Geography Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Cekenas Mock Exams 2022

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QUESTIONS

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

  1.      
    1. Give two evidences supporting the Nebula Cloud theory on the origin of the earth. (2marks)
    2. The diagram below represents the revolution of the earth.
      1
      Give three climatic conditions in Europe when the earth is in position R. (3marks)
  2.    
    1. Give two forces that may cause faulting process. (2marks)
    2. Describe how a block mountain is formed through compressional forces. (3 marks)
  3.    
    1. What is natural vegetation? (2 marks)
    2. Identify the temperate grassland in the following countries
      Argentina (1mark)
      South Africa (1 mark)
      Australia (1 mark)
  4.    
    1. Name two types of tides. (2marks)
    2. State three conditions necessary for formation of a beach. (3marks)
  5. Study the diagram below and answer the questions that follow.   
    2
    1. Name the features marked
      X (1 Mark)
      Y (1 Mark)
      Z (1 Mark)
    2. Identify two processes through which the feature marked X is formed. (2 marks)

SECTION B
Answer question 6 and any other two questions from this section.

  1. Study the map of Nyeri 1: 50 000 (sheet 120/4) provided and answer the following questions.
    1.      
      1. Identify the sheet number of the map provided (1mark)
      2. Convert the scale of map into a statement scale. (2marks)
      3. What is the bearing of the trigonometrical station 1906 in grid square 6860 from the trigonometrical station 1865 in grid square 6957. (2 marks)
    2.      
      1. Identify three physical features found in grid square 6259. (2 marks)
      2. Give the latitudinal extent of the area covered by the map. (2 marks)
      3. Identify two districts in the area covered by the map. (2 marks)
    3.      
      1. Using a scale of 1 cm represents 20m, draw a cross section from Easting 68 to Easting 74 along Northing 64 . (4 marks)
        On it mark and name
        • A hill top (1mark)
        • A stream/river (1 mark)
        • All weather road loose surface (1mark)
      2. Calculate the vertical exaggeration of the cross-section. (2 marks)
    4. Citing evidence from the map, identify two social services offered in Mweiga Township. (4 marks)
  2.      
    1. What is climate (2 marks)
    2.    
      1. Explain two effects of climate change on the physical environment. (4 marks)
      2. State four characteristics of the hot desert climate. (4 marks)
    3. Using a well-labelled diagram, explain the formation of anabatic winds. (5 marks)
    4.    
      1. Define micro climate. (2 marks)
      2. Explain four human activities that can lead to aridity and desertification. (8 marks)
  3.      
    1. Identify two types of earthquake waves. (2 marks)
    2.      
      1. Describe two ways in which the strength of an earthquake is measured. (4 marks)
      2. State three human causes of earthquakes. (3 marks)
    3. Explain four effects of earthquakes on physical environment. (8 marks)
    4. Students from Karatina School carried out a field study of an area affected by earthquake.
      1. Identify three effects they noticed on human environment. (3 marks)
      2. State three advantages of collecting information in the area using photographs? (3 marks)
      3. Give two problems they are likely to experience (2 marks)
  4.        
    1.      
      1. Distinguish between the river system and river interfluves (2 marks)
      2. Give three types of river erosion. (3 marks)
    2.      
      1. What is a waterfall? (2 marks)
      2. Give four types of waterfalls. (4 marks)
    3. Describe each of the following drainage patterns.
      1. Dendritic pattern (4 marks)
      2. Trellis pattern (4 marks)
    4. Your class is required to carry out a field study on the lower course of a river.
      1. Give three advantages of dividing the class into groups. (3marks)
      2. List three features the students would identify. (3marks)
  5.      
    1.    
      1. Define the term ‘leaching’. (2 marks)
      2. State two factors that contribute to the leaching of soils. (2 marks)
    2.      
      1. Explain how laterization (ferrallization) occur. (6 marks)
      2. State three types of soils degeneration. (3 marks)
    3.    
      1. Explain four ways in which vegetation protects the soils and prevents soil erosion. (8 marks)
      2. State four advantages of mulching soil using organic matter. (4 marks)


MARKING SCHEME

  1.      
    1.    
      • All planets undergo rotation and revolution.
      • Temperatures of the planets increases with the increase in depth.
      • Material making up the Nebula were hot hence planets nearer the centre of the solar system have higher temperature than those far away. (2x1 = 2mks)
    2. The diagram below represents the revolution of the earth.
    3.      
      1.    
        • High temperatures
        • High rainfall
        • Convergence of winds
        • Low atmospheric pressure
        • High humidity
        • It is cloudy (3x1 = 3mks)
  2.    
    1.    
      • Tensional forces
      • Compressional forces
      • Vertical forces (2x1 = 2mks)
    2.      
      • Earth crustal rock are subjected to compressional forces developing reversed faults.
      • Continued subjection to compressional forces on crustal rocks triggers off vertical forces.
      • Vertical forces pushes the middle block up at higher level while the side block remains at the original positions.
      • The raised middle block that is above the surrounding sides blocks forms block mountains.
  3.    
    1. It is the plant cover that grows wildly on the earth’s surface without interference from man and his animals. (2x1 = 2mks)
    2.    
      • Argentina - Pampas
      • South Africa - Veldts
      • Australia – Downs
        (3x1 = 3mk)
  4.      
    1.    
      • Spring tides
      • Neap tides
      • Apogean tides
      • Perigean tides
        (2x1 = 2mks)
    2.    
      • Presence of abundant supply of material to be deposited.
      • Presence of a shallow shore/ continental shelf
      • A relatively weak long shore current
      • Gently sloping land at the sea shore
      • A weak backwash/ constructive wave.   
  5.      
    1. X – Corrie/ cirque (1 Mark)
      Y - Arete (1 Mark)
      Z – Pyramidal peak (1 Mark)
    2. Abrasion
      Plucking
  6.      
    1.    
      1. 120/4
      2. 1 : 50000 = 0.5
            100000
        Therefore 1 cm rep 0.5km or 1 cm rep ½km
      3. 338º ± 1 or N22º W
    2.    
      1.    
        • Stream/river
        • River/valley
        • Scrub vegetation
        • Woodland vegetation
      2. 18.3cm = 5'
        5.7cm = ?
        5 x 5.7 = 1.5
          18.3
        1 min = 60sec
        0.5 = 30sec
        5.7cm = 1'30''
        0º20'00''
          1'30''  
        0'18'30''
        Latitudinal extent = 0'18'30''s = 0º30's
      3. Nyeri district
        Laikipia district
    3.    
      1.  
        3
      2. V.E = V.S
                 H.S
        =  1    ÷    1    
         20m    50000cm
        =   1     x 50000
          2000         1
        = 25times
    4.    
      • Recreation services as evidenced by presence of youth club
      • Education as evidenced by presence of school
      • Medical/ Health as evidenced by presence of dispensary
      • Administration as evidence by the chief’s office
      • Security as evidenced by presence of police station.
  7.    
    1. Climate is the average weather conditions of a place over a long period of time.
    2.  
      1.    
        • Global warming and increase in temperatures.
        • Increased temperature may lead to melting of ice caps and ice sheets leading to rising sea level.
        • Increase in temperatures may result to high evaporation leading to drought.
        • May cause changes in rainfall patterns in different parts of the world.
      2.    
        • High temperatures during the day and low temperatures during the night due to high terrestrial radiation.
        • High diurnal range of temperature
        • Clear and cloudless skies
        • Receives less than 250mm of rainfall annually
        • Receive short and torrential rains which cause flash floods
        • Humidity is low and evaporation rate is high
        • Sandstorms are very common
        • High wind velocity due to the frictional force.

    3. 4   
      • During the day, mountain slopes are heated and warm faster than in the valley bottoms.
      • Low pressure develops on mountain slopes than at the valley bottoms
      • The air on the mountain slopes expands and rises by convection.
      • The cool air from the valley bottom rises as anabatic wind to take its place
    4.    
      1. Climate experienced within a small or restricted area which is different from general climate in the region.
      2.    
        • Clearing of vegetation for settlement and agriculture interfering with the water cycle causing drying up.
        • Overstocking that leads to overgrazing leaving the land bear exposing to soil erosion.
        • Poor agricultural practices such as over- cultivating, monoculture, slashing and burning leading to soil erosion.
        • Poor irrigation methods leading to evaporation and salts brought from below to the surface and deposited on the top soil making soils salty and unable to support plants.
        • Industrial release of greenhouse gasses like CO2 to the atmosphere which absorb heat rising earth’s temperatures.
  8.    
    1.    
      • Primary waves
      • Secondary waves
      • Longitudinal waves/L waves
    2.    
      1.    
        • The strength of an earthquake is measured by its intensity.
        • Intensity measures how strong and hard an earthquake shakes the ground
        • It is measured on the Mercalli scale or Rossi Farrell scale
        • The strength is measured by its magnitude
        • Magnitude measures the amount of energy released by an earthquake.
        • It is measured on the Ritcher scale
      2.    
        • Use of explosives
        • Underground nuclear tests
        • Construction of large reservoirs
        • Movement of trains
    3.    
      • It causes landslides/slumps
      • It causes raising or lowering of land
      • It causes faulting of the crust
      • It causes lateral or vertical displacement of rocks
      • It causes rising and lowering of the sea level.
    4.    
      1.    
        • Cracks in buildings
        • Landslides covering crops etc.
        • Collapse of weak buildings
        • Panic and fear amongst people
        • Death and destruction of properties due to falling objects
      2.    
        • They are easy to take
        • Cheap to produce
        • Can be stored for future references
        • Easy to extract information of well-labelled
        • Features portrayed are realistic
      3.    
        • Inaccessibility of the area due to massive destruction
        • The rubble may obscure the evidence
        • Lack of informers because people may have evacuated
  9.    
    1.    
      1. River system is the main river and its tributaries while river interfluves is the high areas in between the tributaries.
      2.    
        • Head ward erosion
        • Vertical erosion
        • Lateral erosion
    2.    
      1. A waterfall is the sharp break in the river channel over which the river falls
      2.    
        • Waterfalls formed where a river channel passes over underlying hard rock
        • Waterfall formed where there is vertical hard work along the river channel.
        • Waterfall formed where the river course flows over a fault scarp.
        • Waterfall formed where a river enters a coastal plain from a plateau
        • Waterfall as a result of river rejuvenation
        • Waterfall formed where a river channel flows over underlying volcanic dykes, lava dorms or plugs
        • Waterfall formed where a river enters the sea through a cliff.
        • Waterfall formed in a glaciated upland where a river flows from a hanging valley and plunges into a u-shaped valley.
    3.    
      1.    
        • The pattern develops in areas where rocks have uniform structure.
        • The direction of flow is influenced by the slope of the land
        • The tributaries join the main river at acute angles.
        • The tributaries join the main river forming a shape like that of a tree and its branches.
        • Rivers join the main river from many directions.
      2.    
        • The pattern develops where soft and hard rocks alternate vertically.
        • The tributaries join the main river at right angles.
        • The consequent streams are parallel to the main river.
        • Some consequent streams flow to the opposite direction of the main river.
        • The main river and its tributaries form a rectilinear pattern.
    4.    
      1.    
        • The class would be able to study the entire course of the river.
        • It will enable them to obtain detailed information on the river.
        • It will enable the field study to be carried in an orderly way.
        • It will encourage participation of all the members of the class
        • It will facilitate more interaction among the group members.
      2.    
        • Alluvial fan
        • Meanders
        • Oxbow lakes
        • Natural levees
        • Deferred tributaries
        • Braided channels
        • Flood plains
        • Delta
        • Distributaries
  10.      
    1.    
      1. It is the removal by rainwater on soluble mineral matter in solution from the upper horizon or the soils (horizon A) to the lower horizons of the soils.
      2.    
        • Nature of the soils especially its texture and solubility or its minerals
        • High rainfall in the rain season alternating with a dry season
        • Topography
    2.    
      1.    
        • It occurs in areas which experience alternating wet and dry seasons especially the warm hot humid tropical regions.
        • During the wet season mineral salts in the A- horizon dissolve in percolating rain water.
        • The dissolved minerals percolate from A – horizon downwards i.e. leached out.
        • The soil solution also cause removal or silica in a process called desilication.
        • The dissolved minerals are deposited in the lower layer in a process known as precipitation.
        • Insoluble minerals such as iron and aluminum oxides accumulate in A – horizon to form a crust known as laterite.
        • There is rapid circulation or bases between the soil and the vegetation because or abundance of leaf litter and its rapid decay.
      2.    
        • Physical degeneration
        • Chemical degeneration
        • Biological degeneration
    3.    
      1.    
        • The leaf cover helps to reduce the force or rain drops which would otherwise loosen and remove soil particles if their force was not checked.
        • vegetation cover increases the rate or infiltration or rainwater and thus reduces surface run-off
        • Plant roots which penetrate the soil create space through which water percolates deep into the ground.
        • A wide – spreading and deeply penetrating root system is very effective in binding the soil particles together.
        • Plant cover breaks the force of wind at ground and reduces evaporation which would otherwise dry and loosen the soil.
        • Decayed vegetable matter provides humus which binds the soil particles together.
      2.    
        • It reduces the rate of evaporation of water from the soil
        • It protects the soil from erosion
        • It increases the humus content of the soil when they disintegrate
        • Increases the rate of infiltration of water into the soil
        • The mulch provide suitable habitat for borrowing animals which churn the soil and improve its texture and capacity 

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