Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - ACK Diocese Mumias Joint Evaluation Mock 2022

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INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES   
  • This paper consists of THREE sections A, B and C.
  • Answer ALL the questions in section in sections A and B.
  • Answer any two questions from section C.

SECTION A   (20MARKS)
Answer all questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1. Differentiate between organic farming and agroforestry (2mks)
  2. Name four types of farm records kept by poultry farmers (2mks)
  3. State three benefits of a land title deed to a farmer (11/2mks)
  4. State two advantages of tractor hire services (1mk)
  5. State four factors considered in timing of planting (2mks)
  6. State four reasons for staking in tomatoes (2mks)
  7. Outline roles of mulching in soil and water conservation (2mks)
  8. Give four functions of the Pyrethrum Board of Kenya (2mks)
  9. State four advantages of zero grazing (stall feeding) (2mks)
  10. Differentiate between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Per Capital income (2mks)
  11. Name three chemicals added to water during the water treatment process (11/2mks)
  12. State four characteristics of sandy soils (2mks)
  13. State four factors considered when selecting a site for a nursery bed. (2mks)
  14. Give four pieces of information contained in an invoice (2mks)
  15. State four physical measures of controlling crop pests (2mks)

SECTION B (20 MARKS)
Answer all questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1. The diagrams below show various types of soil structure.
            AgrP1q15
    1. Name the soil structure labeled E and F (2mks)
    2. State two ways how soil structure influences crop production (2mks)
  2. The diagram below show common weeds on the farm.
           AgrP1q16
    1. Identify the weeds labeled G, H and L (3mks)
    2. How does the weed labeled H affect labour productivity?
  3. The diagrams below show a common organic practice in agriculture
          AgrP1q17
    1. Name the methods of pruning labeled M and N (2mks)
    2. Name the tool being used in P above (1mk)
    3. Name two crops where pruning method M is applied (1mk)
  4. The diagram below shows common crop pests
          AgrP1q18
    1. Name the pests labeled T2 and T3 (2mks)
    2. State one damage caused by pest labeled T1 (1mk)
    3. State two effective methods used to control the pest labeled T2 (1mk)
  5. The diagram below shows a practice carried out in agroforestry.
          AgrP1q19
    1. Name the practice (1mks)
    2. State two benefits of the above named practice (2mks)
    3. State one advantage of raising seedlings in polythene sleeves (1mk)

SECTION C   
Answer any two questions in this section in the spaces provided after question 23 

  1.  
    1. State and explain four methods of fertilizer application (8mks)
    2. Outline four advantages of row planting (4mks)
    3. State and explain the importance of crop rotation (8mks)
  2.  
    1. State and explain four factors influencing soil erosion (8mks)
    2. Outline the roles of trees in soil and water conservation (4mks)
    3. Outline the advantages of using herbicides in weed control (8 mks)
  3.  
    1. State the reasons for carrying out minimum tillage (6mks)
    2. Outline the reasons why budgeting is important (6mks)
    3. state and explain four factors influencing the supply of a commodity (8mks)


MARKING SCHEME

  1. Differentiate between organic farming and agroforestry (2 mks)
    • Agroforestry – this involves growing of trees and crops and keeping of animals on the same piece of land.
    • Organic farming – is the growing of crops and rearing of animals without using agricultural chemicals.           (2x1= 2mks)
      (Marks awarded as whole)
  2. Name four types of farm  records kept by poultry farmers (2 mks)
    • Production records
    • Inventory records
    • Breeding records
    • Health records
    • Marketing records
    • Labour records    (½ x 4 = 2mks)
  3. State three benefits of land title deed to a farmer (1½mks)
    • They encourage commercial farming as it can secure credit facilities necessary for land development.
    • It minimizes land dispute.
    • Farmers can achieve high agricultural production
    • It enables occupant to lease all or part of land thus get extra income.   (½ x 3= ½mk)
  4. State two advantages of tractor hire services (1mk)
    • Farmers who cannot afford to buy can get access to it’s services.
    • Services are more efficient than hand tools.
    • Farmers do not incure cost of service and maintenance.    (½ x2 = 1mk)
  5. State four factors considered in timing of planting (2mks)
    • Rainfall pattern/moisture condition of the soil.
    • Type of crop to be planted.
    • Soil type.
    • Market demand
    • Prevalence of pest and diseases.
    • Weed control.   (½ x 4 = 2mks)
  6. State four reasons of staking in tomatoes (2mks)
    • Production of clean fruits
    • Facilitates spraying and harvesting of crops.
    • Controls incidences of outbreaks.
    • Prevents infestation by soil born pests.     (½ x 4 = 2mks)
  7. Outline roles of mulching in soil and water conservation (2mks)
    • Prevention of splash erosion
    • Increases infiltration
    • Reduces evaporation.
    • Increases organic matter and water retention capacity.   (½ x 4 = 2mks)
  8. Give four functions of the Pyrethrum Boards of Kenya (2mks)
    • Offering advisory services to farmers.
    • Managing Pyrethrum nurseries which produce planting materials for farmers.
    • Processing pyrethrum in the factories.
    • Marketing processed products.
    • Buying pyrethrum from the farmers.
    • Carrying out research to obtain the best cultivators through selecting and breeding.    (½x 4 = 2mks)
  9. State four advantages of zero grazing (stall feeding) (2mks)
    • There is quick accumulation of manure.
    • Animals make use of the feeds without wastage.
    • Animals produce high yields due to less wastage of energy.
    • Diseases and parasites are easy to control.
    • It requires little land.
    • It allows little stocking rate.    (½ x 4 = 2mks)
  10. Differentiate between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Per Capita Income. (2mks)
    • Gross Domestic Product (GDP) – is the total sum goods and services produced by a country within a period one year.
    • Per Capita Income – is the average income of citizens of a country.    (2x1 = 2mks)
  11. Name three chemicals added to water during the water treatment process.      (11/2mks)
    • Soda ash (sodium bicarbonate)
    • Alum calcium sulphate)
    • Chlorine   (½  x  3 = 1 ½ mks)
  12. State four characteristics of sandy soil (2mks)
    • Well drained
    • Coarse textured
    • Moderately fertile
    • Slightly acidic
    • Low water holding capacity
    • Low capillarity           ( ½ x 4 = 2mks)
  13. State  four factors considered  when selecting a site for a nursery bed (2mks)
    • Nearness to the water source
    • Topography
    • Previous cropping
    • Security
    • Well sheltered place  (½ x 4 = 2mks)
  14. Give four pieces of information contained in an invoice (2mks)
    • Date of transaction
    • Type and quantities of goods delivered
    • Price per unit of goods
    • Total amount of money involved
    • Invoice serial number
    • Terms of payment
    • People involved in the transaction   (½ x 4 = 2mks)
  15. State four physical measures of controlling crop pests (2mks)
    • Use of lethal temperatures
    • Proper drying of produce
    • Flooding
    • Suffocation
    • Physical destruction of pests
    • Use of scarecrows
    • Use of physical barriers
    • Use of electromagnetic radiation

SECTION B (20 MARKS)

  1. The diagram below shows  various types of soil structure
    1. Name the soil structure labeled E and F (2mks)
      • E – Platy structure
      • F – Block structure    (1 x 2)   2mks
    2. State two ways how soil structure influences crop production (2mks)
      • Influences soil erosion
      • Influences water holding capacity of a soil
      • Influences soil  drainage    (1 x 2 = 2mks)
  2. The diagrams below shows the common weeds on the farm
    1. Identify the weeds labelled G, H, and L (3mks)
      • G – Mallow / malva verticillata
      • H – Stinging Nettle / Urtica massaica
      • L – Striga / witch weed / Striga hermontheca    (1 x 3 = 3mks )
    2. How does the weed labeled H affect labour productivity (1mk)
      • Causes itching reducing work output     (1  x 1 = 1mk)
  3. The diagram below show a common agronomic practice in agriculture
    1. Name the methods of pruning labeled M and N (2mks)
      • M – Terminal bud pruning / pinching
      • N – Pollarding / coppicing
    2. Name the tool being used in P (1mks)
      • P – Secateurs  (1 x 1mks)
    3. Name crops where pruning methods M is applied (1mk)
      • Tobacco
      • Tomatoes
      • Tea
      • Coffee   (1 x 1 = 1mks)
  4. The diagram below shows common crop pests
    1. Name the pest labeled T2 and T3 (2mks)
      • T2 – Sudan Dioch / Quelea quelea aethiopica
      • T3 – Mouse bird    (1 x 2 = 2mks)
    2. State one damage caused by pest labeled T1 (1mk)
      • Unearth and eat sown seeds
      • Dig up and eat roots and tubers
      • Climb up maize, stalk to eat grains 
    3. State two effectives methods used to control the pest labeled T2 (1mk)
      • Use of explosives
      • Goose necked sorghum varieties
      • Poisoning    (1 x 1 = 1mk)
  5. The diagram below shows a practice carried out in agroforestry
    1. Name the practice (1mk)
      • Root pruning     (1 x 1 = 1mk)
    2. State two benefits of the above named practice (2mks)
      • Encourages the development of a short dense and strong rooting system.
      • Lifting of seedlings is made easier
      • Faster seedlings establishment after transplanting    (1 x 2 -= 2mks)
    3. State one advantage of raising seedlings in polythene sleeves (1mk)
      • No root disturbance during transplanting
      • Easy to transport
      • Transplanting can be delayed      (1 x 1 = 1mk) 

SECTION C

  1.  
    1. State and explain four methods of fertilizer application (8mks)
      • Broadcasting – Random scattering of fertilizers on the ground for plant use.
      • Placement method – Application of fertilizer in planting holes or drills
      • Side dressing – Placing of nitrogenous fertilizers at the side of the crop being top dressed
      • Foliar spraying – Application of formulated fertilizer solution onto the foliage / leaves of the crop
      • Drip – Fertilizer dissolved and applied to individual plants through perforated pipes or bottles
        Stating 1 x 4 = 4mks
        Explanation 1 x 4 = 4mks
    2. Outline the advantages of row planting
      • Machines can be used easily between the rows
      • Easy  to determine correct plant population
      • Lower seed rate used than in broadcasting
      • Cultural practices eg weeding, spraying, harvesting are easily carried out    (1 x 4 = 4mks)
    3. State and explain the importance of crop rotation (8mks)
      • Maximum utilization of nutrients – shallow rooted crops utilize nutrients in top soil profile while deep rooted utilize nutrients in lower soil horizons / different crops have different nutrient requirements eg cassava weeds more potassium while maize requires more nitrogen.
      • Control of soil borne pests and disease build up – crop pests and diseases are crop specific hence  crop rotation helps break the life cycles of crop pests and diseases
      • Control weeds – parasitic weeds ( striga) are controlled by planting non-grass crops
      • Improvement of soil structure – growing of grass minimize the disturbance of the soil hence improving soil structure (Grass ley)
      • Control of soil erosion – cover crops eg sweet potatoes avoid empty spaces hence soil protected from agents of soil erosin
      • Improvement of soil fertility – Leguminous crops helps in fixation of nitrogen hence improved soil fertility 
        Stating 1 x 4 = 4mks
        Explanation 1 x 4 =4mks 
  2.  
    1. State and explain four factors influencing soil erosion (8mks)
      • The amount / intensity of rainfall – Area that receive high amounts of rainfall / intensity are more prone to erosion than areas with low amount/ intensity of rainfall.
      • Slope of the land / Topography – The steeper the slope the greater the speed of water hence more soil erosion
      • The type of soil – Sandy soils are easily eradable compared to clay which is more resistant to erosion.
      • Clean weeding – Soil is left bare and exposed to soil erosion agents
      • Indiscriminate burning of  vegetation before cultivation – The land is left exposed to the erosive forces of rain and wind.
      • Planting annual crops on steep slopes – leads to frequent cultivation hence exposure of soil to erosion.
      • Deforestation – cutting of trees exposes the soil to soil/ erosion agents
      • Overstocking – Leads to overgrazing hence soil left bare and susceptible to erosion by wind or water
      • Vegetation cover – Vegetation on a soil surface acts as a barrier and reduces the impact of rain drops
      • Soil depth – shallow soils become saturated with water very quickly and are easily eroded.
      • Ploughing up and down the slope – Encourages easy water flow down the slow hence soil erosion
        Stating 1 x 4 = 4mks
        Explanation 1 x 4 =4mks    (first four)
    2. Outline the roles of trees in soil and water conservation (4mks)
      • They protect the soil below from rain drop erosion by reducing the force with which it falls onto the ground
      • They provide shade hence reduce loss of moisture through evaporation.
      • They act as windbreaks
      • The roots of trees bird soil practices together
      • They reduce the speed  of running water thus reducing its erosive power
      • Their leaves decay to supply humus to the soil which improves the infiltration rate of the soil.    (1 x 4 = 4mks)
    3. Outline the advantages of using herbicides in weed control (8mks)
      • Herbicides are effective in controlling bothersome weeds such as couch grass, sedges.
      • Herbicide use requires less labour than mechanical cultivation
      • Herbicides do not disturb crop roots  and other underground structures
      • Herbicides make the control of weeds in certain crops easier eg carrots, wheat, barley.
      • Cheaper in the long run than using  manual or mechanical cultivation
      • Herbicides are efficient in both wet and dry conditions unlike mechanical cultivation
      • Herbicide use is more convenient in crops such as sugarcane, sisal and controlling weeds such as stinging nettle and double thorn  Herbicide application helps to maintain the soil structure / helps achieve minimum tillage    (1 x 8 = 8 mks)
  3.  
    1. State the reasons for carrying out minimum tillage (6mks)
      • To reduce the cost of cultivation or ploughing by reducing the number of operations
      • To control  soil erosion. Mulching and cover cropping greatly reduce chances of soil erosion
      • To maintain soil structure. Continuous cultivation destroys soil structure hence it is avoided
      • To conserve moisture. Continuous cultivation exposes the soil to heat of the sun thus enhancing evaporation of available moisture.
      • To prevent the disturbance of the roots and underground structures.
      • To prevent the exposure of humus to adverse conditions.    (1 x 6 = 6mks)
    2. Outline the  reasons why farm budgeting is  important (6mks)
      • Helps the farmer in decision making. Good budget helps  a farmer to avoid over expenditure and impulse buying.
      • Enables the farmer to predict future returns hence the farmer plans ahead.
      • Helps the farmer to avoid incurring losses by investing in less profitable enterprises.
      • They enable farmers to secure loans from financial institutions eg AFC
      • Ensures a period analysis of the farm business
      • It acts as a record which can be used for future reference.
      • It pinpoint efficiency or weakness in farm operations    (1x6 = 6mks)
    3. State and explain four factors influencing the supply of a commodity (8mks)
      • Number of sellers in the market - The higher the number of sellers the higher the supply of a commodity
      • Price of related good -  If the price of related good increases the supply of the other good will increase
      • Price expectation - If the future price retains or increase the supply will low.
      • Technology – The higher technology the higher the supply.
      • Weather – If the weather is favourable the supply is high eg  vegetable and if its unfavarouble the supply is low.
      • Government policy – Unfavourable government policy will reduce the supply.
      • Changes in prices – An increase in price leads to increase in supply.  Reduction  in price leads to low supply.
      • Cost of production  - The increase in cost of production leads to low supply.
      • Increase in the supply of associated good. This lades  to increase of supply of the other products.
      • Transportation system – Improved and efficient transport increases supply
        Stating 1 x 4 = 4mks
        Explanation 1 x 4 = 4mks
        First four

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