Geography Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Alliance Mock Examinations 2022

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QUESTIONS

 

 

 


SECTION A: ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION.

  1.    
    1. Name two natural forest blocks in the Coastal Region of Kenya. (2 marks)
    2. Identify three reasons for the high preference to develop softwood forest plantations in Kenya. (3 marks)
  2.      
    1. State two objectives of the Southern African Development Community (SADC). (2 marks)
    2. Which two navigational challenges does the St. Lawrence Seaway face? (2 marks)
    3. Give two characteristics of sedentary subsistence agriculture. (2 marks)
  3.    
    1. Give two ways in which the River Rhine contributed towards the development of the iron and steel industry in the Ruhr Region of Germany in the 19th century. (2 mks)
    2. State two features of the cottage industries in India. (2 marks)
  4.      
    1. Why does the population of Sweden experience a very high life expectance? (3 marks)
    2. Give two negative effects of international population migration to the Countries of origin. (3 marks)
  5.    
    1. Identify two fossil fuels. (2 marks)
    2. State two reasons why the use of alternative types of energy is encouraged in Kenya. (2 marks)

SECTION B: ANSWER QUESTION 6 AND TWO OTHER QUESTIONS

  1. The table below shows the estimates of dairy cattle breeds in Kenya from the year 2016 to 2019. Use it to answer the questions which follow.
     CATTLE BREEDS  2016 2017   2018  2019
     Fresian  40,000  35,000  30,000  32,000
     Ayshire  19,000  35,000  40,000  32,000
     Jersey  24,000  19,000  24,000  27,000

    1.    
      1. Draw a comparative bar graph to represent the above statistical data. Use a vertical scale of 1cm to represent 5,000 dairy cattle. (10 marks)
      2. State three advantages of using a comparative bar graph to represent statistical data. (3 marks)
    2. Explain four roles played by the co-operative societies in the development of dairy farming in Denmark. (8 marks)
    3. Identify four economic benefits of commercial beef farming to Kenya (4 marks)
  2. Below is a map of East Africa showing various mining towns
    1
    1.    
      1. Name the mining towns labeled J,Kand L. (3 marks)
      2. State three factors which influence the mode of occurrence of minerals. (3mks)
    2. Describe the extraction of gold in South Africa using the shaft method. (5 marks)
    3. Give four ways by which mining derelict landscapes can be rehabilitated. (4 mks)
    4.     
      1. Explain how petroleum is formed. (4 marks)
      2. Explain three problems associated with the exploitation of petroleum in the Middle East Countries. (6 marks)
  3.    
    1. Differentiate marine fish from fresh water fish. (2 marks)
    2. Excluding the North West Pacific fishing ground, name three other major fishing grounds of the world in the northern hemisphere. (3 marks)
    3. Describe the following methods of fishing:
      1. Basket fishing method. (4 marks)
      2. Drifting method. (4 marks)
    4. Explain four physical factors which favour fishing in the North West Pacific fishing ground. (8 marks)
    5. Give four ways in which climate change negatively affects fisheries. (4 marks)
  4. The diagram below shows one of the settlement patterns. Use it to answer the questions which follow.
    2
    1.    
      1. Name the predominant settlement pattern above. (1 mark)
      2. State four factors which influence the development of the above settlement pattern. (4 marks)
    2. Discuss four economic factors which facilitated the development of Eldoret town. (8 marks)
    3. Explain four social problems facing the Cities of New York and Nairobi. (Smks)
    4. Identify four environmental problems caused by urbanization. (4 marks)
  5.    
    1.    
      1. Differentiate between land reclamation and land rehabilitation. (2 marks)
      2. State three methods used in tsetse fly control. (3marks)
    2.    
      1. Give two reasons for the establishment of Mwea irrigation scheme (2 marks)
      2. State three locational factors that influenced the setting up of Mwea irrigation scheme (3 marks)
    3.    
      1. Describe the stages of land reclamation from the sea in the Netherlands. (5 marks)
      2. Identify two polders in the Netherlands within the Zuyder Zee project area. (2 marks)
    4. Explain four benefits of the Delta Plan Project to the Netherlands. (8 marks)


MARKING SCHEME

  1.      
    1.    
      • Shimba Hills Forest
      • Arabuko-Sokoke Forest Reserve
      • Kaya Forests
      • Tana River Forests
      • Boni/Dodori Forests
      • Mongrove Forests
        Any 2x1 = 2 marks only. 
    2.  
      • The softwood trees mature fast/25-30 years.
      • The softwood trees can be put into a very wide range of uses.
      • The softwood trees produce high quality paper.
      • The forests are casy to manage scientifically.
      • The softwood trecs are casy to cut/harvest and transport.
        Any 3x1 = 3marks only.
  2.    
    1.    
      • To promote regionalintegration/unity.
      • To facilitate trade and economic liberalization.
      • To eradicate/reduce poverty.
      • To establish a common market.
        Any 2x1 = 2 marks only.
    2.      
      • The natural rocks barriers.
      • The water falls and rapids along the scaway.
      • The many islands along the scaway.
      • The shallowness of the seaway.
      • The freezing of water in winter.
      • The fog/mist presence at the mouth of St. Lawrence River.
      • The location of the Great Lakes at different altitudes.
        Any 2x1 = 2 marks only.
    3.    
      • Farmers live in one permanent place.
      • Crop rotation is practiced.
      • Farming is labour intensive.
      • Animals are domesticated in the farm for ploughing/meat/milk production.
      • Fields leh fallow after their productivity decline are frequently reused.
      • Land utilization is carefully done to guard against possible deterioration.
      • Cultivated crops are carefully identified by the farmers.
      • Simple/small tools are used in the farms.
      • High-yields are realized from the farms.
      • The cultivation of cash crops or collection and sale of forest products takes place in some parts of West Africa and South East Asia.
        Any 2x1 - 2 marks only.
  3.    
    1.    
      • The supplying of water for cooling machines.
      • The providing of cheap water transport for inputs/raw materials/finished products/steel.
      • The conveyance of treated industrial waste to predetermined destinations/the general cleaning in the industry.
        Any 2x1 = 2 marks only.
    2.    
      • Relatively low capital investments.
      • Relatively use simple tools.
      • Predominantly use locally available materials. 
      • Finished products are largely consumed/sold locally in India
      • Largely labour-intensive.
      • Widespread throughout the country/they are ubiquitous.
        Any 2x1 = 2 marks only
  4.    
    1.    
      • The active participation of people in community activities.
      • The high vaccination of children
      • The low poverty levels.
      • The casy access to sanitation facilities.
      • The high funding of elders welfare by the government municipalities.
      • The high standards of healthcare system/high medical facilities and personnel. Any 3x1 =3 marks only
    2.    
      • The loss of potential workforce.
      • Brain drain/the loss of many skilled workers.
      • The development of serious gender disparities/imbalances.
        Any 3x1 = 3 marks only.
  5.    
    1.    
      • Petroleum/Crude oil.
      • Coal.
      • Natural gas.
      • Peat
        Any 2x2 = 2 marks only.
    2.    
      • Mostly significantly clean/non-environmental pollutants.
      • They are inexhaustiblc once well managed/they are renewable.
      • They are conveniently easily despatchable/transmittable.
      • Some of them can be stored for future use.
        Any 2x1 = 2 marks only
  6.    
    1.    
      1.  
      2.  
        • Gives a good visual impression.
        • Easy to read.
        • Easy to interpret.
        • Easy to draw/construct.
        • Easy to make comparisons of the various components.
          Any 3x1-3 marks only.
    2.    
      • They conduct thorough research on dairy farming geared towards enhancing higher productivity.
      • They conduct thorough market research intended to pave waytowards increased dairy products sales.
      • They provide financial support to the dairy farmers for the advancement/investment in the dairy farming industry.
      • They process milk received from the farmers which yields into various invaluable products.
      • They educate farmers to render the dairy farming industry efficient in productivity.
      • They provide farmers with commendable banking facilities//services for the smooth financial transactions from time to time.
      • They provide farmers with farming facilities at subsidized rates to enhance the production of milk/sustain their dairy animals.
        Any 4x2 = 8 marks.
    3.    
      • The creation of many employment opportunities to people
      • The generation of substantial income to the farmers.
      • The development of processing/manufacturing industries.
      • Exporting beef earns the country foreign exchange.
      • A source of government revenue from the taxes collected fromlarge scale beef farming investors.
      • The development of roads in the beef farming areas.
      • Local beef production leads to the saving of foreign exchange.
      • The promotion of food security in the country.
        Any 3x1-3 marks only
  7.    
    1.    
      1. J = Tororo Town K Magadi Town
        L-Mwadui Town
        Each 1 mark - Total 3 marks only
      2.  
        • Rock metamorphism.
        • Vulcanicity process.
        • Weathering process
        • Evaporation process.
        • Sedimentation process.
        • Erosion process.
          Any 3x1 = 3 marks only.
    2.    
      • Vertical shafts are sunk deep underground upto the level of the mineral ore.
      • Horizontal tunnels or galleries arc dug to reach the mineral ore.
      • Pit props are constructed to support the horizontal tunnels from collapsing.
      • Once reached, the mineral ore is blasted by explosives/dynamites.
      • Broken pieces of the mineral ore are collected and transported to the base of the vertical shaft by a light railway.
      • The mineral ore is then hoisted to the surface using cages.
        Any 5x1 = 5 marks only
    3.    
      • By planting trees.
      • By introducing aquaculture.
      • By refilling the depressions/mines/holes.
      • By creating a park to attract tourists.
      • By landscaping the area for settlement/agriculture.
        Any 4x14 marks only
    4.    
      1.    
        • The remains of plants/animals/organisms settled on the sea floor millions of years ago.
        • They mixed with mud at the bottom of the sea to form sediments
        • Over millions of years sediments piled and exerted pressure over the organic remains converting them to compounds of carbon and hydrogen to form petroleum/oil and gas.
          OR
          As oil was being formed, earth movements caused it to be trapped between non-porous rocks such as shale under high pressure to create pools of oil and gas.
      2.    
        • The increased international terrorists attacks which scares foreigners/workers from those countries.
        • The frequent political conflicts/wars which cause fear and death among the workers/derails exploitation operations.
        • The negative fluctuation of petroleum prices which demoralizes investors in production ventures.
        • The oil spillage which leads to huge losses to the producing companies.
        • The many foreign companies in petroleum production which repatriate earnings to their mother countries.
        • The reliance on skilled foreign workers is petroleum production who are very costly to sustain due to the low levels of technology/skills among local people.
        • The very high temperature conditions which cause discomfort to the workers exploiting petroleum.
        • The burning of petroleum which discharges carbon iv oxide into the atmosphere brightening the gravity of global warming climate change. Any 5x2 = 10 marks only.
  8.    
    1. Marine fish spend their entire life in the saline oceans/seas while fresh water fish live in fresh inland water bodies such as streams, river, fresh water lakes and ponds
      1x2 - 2 marks only
    2.    
      • North East Atlantic fishing ground.
      • North West Atlantic fishing ground.
      • North East Pacific fishing ground
    3.    
      1. Basket fishing method.
        • A woven basket is used.
        • The mouth of the basket has no return valve to prevent the outward movement of fish.
        • The basket is placed in lakes, ponds and riverswith the mouth facing the direction from which the water flows.
        • A bait is placed in the basket to attract fish.
        • The basket is held in a steady position by using ropes, stones and sticks.
        • The basket is left in that position for sometime/overnight for fish to be trapped.
        • The basket is finally removed for the manual emptying of the trapped fish in readiness for processing.
          Any 4x1 4 marks only
      2.    
        • A rectangular shaped drift net is used which is attached to adrifter by a strong rope.
        • The drift net is cast into the sea from a drifter and placed a few metres below the water surface.
        • Floaters are fixed on the upper edge of the net and weights below to have it properly stretched.
        • Once the fish swim through the net, they are entangled by the gills as they cannot move forwards or backwards.
        • Once huge quantities of fish, have been entangled, the act is hauled onto the drifter to manuallyremove them for the processing task to be pursued.
    4.    
      • The broad continental with plentiful of fish for long-term exploitation
      • The vastly indented coastline for fish breeding/development of fishing ports.
      • The shallow contineatal shelf which is well sunlit allowing the abundant growth of plankton which finally attract large quantities of fish.
      • The mountainous landscape which hinders agriculturaldevelopment compelling the people to switch to fishing for food security/economic prosperity.
      • The convergences of the cold OyaSiwo OceanCurrent with the warm KuroSiwo Ocean Current creates cool water conditions/oxygenated water for fish to thrive in/allows fishing to take place throughout the year as the water is ice-free.
      • Prolonged drought occurrence leads to the drying up of fisheries/reduction of the water capacity to accommodate fish resources.
      • Very high temperatures influence fish migration to cool suitable environments.
      • The flooding of fisheries due to very high precipitation causes siltation which interferes with the fisheries habitats.
      • Rise in sea levels due to increased precipitation spreads salinized waters to fresh water fisheries.
      • Ocean waters warming due to increased temperaturedestroys parts of the coral reef where certain species of fish live.
        Any 4x1 = 4 marks only.
  9.    
    1.    
      1. Nucleated/Clustered settlement pattern.
      2.    
        • The concentration of social amenities in a particular place.
        • The presence of factories/industries in one place.
        • The presence of large plantations in an area.
        • The availability of water resources in a particular place.
        • The presence of mineral resources in a particular place which are being exploited.
        • The limited space of land for many people to settle.
        • The need for high security. The social life of people opting to live in clusters.
        • The government policy on scttlement development
          Any 4x1 = 4 marks only. 
    2.    
      • The development of the Eldoret International Airportwhich has enhanced global investors connectivity/transportation of horticultural produces.
      • The good road railway transport which has facilitated the movement of trader in and out of the town.
      • The development of industries which influenced people migration into the town looking for good jobs.
      • The vast agricultural hinterland providing materials for industries/trading transactions
      • The many financial institutions which facilitate trade transaction. Any 4x2 = 8 mark only
    3.    
      • The high rate of criminal activities which causes death to the people/scares away investors.
      • The decadence of moral standards/development of prostitution which escalates into the development of sexually associated diseases.
      • The high rate of unemployment which generates the occurrence of criminal activities/stressful conditions among the people/residents.
      • The inadequate housing facilities which leads to the development of ghettos/slums.
      • The limited social amenities such as schools/health centres which leads to congestion/inappropriate standards/services.
      • The noise pollution from the noisy factories/industrial operations.
      • The pollution of water due to the discharge of untreated wastes/chemical effluents into prevailing water bodies.
      • The increased urban surface run-off due to the impeded ground seepage of water.
      • The destruction of wildlife habitats/plant ecosystem to create space for houses/constructions.
      • The pollution of the air originating from factories/industrial fumes/smoke.
      • The predominant nocturnal light which affects certain animal life patterns.
  10.    
    1.      
      1.    
        • The process of restoring wasted land to its former production state.
        • The process of recovering/restorationof land which has been misused/destroyed through human activities.
      2.    
        • By bush clearing to scale down the high humidity conditionswhich eventually kills adult tsetse flies and their pupae.
        • By application of insecticides particularly DDT. A suitable dosage is sprayed from a low flying aircraft/the ground in the targeted areas which kills the tsetse flies.
        • By sterilizationof the male tsetse flies which hampersfertilization in the female tsetse flies once mating takes place.
        • By using v-shaped baited traps of a black cloth. The cloth has a longitudinal opening along the lower side and a collection trap in the upper side. Tsetse flies are captured once they fly into the net.
          Any 3x2 = 6 marks only.
    2.    
      1.    
        • To occupy detainee labour. Mwea was a major detention centre.
        • To utilize the black cotton soils in growing rice
        • To increasc agricultural production
        • To settle / create employment for the former detainees.
        • Physical factors
          • Presence of black cotton clay soils found in the area are suitable for irrigation because they retain water. Rice cultivation require flooded fields.
          • The gentle sloping land allows water to flow to the farms by gravity which reduces the cost of pumping water.
          • The presence of two permanent rivers, Thiba and Nyamindi which provide abundant water supply for irrigation throughout the year.
          • The availability of extensive land made it possible for the project to succeed since there was enough room for future expansion.
          • The area experiences warm climate during the second part of the year which is suitable for the growing of rice.
          • The unreliable and inadequate rainfall received in the area makes it appropriate and necessary for imigation to be practiced
        • Human factors
          • The area is sparsely populated due to the semi-arid conditions hence there was minimal displacement of people to give room for the establishment of the scheme. There was availability of cheap labour due to the presence of former detainees in the area.
          • The area is located near major urban centres such as Nairobi, Embu, Thika and Nyeri which offers immediate market for rice produced.
    3.    
      1.    
        • Once the land has been identified, protective dykes against flooding during high tides are Constracted.
        • Ring canals are constructed to drain water from the reclaimed land into the sea/developed fresh eater lakes.
        • Pumping stations are installed to pump out water into the sea from the dykes enclosed arca.
        • Reeds are grown to desalinize the soil take up excess water/dry the soil.
        • Draining ditches/pipes arecut in the land/laid down to facilitate the draining of water from the water table.
        • The soils are flushed with fresh water treated with chemicals to scale down the salinity conditions/levels.
        • The pumping out of waterfrom the polders is a continuous process to prevent the accumulation of water in the polders/reclaimed lands.
          Any 5x1 = 5 marks
      2.    
        • South Flevoland Polder
        • Eastern Flevoland Polder
        • North Eastern Polder
        • Markerwaad Polder
        • Wieringermeer Polder *Any 2x1 = 2 marks only
    4.    
      • The pollution/salinization of inland waters was reduced leading to improvement of soil quality/productivity
      • The increased agricultural land which guaranteed food security/economic growth.
      • Roads were constructed precipitating fast economic development in various sectors.
      • Recreational facilities were created which attract many tourist becoming a source of income/foreign exchange for investment in other economic developments.
      • Flooding was brought under control which saved people from death/displacement protected farmlands from being damaged.
      • Large fresh water reservoirs were created for domestic/industrial/agricultural use

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