History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Alliance Mock Examinations 2022

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QUESTIONS

SECTION A (25 MARKS)
Answer ALL questions in this section

  1. Name two sources of the History of Kenyan communities during the pre-colonial period. (2marks)
  2. State two environmental factors which influence the settlement of the Borina in Kenya. (2marks)
  3. Give two factors which influenced the Abaluyha to become crop farmers by the beginning of the 19th century. (2marks)
  4. State the MAIN reason for the coming of the Portuguese to the Kenyan coast in the 15th century (1mark)
  5. Identify one factor that facilitated contact between the Kenyan coast and the outside world by the end of the 16th century. (1mark)
  6. State two provisions of the independence constitution of Kenya. (2marks)
  7. State two practices that may interfere with national unity in Kenya. (2marks)
  8. What document contains the rights of citizens in Kenya? (1mark)
  9. Identify two types of direct democracy. (2marks)
  10. State two reasons why the British used direct rule in administering most parts of Kenya. (2 marks)
  11. Give two reasons why Nabongo Mumia of the Wanga collaborated with the British. (2 marks)
  12. Who was the political head of the British administration in Kenya? (1mark)
  13. Identify any one feature of the system of education in Kenya during the colonial period. (1mark)
  14. State one way in which the colonial government controlled the migration of Africans during the colonial period. (1mark)
  15. Why was the nomination of Eliud Mathu to the Legco important to the struggle for independence in Kenya? (1mark)
  16. Give one reason why parliament is regarded supreme in Kenya. (1mark)
  17. Name the highest court in Kenya's judicial structure. (1mark)

SECTON B (45 MARKS)
Answer any three questions in this section

  1.      
    1. State five reasons for migration of the cushites from their original homeland into Kenya during the pre-colonial period. (5 marks)
    2. Describe the political organization of the Kenyan Luo during the pre-colonial period. (10 marks)
  2.      
    1. Give five reasons why Christian missionaries came to Kenya in the 19th century. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five results of the coming of Christian missionaries to Kenya. (10 marks)
  3.      
    1. Give five reasons why the colonial government encouraged white settlement in Kenya. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five factors that made Kenyan communities to be defeated by the British during the establishment of colonial rule in Kenya. (10 marks)
  4.    
    1. Give five methods used by the colonial government to discourage the activities of Mau Mau movement. (5 marks)
    2. Discuss the role of Ronald Ngala in the struggle for independence in Kenya. (10 marks)


MARKING SCHEME

  1.      
    1. Oral tradition
    2. Archaeology
    3. Linguistics
    4. Anthropology
    5. Genetics
  2.      
    1. They settled in areas where there was water and pasture for their animals
    2. They settled in areas where it was free from animal diseases.
    3. They settled in areas where there was enough rainfall free from drought.
    4. Settled in fertile land.
  3.    
    1. Possession of iron and iron working skills
    2. Suitable climate / fertile soils
    3. Existence of indigenous crops.
  4. To control the East African coast and dominate the Indian Ocean.
  5.    
    1. Presence of monsoon winds
    2. Marine technology - ship building,
  6.      
    1. Tribalism.
    2. Religious conflicts
    3. Racism
    4. Nepotism.
    5. Corruption
    6. Intolerance to divergent views vii.
    7. Greed.
    8. Poverty.
    9. Uneven economic development.
  7.      
    1. Provided for the establishment of federation government
    2. Spelt out that the party with the majority forms the government / multi party
    3. Spelt out the rights and obligations of Kenyan citizens.
    4. Provided for the establishment of National Assembly.
    5. Provided for the post of prime minister to head the government and goverior to head state
    6. Divided responsibilities between regional governments and central government.
  8. The bill of rights found in chapter 4 of the Kenya constitution.
  9.    
    1. Plebiscite
    2. Initiative
    3. Rocall
  10.    
    1. British wanted to effective control of Africans.
    2. Indigenous political institutions had been destroyed during British occupation of Kenya.
    3. Most Kenyan communities had resisted British occupation of Kenya and therefore the British feared resistance
    4. Direct rule was the most effective way of exercising the terms of the Berlin conference.
    5. The British felt that their rule was the most superior,
  11.  
    1. To consolidate his position and that of his kingdom.
    2. To secure military support against his enemies e.g the Luo of Ugenya
    3. To secure military support to expand his kingdom
    4. To gain prestige and fame by the British
    5. To gain material benefits from the British.
  12. Colonial secretary
  13.  
    1. it was elementary
    2. It was technical in approach.
    3. It was denominational.
  14.  
    1. Taking head counts on those supposed to live in urban centres.
    2. Enabling strict rules about migration to urban centres
    3. Introducing kipande system.
    4. Creating reserves.
  15. For the first time African interests were represented by Africans themselves to the legislative council.
  16.      
    1. It is the only law making body in Kenya.
    2. It controls government finances.
    3. It can terminate the life of a government by passing a vote of no confidence in the government.
  17. The supreme court.
  18.    
    1.    
      1. They moved in search for pasture and water for their livestock.
      2. Drought and famine in their original homeland.
      3. Outbreak of diseases and epidemics in their original homeland.
      4. Clan feuds / disputes / internal conflicts.
      5. External attacks. 
      6. Search of land for settlement.
      7. Spirit of adventure.
    2.    
      1. The Luo were a decentralized community.
      2. At the lowest level of political structure was the family whose head was referred to as "Jaduong' which means "the big one"
      3. Several families who traced their origin to a common ancestor formed a clan. Many such clans existed within the Luo community.
      4. Within the clan, there existed a council of elders called Dobo.
      5. Members of the Dobo or clan council were responsible for settling inter-family disputes.
      6. Below the Doho were lineage councils called buch dhoot that tackled domestic issues.
      7. Beyond the Doho was a grouping of clans called Oganda. viii. At the
      8. Oganda level was a council of elders whose chief elder was called Ruoth.
      9. The council of elders at the Oganda level was known as buch piny (the law of the land).
      10. Buch piny settled major inter-clan conflicts, declared war and punished criminals such as murderers
      11. Religious leaders i.e. diviners and rainmakers also influenced the politics of the Luo
      12. They had a war-leader osumba mrwayi who was head of a group of warriors referred to as thuondi.
  19.      
    1.      
      1. To spread Christianity
      2. To help abolish slave trade
      3. To explore the region
      4. To spread western civilization
      5. Promote legitimate trade.
      6. Educate Africans.
    2.    
      1. Christian missionaries converted Africans to Christianity.
      2. They built schools where Africans were taught how to read and writo.
      3. They built hospitals which helped to improve the health standards of the people.
      4. They introduced new farming methods
      5. They introduced new vocational skills e.g. carpentry and masonry.
      6. Translated the bible into local languages.
      7. Drew map of the interior of the great lakes region.
      8. Influenced their governments to take interest in the region which led to colonization.
      9. Undermined authority of African lcaders.
      10. Introduced the western culture which undermined Africa culture.
      11. They wrote the first Kiswahili dictionary and grammar book
      12. Established settlements for freed slaves and gave security to destitute.
      13. Helped in improving transport system by developing ronds connecting their stations.
      14. Promoted disunity among people of different denominations and non Christians vs Christians.
  20.    
    1.    
      1. To make Kenya a Whiteman's colory with settler farming as backbone of economy.
      2. To finance the colonial administration it.
      3. To justify and meet the cost of building the Uganda railway.
      4. There was need to produce tropical raw materials for British industries.
      5. To counter the increasing Asian influx.
      6. The Kenyan highlands were ideal for white settlement.
    2.    
      1. The communities were not united hence they were easily defeated.
      2. The communities had inferior weapons as compared to the superior British weapons.
      3. The soldiers had little knowledge about the British military tactics.
      4. Their population had bees weakened by famine, diseases and civil war.
      5. Their leaders lacked adequate organizational skills.
      6. The British used treachery when dealing with some commanities / collaboration,
      7. The economic base of the communities was destroyed by the British thus making them werk.
      8. "The soldiers were demoralized when many warriors were captured / killed (e.g. Aembu and Ameru in 1906 / scotched)
      9. The Kenya-Uranda railway facilitated the faster movement of British troops.
  21.      
    1.    
      1. Many people were arrested /detained
      2. The armed forces were used to suppress the movement.
      3. They killed / executed the activists.
      4. They used traitors and spies to reveal hiding grounds of the fighters.
      5. The activists' homes were destroyed / looted / villages burned down.
      6. The people were put in concentration camps to curtain their movement.
      7. Kenya African Union (KAU) was banned.
      8. The independent schools were closed down.
      9. State of emergency was declared.
      10. The government tortured Mau Mau supporters.
    2.    
      1. He advocated for equal living standards for all races in Kenya.
      2. He was a founder member of the Mijikenda Union formed in 1947 which played an important role in the Mijikenda political awareness.
      3. As a member of the legislative council (Legco) he advocated for increased African representation
      4. He organized many political rallies in coast province during which he demanded for the release of the people who had been detained under emergency laws.
      5. As president of KADU he advocated for independence.
      6. As member of AEMO, he mediated between extremists and moderates to create unity.
      7. As a leader to the Lancaster House Conference he participated in the drafting of the independence constitution.
      8. In 1961, Ngala as leader of KADU accepted to form a coalition government with New Kenya Party so as not to delay independence.
  22.    
    1.    
      1. Convicted criminals. 
      2. Suspect criminals
      3. A person with unsound mind.
      4. A drug addict.
      5. A young person under 18 years
      6. A person with an infectious disease.
    2.    
      1. A responsible citizen pays taxes to enable the government to meet its financial obligation
      2. To participate in community development activities to improve welfare of people in the community
      3. To participate in the democratic process by electing leaders being elected to ensure good governance.
      4. To obey laws so as to enhance peace in the society.
      5. Takes care of the environment in order to promote healthy living.
      6. Prevents/fights corruption to promote proper utilization of resources by all.
      7. Promote the rights and freedoms of all people in the society
      8. Promote the rule of law by reporting wrong doers
      9. To participate in national debates/ barazas
  23.    
    1.    
      1. The Attorney general.
      2. The electoral commissioners
      3. Governor of the central bank
      4. Judges of the high court.
      5. The chef justice.
      6. The prosecutor of public prosecutions.
      7. Judges of the supreme court.
    2.    
      1. It is the essence of democracy in a government / it gives citizens the chance to exercise their democratic rights
      2. Through such elections, the people of Kenya give their president the mandate to rule the country and act on their behalf.
      3. The president is responsible and accountable to the clectorate and this ensures that he/she does not go against public opinion.
      4. The president enjoys legitimacy of power because it is derived from the people.
      5. It is a sign that the people approve of the president and the policies of the government formed by the party.
      6. It is the evidence of the democratic nature of the government system.
  24.      
    1.    
      1. The disabled.
      2. The aged / elderly.
      3. Minorities/ marginalized.
      4. The children.
      5. Arrested persons.
      6. The youth
    2.    
      1. Detained/held custody or imprisoned.
      2. It reaffirms that human beings are bom free and are equal in dignity and rights.
      3. Serves as a driving force behind many human rights based on logistics.
      4. Has inspired action of subsequent international documents of international bill of rights and convention on the elimination of all forms of racial discrimination
      5. Makes the protection of human rights an important part of international law.
      6. Serves as a base for human rights observers e.g amnesty international. 
      7. Sets a standard of achievement for all nations to strive for.
      8. Serves as a moral conscience to the world community providing international norms and standards for communities.

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