Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Maranda Mock Examinations 2022

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INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  • Answer all the questions in section A and B
  • Answer any two questions in section C

QUESTIONS

SECTION A: (30 marks)
Answer all questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1. List two disadvantages of small scale farming (1 mark)
  2. Name two ways by which predators affect agricultural production (1 mark)
  3. Name the role of each of the following chemicals in water treatment
    1. Alum (½ mark)
    2. Soda ash (½ mark)
  4. State two ways in which crop rotation controls weeds (1 mark)
  5. State four characteristics of a good vegetable seedling (2 marks)
  6. Name two forms of horticulture practised in Kenya (1 mark)
  7. State two mechanical methods of separating soil particles, according to size, during soil analysis (1 mark)
  8. State four reasons why a nursery is important in crop production (2 marks)
  9. Name the part used for vegetative propagation of each of the following plants (2 marks)
    1. Cassava
    2. Sisal
    3. Pyrethrum
    4. Sweet potatoes
  10. State four reasons for applying phosphatic fertilizers during planting (2 marks)
  11. Give two reasons for testing soil (2 marks)
  12. State four management practices undertaken to improve natural pastures (2 marks)
  13. State four qualities of certified seeds (2 marks)
  14. Name four classes of weeds (2 marks)
  15. State three causes of land fragmentation in Kenya today (1½ marks)
  16. State any three organic farming practices (1½ marks)
  17. What is meant by the term production function? (1 mark)
  18. What is meant by the term integrated pest management? (1 mark)
  19. Give three examples of fixed costs in maize production (11/2 marks)
  20. State three factors that determine the choice of water pipes used on the farm (11/2 marks)

SECTION B (20 MARKS)
Answer all questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1. The diagram below shows a section of plant from which the planting material illustrated was obtained
    21 adadad
    1. Identify the planting material illustrated (1 mark)
    2. Give two reasons why only the middle part of the plant was used to prepare the planting material (1 mark)
    3. Apart from using the middle part of the plant, explain three precautions that should be observed when preparing the illustrated planting material (3 marks)
  2. The diagram below illustrates seed potato which has been prepared for planting Study it carefully and answers the questions that follow
    22 adaddada
    1. Name the practice that has been used to prepare the seed potato above for planting (1 mark)
    2. Describe the procedure followed in preparing seed potatoes for planting (4 marks)
  3. The diagram below illustrates a newly constructed cut-off drain Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow
    23 adadad
    1. Identify the parts of cut off drains labeled A and B (2 marks)
      A
      B
    2. How can the part of the structure labeled B be stabilized after it has been constructed? (2 marks)
    3. State any one factor that would determine the width and depth of the cut-off drain (1 mark)
  4. The diagrams below show a set up of an experiment to study an aspect of soil The set up was left undisturbed for five hours Study it and answer the questions that follow
    24 adaadda
    1. What was the aim of the experiment? (1 mark)
    2. State one observation that was made in each of the flasks labelled C and D (2 marks)
      C
      D
    3. Give a reason for each of your answers in (b) above (2 marks)
      C
      D

SECTION C (40MARKS)
Answer any two questions from this section in the spaces provided after question 27

  1.                
    1. Explain seven factors that should be considered when selecting seeds for planting (7 marks)
    2. State four benefits of adequate and reliable rainfall in vegetable crop production (4 marks)
    3. Explain four factors that determine the nutrient content of hay (4 marks)
    4. State five reasons for keeping farm records (5 marks)
  2.              
    1. State the importance of any five nursery management practices (5 marks)
    2. Explain seven cultural methods of soil and water conservation (7 marks)
    3. Describe the role of magnesium in crop production (4 marks)
    4. Describe four practices that a farmer should carry out to ensure uniform germination of seeds (4 marks)
  3.            
    1. Explain five factors that determine the spacing of crops (5 marks)
    2. Explain five factors that may encourage soil erosion (5 marks)
    3. Describe five management practices that should be carried out on a vegetable nursery after sowing seeds until the seedlings are ready for transplanting (5 marks)
    4. State five soil factors that should be considered when selecting a crop to grow in an area (5 marks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1. Two disadvantages of small scale farming (1mk)
    1. The yields of produce are low
    2. It offers less employment opportunities compared to large scale farming
    3. It does not enjoy economies of large scale
  2. Two ways by which predators affect agricultural production
    1. Some predators help to control predators by feeding on them
    2. Predators that kill livestock impact negatively on them
  3.                
    1. Alum – to coagulate solid particles
    2. Soda ash –softening of water
  4. Ways in which crop rotation control weeds ( 1mk)
    1. Crops associated with specific weeds are alternated with crops of different families to remove the appropriate host and break the life cycle of weeds
    2. Alternating with cover crops smoothers the weeds
  5.  Four characteristics of a good vegetable seedling 2mks)
    1. Free from disease/pest/healthy
    2. Vigorously growing
    3. Free from physical deformities
    4. High yielding
    5. Correct stage of growth/height/10-15cm tall/4-6 true leaves
  6. two forms of horticulture practised in Kenya (1mk)
    1. Floriculture
    2. Pomoculture /pomology
    3. Olericulture
  7. Two mechanical methods of separating soil particles according to size during soil analysis( 1mks)
    1. Using sieve/sieve analysis
    2. Sedimentation method
  8. four reasons why nursery is important in crop production(2mks)
    1. Many seedlings can be produced in a small space
    2. Facilitates timely routine management practices
    3. Best conditions for growth of seedlings
    4. Small seeds and delicate seedlings grow into healthy and vigorous seedlings
    5. Reduced growth period in the field
    6. Excess seedlings can be sold for income
    7. Facilitates selection of healthy and vigorously growing seedling for transplanting
  9. Plant part used for vegetative propagation (2mks)
    1. Cassava –stem cuttings/stems
    2. Sisal- bulbils/suckers
    3. Pyrethrum –splits
    4. Sweet potatoes – vines /stem cuttings
  10. four reasons for applying phosphatic fertilizer during planting (2mks)
    1. Less soluble
    2. Promote root development
    3. Lacks/has slight scorching effect
    4. Long residual effect
    5. Not easily leached
  11. two reasons of soil testing ( 1 mk)
    1. Determine soil type/type of fertilizer/type of plant to grow
    2. Determine nutrient content/amount of fertilizer to apply
  12. four management practices undertaken to improve the natural pastures (2mks)
    1. Weed control
    2. Topping
    3. Fertilizer application/irrigation/pest control
  13. four qualities of certified seeds (2 mks)
    1. High germination percentage
    2. Suitable to the ecological conditions
    3. Free from physical damage
    4. True to type/free from off types
    5. Clean
  14. four classes of weeds (2mks)
    1. Broad leaved weeds
    2. Narrow weeds
    3. Perennial weeds
    4. Annual weeds
    5. Biennial weeds
    6. Monocotyledonous weeds
    7. Dicotyledonous causes of land weeds
  15. three causes of land fragmentation in Kenya (1.5 mks)
    1. Inheritance
    2. Purchase of land
    3. Compensation by the government
  16. three organic farming practices (1.5 mks)
    1. Mulching
    2. Use of organic manure
    3. Cover cropping
    4. Crop rotation
    5. Uprooting/slashing of weeds
    6. Restricting cultivation to crop roots
  17. Meaning of production function ( 1 mk)
    • It is the physical relationship between resource input and corresponding output/product
  18. meaning of integrated pest management . ( 1 mk)
    • This is a combination of physical, chemical, biological and cultural pest control methods
  19. four examples of fixed costs in maize production (2mks)
    1. Salaries of permanent workers
    2. Insurance
    3. Rent
    4. Standing charges of telephone
    5. Depreciation cost of farm machinery
    6. Cost of buying machinery
  20. four factors that determine the choice of water pipes in the farm(2mks)
    1. Strength of the pipes
    2. Amount of water to be conveyed
    3. Cost of the pipes
    4. Diameter/size of the pipes
    5. Durability
    6. Colour of the pipes
  21.              
    1.  tea cutting/cutting ( 1mk)
    2. two reasons why the middle part of plant was used ( 1 mk)
      1. Top part tends to rot when planted.
      2. Botton takes long to root
    3. two other precautions that are observed when preparing the illustrated planting material ( 3mks)
      1. Place it in water until it is planted to avoid dehydration
      2. Each cutting should have a leaf and a bud
      3. Use sharp knife or blade to prevent breaking of the cutting
      4. Make slanting cuts to prevent accumulation of moisture
  22.                  
    1. chitting
    2. describe the procedure for preparation of seed potatoes for planting ( 4 mks)
      • Arrange the setts /tubers in a store or chitting box with rose end facing upwards
      • Tubers are arranged 2-3 layers deep
      • Allow diffused light through the store
      • Dust/spray the setts with insecticide/fungicides to control pests or fungal infection
      • Sprinkle some water on tubers if conditions are dry
  23.              
    1.                  
      1. A trench/channel ( 0.5 mk)
        B ridge/embarkment ( 0.5 mk)
      2. Procedure of constructing a cut off drain (2 mks)
        • Measure and mark the layout of the drain
        • Dig and remove soil from the channel and heap it on the lower side of the drain
    2. to demonstrate the presence of living organisms in the soil
    3. C-lime water turns milky/white ppt formed
      D- no observable change/lime water remains clear
  24.                                  
    1. Seven factors that should be considered when selecting seeds for planting (7mks)
      • Adaptability should be adaptable to local conditions
      • Physical deformities –should be free from physical damages and pest/diseases
      • Viability/germination percentage – should have high germination percentage/viability
      • Should be from high yielding /healthy planting material
      • Purity-should b clean/free from impurities
      • Maturity – should be of correct maturity stage
      • Age/storage period seeds stored for a long time have low germination percentage hence should not be selected.
      • Size of the seeds – should be of the correct size.
    2. four benefits of adequate supply of water in vegetable crop production. (4mks)
      • Controls pest in crop production
      • Maximises the use of available nutrients
      • Increases yields and ensure a steady supply of food throughout the year
      • Ensures a steady and reliable source of income and employment
    3. four factors that determine the nutrient content hay. (4mks)
      • Stage of growth at harvesting time i.e., should be cut when 50 percent has flowered.
      • Species of the forage crop used
      • Duration of storage
      • Length of drying period
      • Method of storage
    4. five r reasons of keeping farm records ( 5mks)
      • Planning and decision making
      • Income tax assessment
      • Provides information useful during credit acquisition
      • Indicates the net worth of the farm
      • Compare the performance of enterprises between seasons or between one farm and the other
      • Solve disputes among heirs
      • Tell the history of the farm
      • Help in insurance claims
      • Assist to detect losses in the farm
      • Calculations of profits and losses
      • Calculations of labour information e.g., Terminal benefits/NHIF/NSSF
  25.            
    1. Five nursery management practices (5 mks)
      • Watering provides moisture amounts needed by the seedlings
      • Weed control
      • Shading
      • Mulching
      • pest and disease control
      • pricking out
      • hardening
      • security
    2. explain five cultural methods of soil and water conservation (7 mks)
      • grass/filter strips
      • contour cropping
      • mulching
      • rotational grazing
      • intercropping
      • grassed/vegetated waterways
      • afforestation/reafforestation
      • agroforestry
      • use of organic manure
      • correct spacing
    3.  the role of magnesium in crop production (4mks)

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