

  1.  
    1. Give two examples of game sanctuaries in Kenya. (2mks)
    2. State three problems experienced by Kenya in conservation of wildlife. (3mks)
  2.  
    1. Name two major forest blocks found along the Kenyan Coast. (2mks)
    2. State three factors contributing to deplation of forests in Kenya. (3mks)
  3.  
    1. Outline two characteristics of plantation farming in Kenya. (2mks)
    2. State three physical conditions that favours tea growing  in Kenya. (3mks)
  4.  
    1. Name two minerals that occur as weathered products. (2mks)
    2. State three uses of soda ash. (3mks)
  5.  
    1. State two factors which have contributed to decline in infants mortality in Kenya. (2mks)
    2. Identify three problems resulting from decline in population in industrialized countries. (3mks)

SECTION B   
Answer Question 6 and any other two questions.

  1. The table below shows total livestock in Kenya in 2007.
    Type of Livestock                     Number in Millions   
    Non-Dairy cattle                                        9.0
    Dairy cattle                                                2.5
    Sheep                                                       8.5
    Goats                                                        9.5
    Pigs                                                           0.5
    Total                                                          30.0
    1. Using a radius of 5cm, draw a pie chart to represent the above information    (7mks)
    2.  
      1. Name three pastoralist communities in Kenya (3mks)
      2. State four characteristics of nomadic pastoralism (4mks)
      3. Explain four ways in which the kenya government assists nomadic pastoralists to improve the quality of their livestock. (8mks)
    3. State three problems facing ranching in the tropical areas. (3mks)
  2.  
    1.  
      1. Explain three conditions that favour irrigation farming in Kenya     (6mks)
      2. State five problems experienced in irrigation farming in Kenya (5mks)
    2. Describe the stages in the reclamation of land from the sea in Netherlands  (6mks)
    3.  
      1. Apart from irrigation name two other methods of land reclamation.(2mks)
      2. Explain three factors that influenced the location of Perkerra Irrigation Scheme (6mks)
  3.  
    1.  
      1. Apart from deep shaft mining, name three other mining methods(3mks)
      2. Describe how deep shaft mining is carried out        (6mks)
    2. Explain four ways in which the exploitation of minerals contributes to the economy of Kenya.                    (8mks)
    3.  
      1. What is dereliction?        (2mks)
      2. State three ways that can be used to combat dereliction        (3mks)
      3. A part from dereliction state three other negative effect of mining.(3mks)
  4.  
    1.  
      1. Identify three characteristics of pelagic fish.        (3mks)
      2. State three reasons why marine fishing is not developed in Kenya.        (3mks)
    2. Why should the Government of Kenya encourage fish farming.        (4mks)
    3.  
      1. Identify the fishing method shown below.        (1mk)
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      2. Describe how the above method is used in Lake Victoria (4mks)
      3. State two problems facing fishing in Japan. (2mks)
    4. Explain four factors that favour fishing in the pacific fishing grounds. (8mks)
  5.  
    1.  
      1. State two advantages of railway transport over road transport (2mks)
      2. Describe two conditions of Kenyan roads which contribute to road carnage   (4mks)
    2. Apart from different railway gauges, give three reasons why railway links among African countries are underdeveloped. (3mks)
    3.  
      1. State two physical factors which favour the location of settlements (2mks)
      2. Give two differences in the functions of New York and Nairobi cities (4mks)
    4.  
      1. Compare the ports of Mombasa and Rotterdam under the following Headings:
      2. Transport to the interior (2mks)
      3. The size of the hinterlands (2mks)


MARKING SCHEME

  1.  
    1. Give two example of game sanctuaries in Kenya.
      • OlArtiNyiro sanctuary
      • Ngulia Rhino sanctuary
      • Maralal.             2 x 1=2mks
    2. State three problems experienced by Kenya in conservation of wildlife.
      • Poaching especially for game trophies meat, skins and hides.
      • Drought/ unfavourable climatic conditions which causes drying up of pastores/ vegetation, water courses and water holes.
      • Land use conflicts e.g with pastoralists over pastures, intrusion of wild animals on farmlands.
      • Inadequate capital for maintenance of parks and sanctuaries resulting into loss of wildlife.
      • Inadequate trained personnel to manage the wildlife.
      • Environmental pollution e.g water bodies.
      • Bush fires and pests and diseases
      • Migratory habits of many animals and birds makes if difficult for the country to protect them from poachers.    3 x 1=3mks
  2.  
    1. Name two major forest blocks found along Kenyan coast.
      • Shimba hills
      • Tana river
      • Boni/Dodori
      • Arubukosokoke
      • Mangrove forests.
      • Kaya forests.            2 x 1=2mks
    2. State three factors contributing to deplation of forests in Kebya.
      • Natural calamities that destroy forests.
      • Pests and diseases that destroy forests.
      • Development of towns result into reduction of areas under forest.
      • Pollution from industrial wastes.
      • Increase in population and need for land for agriculture and settlement
      • Illegal logging for charcoal.
      • Uncontrolled fires that destroy forests 3 x 1=3mks
  3.  
    1. Outline two characteristics of plantation farming in Kenya.
      • Crops are raised on large estates of more than 40 hac.
      • Most estates are foreign owned e.g by U.S.A , British and French companies.
      • There is scientific management e.g through mechanization use of specialized skills.
      • Heavy capital outlay for establishment of infrastructure/administration, replanting restocking.   2 x 1 = 2mks.
    2. State three physical conditions that favours to a growing in Kenya.
      • Warm / cold temperature throughtout the year
      • High rainfall of between 1000-2000m
      • Well distributed of rainfall through out the year
      • Areas free from frost
      • Acidic volcanic soils.
      • Deepness drained soils
      • High altitude of between 1000-1500m. 3 x 1=3mks
  4.  
    1. Name two minerals that occur as weathered products.
      • Bauxite
      • Manganese 2 x 1=2mks
    2. State three uses of soda ash.
      • Glass making
      • Manufacture of paper
      • Fixing dyes in the textile industry.
      • Softening of water
      • Oil refining . 3 x 1=3mks
  5.  
    1. State two factors which have contributed to decline in infant mortality in Kenya.
      • Improved medical facilities
      • Improved diet for mother infants.
      • Improved education for parents especially mothers.     2 x 1=2mks
    2. Identify problems resulting from decline in population in industrialized countries.
      • Shortage of manpower which makes labour expensive
      • Underfilisation of social facilities such as school.
      • High old age dependence ratio
      • There is rural depopulation due to increased urbanization.    3 x 1=3mks

SECTION B

  1.  
    1. Non dairy
      30  =  360°
      9.0 = 9.0 × 360 = 108°
                       30
      Dairy
      30  =  360°
      2.5 = 2.5 × 360 =30°
                   30 
      Pigs
      30  =  360°
      0.5 = 0.5 × 360 = 6°
                   30
      Sheep
      30  =  360°
      8.5 = 8.5 × 360 =102°
                     30
      Goats
      30  =  360°
      9.5 = 9.5 × 360 = 114°
                     30 
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    2.  
      1. Pastoral Communities in Kenya
        • Maasai
        • Turkana
        • Boran
        • Gabbra
        • Samburu
        • Somali
        • Pokot
        • Sakuyu    3 x 1 = 3mks
      2. Characteristics of nomadic pastoralism
        • Practiced in areas of low and inreliable rainfall
        • Movement with livestock in search of water and pasture (seasonal)
        • Animals are community grazed
        • Quantity as opposed to quality is emphasized
        • Different types of animals are kept.
        • Characterized by frequent raids by neighbouring communities    4 x 1 = 4mks
      3. Ways the Kenya government is helping pastoralists
        • Setting up demonstration ranches to educate the pastoralists on better ways of keeping livestock
        • Construction of cakes dips to control pasts
        • Provision of extension services
        • Construction of boreholes and dams to provide water to the livestock
        • Construction of roads to ease transportation of livestock to market
        • Encouraging group ranches to enable them see livestock keeping as a commercial activity     4 x 2 = 8 mks
    3. Problems facing tropical ranches
      • Seasonal shortage of pasture
      • Poor communication network within the ranches
      • Lack of good local market for products
      • Frequent attacks by pests and diseases
      • Expensive to feed animals.     3 x 1 = 3mks
  2.  
    1.  
      1. Conditions favouring irrigation farming in Kenya
        • Topography
          • Getting sloping land permits flow of water by gravity hence reducing costs of pumping water to the fields.
        • Presence of clay / black cotton soil with high water retention capacity. This avails water for use by crops.
        • Presence of rivers/reservoirs / lakes which provide regular water supply /permanent/constant. Thus make sit possible to irrigate land through out the year.
        • Availability of large tract .............. for irrigation
        • Sparsely populated areas reduce cost of resettlement for the displaced.
        • Low and unreliable rainfall in most parts of the ground.     3 x 2 = 6mks for well explained point.
      2. Problems facing  irrigation farming in Kenya
        • Siltation of canals / pipes/reservoirs
        • High rate of evaporation
        • Salinisation of soil
        • Presence of parts
        • Clogging of canals by weeds
        • Waterborne diseases such as molar and bilharzias
        • Poor marketing strategies
        • Delay marketing strategies
        • Delay payments and ....... mismanagement
        • Expensive farm inputs.               5 x 1 = 5mks
    2. Reclamation of land from sea – Netherlands
      • Protective dykes / sea walls are constructed enclosing part of the sea to be reclaimed.
      • Pumping stations are installed to pump out water from the area enclosed by dyke.
      • Water is then pumped out.
      • Reeds are planted to help dry the land
      • Drainage ditches and more pumping stations are made on the land being reclaimed
      • Drainage pipes are bid below the soil
      • Area is divided into regular portions using inner dykes
      • Soil is treated with chemicals to lowed salinity
      • The land is then flush with fresh water  to remove salt.
      • Pumping continues throughout to avoid accumulation of water.    6 x 1 = 6 mks
        NB: The sequence must be followed.
    3.  
      1. methods of land reclamation
        • Drainage
        • Afforestation
        • Drought resistant crops         2 x 1 = 2mks
      2. Factors influencing the location of Perkerra
        • The need to control floods along river Perkerra which used to devastate the area
        • Presence of flat gently sloping land which enables easy flow of water by gravity. This reduces costs
        • The area is and this leaves irrigation as the only source.
        • Presence of fertile loamy soils reduces use of fertilizers.     3 x 2 = 6mks
  3.  
    1.  
      1.  
        • Stripping /Dredging
        • Hillslope ...... Hydraulic
        • Solution
        • Adit/Drift
        • Alluvial/places               3 x 1 = 3mks
      2. Deep shaft Mining
        • Vertical shafts are sunk/dug into ground
        • Horizontal tunnels are dug to reach the mineral
        • Props are erected to support the roof
        • The mineral as blasted /dug out /drilled
        • It is transported on light rail tracks/conveyers to the bottom of the surface.
        • Cranes are used to transport the ore          6 x 1 = 6mks
    2. Role of mining to the economy
      • Provides  raw materials for manufacturing industrial /chemical and building and construction industries.
      • Stimulates development of transport /infrastructure opening up remote areas.
      • The industry generator employment opportunites which raises the standard of living.
      • Promotes agriculture by purchasing market
      • It facilitates provision of social amenities in  mining areas.
      • Encourages development of skills which can be applied in other sectors.
      • Leads to development of related industries.          Any 4 x 2 = 5 mks
    3.  
      1. Dereliction refers to the process whereby land that has been exhausted of minerals is abandoned in state where it has stagnant pools of water.
      2. Ways to combat dereliction
        • Enactment of laws forcing miners to rehabilitate land
        • Proper disposal of wastes from mines
        • Reclamation of affected land                      3 x 1 = 3mks
      3. Negative effects of mining
        • Exploitation of producing countries by multi natural corporators
        • Leads to neglecting of other sectors of the economy
        • Price fluctuation affects the economy due to over dependency     3 x 1 = 3mks
  4.  
    1.  
      1. Characteristics of Pelagic fish.
        • Live near the water surface / live at shallow depths.
        • Live in large groups.
        • Small  in size
        • Move in shoals.                                                                               
      2. Reasons why Marine fishing is not developed in Kenya.
        • lack of enough capital.
        • Small market along the coast /sparse population.
        • Stiff competition from foreign fishermen.
        • Use of small boats discourage deep sea fishing/ poor technology.
        • Warm waters of the tropics discourage fish breeding.
        • Narrow continent shelf.
        • Shallow waters due to the presence of coral reefs. 3x1 =3mks
    2. Why the government of Kenya should encourage fish farming.
      • It occupies less space.
      • Fish supply protein.
      • Creates job opportunities.
      • Some fish from the ponds are exported to earn foreign exchange.
      • May  lead to the development of fish related industries.
      • Its free from international disputes.    4x1=4mks
    3.  
      1. Seining 1x1= 1mks
      2.  
        • Fishing boat with the help of another boat(Dory) spread out the seine net in the Lake.
        • Nets are held in position using floats.
        • Nets are tied to some weights to keep it in water.
        • The Net is attached to the boats which surround a shoal of fish.
        • The net is pulled from both ends.
        • The net is hauled over and fish emptied. 4mks
      3. Problems facing fishing in Japan
        • Over fishing depleted some fish species.
        • Industrial pollution of Japanese waters.
        • Restrictions imposed on Japanese fleets by her neighbours.         
    4. Factors favouring fishing in the North west pacific grounds
      • Convergence of the cold OyasiwoKamchtaka current and warm Kurosiwo.
      • Broad continental shelf favours the growth of Planktons.
      • The indented North East Asian coastline with several Islands.
      • The mountainous landscape hinder agriculture making fishing the only alternative source of food.
      • Availability of large ready market High Asian population provide market and
      • Labour.
      • Advance technology.
      • Modern and efficient transportation facilities.
  5.  
    1.  
      1. Advantages of railway transport over road transport
        • Railways can carry more goods over long distances at once
        • Railway are cheaper than roads
        • Railways are less susceptible to traffic jams
        • Once built, railways do not require frequent relaying unlike roads, which are frequently resurfaced
        • Railways are more efficient because they operate on rigid timetable
        • Railways are free to accidents
      2. Conditions of Kenyan roads contributing to road carnage
        • Some roads have potholes/ uneven road surface...
        • Some roads are steep/ have sharp bends.
        • Some roads are slippery.
        • Some roads are not marked/ absence of road signs.
        • Some roads have loose surface/ dusty.
        • Some roads are narrow.
    2. Reasons why railway links among african counries are underdeveloped
      • African countries have railways of different gauges, which make it difficult for them to join
      • The countries were colonized by different European powers who constructed railways to transport raw materials from the interior to the ports within their own colonies
      • Political differences/ differences/ different political ideologies/ political instability among African countries hinder efforts to construct railway line to link them
      • African countries produce similar goods hence there is limited trade between them. ( this does not warrant construction of railway lines)
      • Railways are expensive to construct/ most African countries are poor/ inadequate capital and hence expensive to construct/ expand
      • Parts of Africa are unproductive so it would be uneconomical to construct railway lines
    3.  
      1. Physical factors which favour the location of settlements
        • Availability of water supply/ good drainage
        • Availability of land/space
        • Nature of relief
        • Suitability of climate/good rainfall
        • Absence of pest and diseases/health environment fertile soils
      2. Difference in functions betwenn New York and Nairobi cities 
         Nairobi   New York
         It is an inland/dry port
         It is a national capital
         It is a regional commercial centre
        It is a sea port 
        It is a state capital
        It is an international commercial centre
         
    4. Compare the ports of Mombasa and Rotterdam under:
      1. Transport to the interior - Mombasa relies on road, railway, air and pipeline to the interior while Rotterdam has in addition, river Rhine and canals Rotterdam is a major transshipment centre.
      2. The size of the hinterlands - Both ports have extensive hinterlands. Mombasa’s hinterland extends to DRC congo while Rotterdam serves the continental Europe.

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