Geography Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Alliance Mock Examinations 2022

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Answer all the questions in this section.

    1. State the relationship between Geography and Medicine.
    2. State three importance of studying geography.
  2. The diagram below shows the occurrence of a local wind.
    1. Name the wind labelled B.
    2. Identify the air pressure at point A and C.
    3. State two factors determining the amount of solar radiation reaching the earth's surface.
    1. Why are extension boundaries referred to as constructive boundaries?
    2. Draw a well labelled diagram to show a transform fault boundary. (3mks)
    3. Name one relief features that may be formed during subduction. (1mk)
    1. Differentiate between intensity and magnitude as measures of earthquakes. (2mks)
    2. The diagram below shows intrusive volcanic features.
      Identify the features labelled P, Q and R.
    1. State three ways in which the nature of rock can influence weathering.
    2. Identify two main types of weathering common in mid-latitude regions.

Answer all the questions in this section.

  1. Study the map of Kijabe (1:50,000) sheet 134/3 provided and answer the questione that follow.
      1. Give the vertical interval of the map.
      2. What is the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of the map
      3. Identify any three types of natural vegetation found between Easting 30 and 35. (3mks)
      1. Using a vertical scale of 1cm to represent 100 m, draw a cross-section between grid reference 240930 to 260000.
      2. On the cross-section. Mark and label the following
        • all weather road bound surface
        • river
        • hill
      3. Calculate the vertical exaggeration of the cross-section you have drawn
      1. Citing evidence identify three social functions in the area covered by the map.(3mks)
      2. Describe the drainage of the area covered by the map.
      3. State three factors influencing the distribution of settlements in the area covered by the map.
    1. What is a rock?
    2. The map below shows the distribution of rocks. Use it to answer the questions that follow.
      1. Identify the rocks marked Y and Z.
      2. Explain the formation of chemically formed sedimentary rocks. (3mks)
      3. Explain three ways in which rocks are significant to human activities.
      1. What is rock metamorphism?
      2. Explain three processes of rock metamorphism.
    4. You intend to carry out a field study on types of rocks near your school.
      1. Give an example of each of the following types of rocks you are likely to identify: 
        • hypabyssal igneous rocks
        • chemically formed sedimentary rocks
      2. State two activities you are likely to be involved in during the study. (2mks)
      1. What is River regime?
      2. Describe corrasion process in river erosion.
    2. The diagram below shows the long profile of a river. Use it to answer questions (i), ii),(iii)
      1. Identify the features marked A, B C and D.
      2. Describe the formation of a natural levee.
      3. Outline the significance of such a river.
      1. Describe Trellis drainage pattern.
      2. With the aid of well labeled diagrams, describe how the feature marked A is formed.
      1. Apart from fold mountains, name two other features resulting from folding.(2mks)
      2. Explain how fold mountains were formed according to contraction theory. (3mks) b)
      1. Define the term orogenesis.
      2. Name two fold mountains formed during the Alpine orogeny.
      3. State two factors influencing folding of sedimentary rocks.
      1. Use the world map provided and answer the questions that follow.
        Name the mountain ranges marked P, Q and R.
      2. Draw a well labelled diagram of each of the following types of folds.
        • ocerfold
        • isoclinal folds
      1. Explain two negative effects of folding to human activities.
      2. Explain two ways in which fold mountains influence climate in a region.
      1. Define the term ocean.
      2. Explain two factors influencing horizontal movement of ocean water.
      3. Describe how a wave breaks.
    2. Name the ocean currents marked A and B.
    3. Describe how a Geo is formed.
      1. Using well labelled diagram, describe the formation of Cuspate foreland. (Smks)
      2. Explain two ways in which Kenya can benefit from its coastal landforms. (4ks)


    1. Medicine deals with diagnosis, prevention and cure of diseases in people while Geography explains factors and geographical conditions influencing the spread of various discases in a branch called Medical Geography
      • Helps gain knowledge about environment
      • Helps gain practical skills such as observing, recording, analyzing and drawing.
      • Its key to various careers such as surveying and piloting
    1. Katabatic wind
    2. A-high pressure - At night, the hill top looses heat faster than the valley bottom because it is exposed
      C-low pressure - The air contracts and becomes dense hence high pressure.
    3. Transparency of atmosphere; dust, dust and clouds block suis rays from reaching the earth's surface.
      Distance of the earth from the sun at different times of the year due to revolution of the earth makes the earth to receive high insolation during perihellon and low insolation during aphelion. 
    1. At extension boundaries, tectonic plates move apart giving way for magma from the mandle to erupt and solidify to form new landforms.
    3. Volcano, trench
    1. Intensity is a measure of how hard or strong an earthquake shakes the ground while magnitude is the measure of the energy given off by an earthquake 
    2. P-sill
    1. Color: dark rocks absorb hear faster and crack due to stress while shiny or light colored rocks reflect sun's rays and hence absorb heat at a slower rate.
    2. Mechanical weathering
      Chemical weathering
      1. 20m
      2. Latitude 0 to 1°00'S and longitude 36°30'E to 36°45'E
      3. thicket, woodland, scrub
    2. 1:10,000 ÷ 1:50,000
          1      ÷    3      =   1     x  50.000 = 5 times
      10,000   50.000  10000         1
        • Educational presence of schools such as in grid ref 2397 and 2801
        • Medical Presence of hospital in grid ref 3295
        • Residential-Settlements in central and south-eastern part of the map
        • The area has the following drainage patterns:
          Radial drainage pattern
          Dendritic drainage pattern
          Parallel drainage paffer
        • There are many permanent rivers in the area covered by the map
        • There are disappearing rivers in the area covered by the map
        • Forested areas have no settlements
        • Steep kills and escarpment have no settlements
        • There are linear settlements along roads for ease of transportation 
        • There is nucleated settlement in Kijabe town due to availability of social services
    1. This is a naturally occurring aggregate/agglomeration of minerals that forms part of the earth's crust
      1. Y-volcanic rocks (granite / gneiss)
        Z-sedimentary rocks
        • Rainwater/weak acids dissolve minerals from pre-existing rocks
        • The dissolved minerals are transported by water in solution form
        • The solution is emptied into inland an inland basin large water body
        • Waters from different areas with different minerals are emptied into the water body
        • Chemical reaction takes place due to the mixing of the different solutions
        • Reaction makes the minerals to precipitare forming sediments.
        • Evaporation may take place in shallow water bodies leaving behind a precipitate which forms the sediments
        • The sediments accumulate on the bed of the water body
        • Continued accumulation makes the overlying layers to press down the lower layers
        • The sediments are with time compressed into a hard compact mass called the sedimentary rock
          NB: Last point must be mentioned to score a maximum
        • Some rocks contain valuable minerals which are mined and minerals are used for varies purposes by people
        • Some rocks like frachyte, or marble are used by people for building purposes
        • Some rocks form unique features which attract tourists & granite
        • Rocks weather/break down to form soil which is used for various agriculture purposes 
        • Some rocks (impermeable) store water as underground water which is used for industrial domestic purposes.
        • This is an internal process where the existing rocks are forced to change/transform to new different rocks due to great heat and pressure or both.
        • Thermo metamorphism - great hear due to intrusion of volcanic rocks will force the original rocks to change e.g. sandstone change to quartzite. 
        • Dynamic metamorphism - great pressure due to compression/sheering forces rocks to change to new rocks. 
        • Thermo-dynamic metamorphism-caused by both great hear and pressure to make rocks changes ce granite to Gneiss or clay to slate
        • Meta somatic metamorphism - where hor gases force rocks to change.
        • hypabyssal igneous rocks
          quartz, porphyry, dolerite
        • chemically formed sedimentary rocks
        • rock salt, gypsum, flint, trona, travertine, limonite, hematite, tufe, limestone 
        • measuring
        • taking notes
        • observing the rocks
        • collecting samples
        • asking questions/conducting oral interviews
        • digging/breaking rocks
        • labelling samples
      1. River regime is the seasonal fluctuation in a river water volume
      2. This is where the river uses its load(stones and rocks) to knock off/chip rocks on the banks and the floor of the river valley.
        1. ox-bow lake
        2. interlocking spars
        3. estuarine delta / estuary
        • At the old stage a river spills materials over its banks and some are deposited there
        • Repeated deposition causes the river bans to be raised forming the levees.
        • The raised river banks made of alluvial materials are the natural levees.
        • The river bed is source of building materials such as smoothed gravel, pebbles and sand
        • Some alluvial sediment may contain valuable minerals like gold, diamonds. 
        • Alluvial deposits has fertile soils for agriculture
        • The river is prone to flooding leading to loss of property and lives 
        • The river water can be a medium of spreading harmful water borne diseases
        • In this pattern tributaries join the main river at right angles.
        • The minor tributaries also join the main tributaries af right angles
        • Main river is called the consequent river,
        • The tributaries which flow in accordance with the rock structure are called subsequent rivers
        • Tributaries which flow in opposite direction to the main river are called obsequent rig
        • Secondary consequent rivers are tributaries which flow in the same direction as the main river
        • They occur in landscapes with scarps and where folding has occurred.
        • At the old stage a river begins to meander its course.
        • Lateral erosion dominates the outer side of the bend while deposition takes place on the inner bank
        • Lateral erosion results in the reduction of the neck of land between the bends.
        • The neck of land is eventually worn entry
        • Deposition on the meander sides blocks of the meander which forms a lake.
        • The river abandons the meander and follows the newly created short cut.
        • The abandoned meander contains water and forms an ox-bow lake.
        • ridge and valley landscape
        • intermontane plateaus
        • intermontanc basins
        • During the the formation of the earth, the surface rocks cooled faster than those of the interior. 
        • Since the inferior of the earth was cooling af a slower rate than the surface, the surface rocks started wrinkling in order to fit on the cooling contracting rocks of the interior
        • The wrinkled surfaces are the fold mountains.
      1. This is the process of fold mountain formation. ii) Name two fold mountains formed during the Alpine orogeny.
        • Himalayas
        • Alps 
        • Andes
        • Rockies
        • Atlas
      • Strong compressional force influences the folding of sedimentary rocks.
      • Young/elastic sedimentary crustal rocks
      1. P-Appalachians
        Russian platfor
        • Overfold.
        • Isoclinal folds.
        • Leeward slopes of fold mountains receive little or no rainfall experience dry conditions which discourage settlement/crops farming
        • The rugged nature of folded landscape discourage settlement
        • Fold mountains are barrier to transport/make construction of transport lines expensive difficult
        • Fold mountains receive heavy rainfall on the windward slope while leeward slopes receive very little rainfall 
        • In the northern laemisphere the south facing slopes of fold mountains experience higher temperatures compared to the north facing slopes. In the southern hemisphere the north facing slopes have higher temperature than the south facing slopes.
        • Temperature inversion occurs in the lowland valleys therefore they are cooler then the higher slopes of fold mountains
        • Some fold mountains have very high attitude resulting in very low ferriperatures andere permanently covered with snow eg. The Alps
      1. An ocean is a large edersive body of soline water occupying a basin depression between continents
        • Winds
          Winds blow over ocean water causing a frictional drag which eventually moves the ocean water in the direction of the wind. This moving water is what is called ocean current
        • Earth's rotation
          Earth's rotation causes deflection of winds and ocean currents to their right of origin in the northern hemisphere and to their left of origin in the southern hemisphere.
        • Shape of land masses
          Ocean currents follow the outline of ocean coastline
          Currents can squeeze through narrow constricted areas hence increasing velocity. Such a current is called a stream current
        • Difference in water temperature
          Tropical oceans are warnt while polar water is cold. Polar water is hence dense. It sinks and flows towards equator. The warm tropical water is liss dense it hence flows polewards to replace the water that sunk.
    2. A-warm: North Atlantic Drift
      B-warm Brazil current
      • Waves attack the base of the cliff through abrasion and hydraulic action to form a notch
      • Continued wave action enlarges the notch into a cave Waves attack the back of the roof of the cave through solution to form a blow hole
      • The roof of the cave collapses along the line of weakness resulting into a long narrow sea inlet called a geo
        • The angle of the coastline changes leading to halting of the long shore drift
        • Deposition begins to form a ridge of sand that extends seawards called a spit 
        • Two spits the grow towards each other at an angle on both sides of the main land
        • Continued deposition of sand and spit leads to convergence of the two spits to enclose lagoon
        • The resultant triangular shaped feature is called a cuspate foreland
        • Coastal features eg. caves, islands form the sceneries which attract tourists / bring foreign exchange to the country.
        • Oceans provide a variety of recreation Gg. sportfishing.
        • Coral reefs are source of raw materials for cement making.
        • Oceans provide natural highways for transport
        • Lowland coasts provide good sites for development of settlements.
        • Ocean water provide a variety of fish which promotes Fishing on the sheltered waters of the fiords.
        • Mangroves growing in mud flats are used for timber and fuel wood.

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