History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Maranda Mock Examinations 2022

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Instructions to candidates

  1. This paper consists of three sections; A, B and C.
  2. Answer all the questions in section A, three questions from section B and two questions from section C.
  3. Answers to all the questions must be written in the attached sheets.

QUESTIONS

SECTION A (25 Marks)
Answer all questions in this section in the spaces provided at the end of question 24.

  1. Give the main method used by anthropologists to gather their historical data. (1 mark)
  2. Identify the method used in making Sangoan tools. (1 mark)
  3. Give the main role of age –set system among the Agikuyu. (1 mark)
  4. Identify one role played by theatre in Kenya. (1 mark)
  5. Mention two functions of Portuguese Captains in administering the Kenyan coast. (2 marks)
  6. Outline two ways in which a person can qualify to be a Kenyan citizen by birth. (2 marks)
  7. Name two social factors that promote national unity in Kenya. (2 marks)
  8. List one right of a person under arrest according to the Bill of Rights. (1 mark)
  9. Give two factors that determined the type of constitution in Kenya. (2 marks)
  10. Identify any two roles of the Commissioner according to the East Africa order in Council of 1897. (2 marks)
  11. Identify one reason for the collapse of Gede as an early urban center. (1 mark)
  12. Outline two developmental rights of Kenyan child. (2 marks)
  13. State two proposals made by the Lennox Boyd constitution. (2 marks)
  14. Give one commission that was established to look into African Education in colonial Kenya. (1 mark)
  15.  Name the political paper that was published by the Kenya African Union (KAU) periodically. (1 mark)
  16.  Mention one principle of the concept of natural justice. (1 mark)
  17. State two major challenges facing Health sector in Kenya. (2 marks)

SECTION B: (45 Marks)
Answer any THREE questions from this section in the space provided at the end of question 24.

  1.                    
    1. Mention five communities that comprise the highland Nilotes. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five social effects of Bantu migration into Kenya. (10 marks)
  2.                  
    1. State five reasons for the conflict between the Busaidi Sultan of Oman and the Mazrui governors of Mombasa (5 marks)
    2. Explain five factors which led to the decline of the coastal settlements between 1500 and 1700.(10 marks)
  3.                
    1. Name five Kenyan nationalists that were detained alongside Jomo Kenyatta in Kapenguria in 1952. (5 marks)
    2. Describe five roles of Jaramogi Oginga Odinga in the struggle for independence in Kenya. (10 marks)
  4.                      
    1. Identify five roles of national philosophies in Kenya’s development. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five problems that have undermined the performance of national philosophies in Kenya. (10 marks)

SECTION C: (30 MARKS)
Answer any TWO questions from this section in the space provided at the end of question 24.

  1.                          
    1. State the composition of the National Defence Council in Kenya. (3 marks)
    2. Describe the challenges facing the Kenya Defence Forces. (12 marks)
  2.                  
    1. Give three sources of the Kenyan law. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six functions of the civil servants of the National Government of Kenya (12 marks)
  3.                          
    1. State three principles of devolution of government in Kenya. (3 marks)
    2. Discuss six functions of a county Governor in Kenya (12 marks) 

MARKING SCHEME

  1. The main method used by anthropologists to gather information.
    • Observation. (1 x 1 = 1mk)
  2. Identify the method used in making Sangoan tools. (1mk)
    • Levallois technology (1x1=1mk)
  3. Give the main role of age –set system among the Agikuyu (1mk)
    • To provide warriors to defend the community (1x1=1mk)
  4. Identify one role played by theatre in Kenya (1mk)
    • Educate people on different aspects of life e.g. drug abuse
    • For entertainment
    • Promotion of culture.
    • Reflects on the country’s political development
    • Creates employment
    • Help unite Kenyans (First 2x1=2 mks)
  5. Mention two functions of Portuguese Captains in administering the Kenyan coast (2mks)
    • To collect taxes.
    • Levied duties on imports & export.
    • Mobilized army to suppress rebellions.
    • Were administrators/supervised the ruling families. (Any 2x1=2mks)
  6. Give two ways in which a person can qualify to be a Kenyan citizen by birth. (2mks)
    • A person born in Kenya by parents who are Kenyans.
    • A child found in Kenya who is gauged to be less than 8yrs of age and whose nationality and parentage are not known, is presumed to be a citizen by birth.
    • A person born outside by parents who are Kenyan citizens.
    • A person who is a Kenyan citizen by birth & ceased to be a Kenyan citizen can regain upon application. (Any 2x1=2mks)
  7. Name two social factors that promote national unity in Kenya. ( 2mrks)
    • Inter-ethnic marriage /intermarriage.
    • Religion.
    • Education.
    • Games/sports/drama/music festivals. ( Any 2x1=2mks)
  8. Right for an arrested person according to the Bill of Rights.
    • The right to be informed immediately of the reason for the arrest.
    • The right to communicate with an advocate.
    • The right to be held separately from convicted persons since he/she is presumed innocent until proven guilty.
    • They should be taken to court as soon as possible or be informed for the reason of extended detention or released on bond or bail on reasonable conditions pending change or trial. (Any 1 x 1 = 1mk)
  9. Give two factors that determined the type of constitution in Kenya (2mks)
    • Historical background of country.
    • Geographical factors.
    • Religious believes of people.
    • Racial factors. (Any 2x1=2mks)
  10. Two roles of the commissioner according to the East Africa Order in Council of 1897.
    • The authority to set up the necessary administration bodies in the protectorate.
    • Had the authority to make laws.
    • Had the authority to establish courts of law.
    • He was directly answerable to the secretary of states in London.
    • Powers to appoint headmen.
    • Sent expeditions against resisting African communities. (Any 2x1 = 2mks)
  11. Identify one reason for the collapse of Gede as an early urban center.
    • Water shortage/unfavourable climatic conditions/ drought.
    • War of conquest/Portuguegess attack.
    • Diseases.
    • Intercity rivalry. (Any1 x 1 = 1mk)
  12. Outline two developmental rights of Kenyan child (2mks)
    • Right to education.
    • Right to access information.
    • Right to security.
    • Right to parental love.
    • Right to play and leisure. (Any 2x1=2mks)
  13. State two proposals made by the Lennox Boyd constitution
    • Increasing the number of African elected members in the Legco from 8 to 14.
    • Setting up a commission to investigate & recommend abolition of racial laws.
    • Expansion of the council of ministers from 14 to 16. (Any 2x1=2mks)
  14. Name one commission that was established to look into African Education in colonial Kenya. (1mk)
    • Fraser commission -1908.
    • Phelps stokes commission.-1924.
    • The Beecher Committee report.-1949.
    • Binns education commission -1952. (1 x 1 = 1mk)
  15. The political paper published by KAU periodically.
    • Sauti ya Mwafrika. (1 x 1 = 1mk)
  16. One principle of the concept of Natural Justice.
    • The law applies equally to all Kenyans i.e. .rule against bias
    • Right to fair hearing prior to decision (Any 1 x 1 = 2mks)
  17. Two major challenges facing Health sector in Kenya.
    • Inadequate personnel.
    • Inadequate funds.
    • Increase of population.
    • Emergence of different ailments/diseases.
    • Lack of modern / specialized medical equipment. (Any2 x 1 = 2mks)
  18.              
    1. Mention five communities that comprises the highland Nilotes. (5 mks)
      • Nandi
      • Kipsigis
      • Tugen
      • Marakwet
      • Pokot
      • Sabaot
      • Okiek
      • Elgeyo (Any 5x1=5 mks)
    2. Explain five social effects of Bantu migration into Kenya. (10mks)
      • Population increased in areas where they settled
      • Culture interaction between the Bantu and neighbouring communities i.e. Bantu adopted circumcision and age-set system from Southern cushites
      • Population redistribution in the region where they settled e.g the Ogiek were forced into forested areas
      • Displacement of some communities who had settled the region earlier i.e. Agikuyu displaced Maasai in parts of Southern Kiambu.
      • Intermarriages between the Bantu and neighbouring communities e.g. Oromo, Maasai and Luo.
      • Absorption and assimilation of neighbouring communities by the Bantus i.e. Southern cushites
        (Any 5 well explained x 2 = 10 Mks)
  19.                
    1. State five reasons for the conflict between the Busaidi Sultan of Oman and the Mazrui governors of Mombasa (5mks)
      • Sultan of Oman wish to increase then control over coastal towns including Mombasa to control trade.
      • Mazrui governors wished to be independent.
      • Mombasa rebels were encouraged by the fact that the Sultan of Oman was dealing with enemies at home.
      • Mombasa had fought hard against the Portuguese and didn’t wish to be controlled by another foreigner.
      • As the 18th century moved on, trade prospered again between Kilwa and the French islands of re-union hence the Sultan was more determined than ever to maintain close control over the trade at the coast.
      • Open conflict began when Mohammed Ibn Uthman al Mazrui refused to pay allegiance to the new Sultan in 1741. (Any 5x1 = 5 mks)
    2. Explain five factors which led to the decline of the coastal settlements between 1500 and 1700.(10mks)
      • Rivalry for the control of the Indian Ocean trade weakened the coastal settlements. Each one of them wanted to dominate the trade.
      • Wars of conquest by the Portuguese against the coastal settlements. Destroyed and wakened many of them.
      • Establishment of Portuguese rule at the coast led to disruption of the Indian Ocean trade – the main economic base of the towns. The Portuguese also diverted trade to Portugal leaving them with little revenue.
      • Invasion of the settlements by the Zimba a warrior community from the Zambezi valley – they caused widespread destruction.
      • Occasional unfavourable climatic conditions which characterized the period led to inadequate rainfall and shortage of water in some coastal settlements. For example Gedi which subsequently declined.
      • Conflicts / wars between Oman Arabs and the Portuguese over the control of the coastal settlements affected economic activities in the area.
      • Some Africa middlemen diverted trade goods to Northern routes by – passing the towns that were under Portuguese control. (Any 5 well explained x2 = 10mks)
  20.                  
    1. Name five Kenyan nationalists that were detained alongside Jomo Kenyatta in Kapenguria in 1952. (5 mks)
      • Paul Ngei
      • Bildad Kaggia
      • Ochieng Oneko
      • Kung’u Karumba
      • Fred Kubai First 5 x 1 = 5mks)
    2. Describe five roles of Jaramogi Oginga Odinga in the struggle for independence in Kenya (12mks)
      • In 1947, formed the Luo Thrift and Trading Company (LUTATCO) which established a printing press in Nairobi.
      • LUTATCO printed anti-government information for the public.
      • While teaching at Maseno School, he learned of the injustices to Africans which he condemned strongly.
      • 1948-1950, KAU met in Kisumu which brought him in contact with Kenyatta.
      • 1957, elected MP for Nyanza Central.
      • Chairman of African Elected members Organization (AEMO).
      • Denounced Lyttelton constitution.
      • Founder member of Kenya independence movement (KIM) which fought for independence.
      • 1958, raised alarm about Kenyatta’s condition in prison.
      • Participated in 1st Lancaster House Conference in 1960.
      • Was Vice President for KANU Government.
      • 1961, elected to represent central Nyanza in LegCo.
      • Campaigned for unity of KANU & KADU
      • Was 1st Vice President of KANU on its formation in 1960.
        (Any 5 well explained points x 2 = 10mks)
  21.              
    1. Five roles of National philosophies in Kenya
      • Promotion of education through building of schools, laboratories and libraries.
      • Enhancing unity and understanding among people.
      • Improvement of medical services as hospitals and dispensaries are built.
      • Promotion of the welfare of people with special needs.
      • Promotion of transport e.g Nyayo busses.
      • Promotion of agriculture e.g Nyayo Tea Zones.
      • Promotion of African culture.
      • Promotion of sports e.g Nyayo stadium.
      • Promotion of international relations.
      • Promotion of environmental conservation e.g construction of gubbions.
      • Improving the living standards of people as services and other social needs are catered for.
      • Encouraging nationalism and patriotism among Kenyans (First 5x1 = 5mks)
    2. Explain five problems that have undermined the performance of the National philosophies in Kenya.
      • Corruption.
      • Negative attitude from people.
      • Misappropriation and embezzlement of public funds.
      • Poverty.
      • Tribal clashes and conflicts.
      • Unemployment.
      • Exploitation of people.
      • Lack of commitment by political parties.
      • Wrangles among leaders. First 5 well explained points x2 = 10mks)
  22.                
    1. The composition of the National Defence Council in Kenya.
      • The Cabinet Secretary for defense as Chairperson.
      • Chief of the Defence forces.
      • The three commanders of the defence forces.
      • Principal Secretary in the ministry responsible for defence. (Any3x1 = 3mks)
    2. Explain six Challenges facing the Kenya Defence Forces.
      • Corrupt practices e.g. in recruitments.
      • Tribalism and nepotism which demoralize hardworking officers.
      • Inadequate funds for equipping of the forces.
      • Officers are not provided with opportunities to acquire further education.
      • Use of conservative regulations e.g. gender based discrimination.
      • Piracy and militia attacks of raids of Kenyan borders.
      • Invasion of Kenya’s territorial waters.
      • Human encroachment on areas of KDF e.g. the Eastleigh Moi Air Base.
      • The challenges of allegation on violation of human rights as they dispense their duties.
        Any 6 well explained x2 = 12mks)
  23.            
    1. Three sources of the Kenyan law.
      • African customary laws.
      • Sharia/ Islamic laws.
      • Acts of Parliament.
      • Constitution of Kenya.
      • By laws of county governments. (First 3x1 = 3mks)
    2. Explain six functions of the civil servants of the National Government of Kenya (12mks)
      • It provides services required by the people in various sectors of the economy.
      • It keeps Government records /documents which ensures continuity in the provision of public services.
      • It explains Government policies to the people in order to make them easily understood by public.
      • It maintains law & order/security through various security organs like the Kenya police/National intelligence service.
      • It monitors the implementation of Government projects/policies in order to ensure proper use of public resources.
      • It defends the country from external aggression through the Kenya defend forces.
      • It liases with other countries/international organizations which conduct business with Government.
      • Through the judiciary, it settles disputes which arise among the people.
        (First 6 explianedx2=12 mks)
  24.            
    1. Three principles of devolution of government in Kenya.
      • County governments are based on democratic principles.
      • Separation of powers.
      • County governments shall have reliable sources of revenue to enable them govern and deliver services effectively.
      • Not more than two thirds of the members of a representative body in each county government shall be of the same gender. (First 3x1 = 3mks)
    2. Discuss six functions of a county Governor in Kenya (12mks)
      • He/she is the Chief Executive of the county as public servants in the county are accountable to him.
      • He/she appoints members of the county Executive Committee who are chief officers in charge of various departments.
      • He/she assigns responsibilities to the Deputy Governor who is his/her principal assistant in the running of the county.
      • He /she supervises the county executive committee members so as to ensure service delivery in the respective departments.
      • He/she is incharge of implementation of the county & National legislations in his/her respective county.
      • He/she represents the county in national/international fora to articulate development agenda for the county
      • He/she assents to the bills which have been passed by the county assembly into by-laws.
      • He/she delivers annual state of the county address in the county assembly.
      • He/she submits to the county assembly plans/policies for approval.
      • Acts as a link between the county and national government.
      • Take part in the law making process by proposing a legislation or a Bill to be debated on the county assembly.
        (First 6 well explained x2=12mks)

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