Geography Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Bondo Joint Mocks Exams 2022

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Questions

Instructions to candidates

  • This paper has two sections A and B
  • Answer all the questions in SECTION A.
  • Answer question 6 and any other two questions from SECTION B.
  • All answers must be written in English.

SECTION A:
Answer all the questions in this section.

  1.    
    1. Name two polders in the Zuyder Zee project (2 marks)
    2. State three ways in which the Zuyder Zee project contributed to Horticulture farming in the Netherlands. (3 marks)
  2.  
    1. Name two types of environments (2 marks)
    2. State three consequences of environmental degradation (3 marks)
  3.    
    1. List two major exports of Kenya to the middle East countries (2 marks)
    2. State three advantages of shopping in supermarkets (3 marks)
  4.  
    1.  What is urbanization? (2 marks)
    2.  State three factors which have led to the development of Mombasa into a major sea port in the world. (3marks)
  5. The diagram below shows an anticlinal mode of oil occurrence.
    Geop2q05
    1. Name the minerals that wells A, B and C will extract during drilling for oil. (3 marks)
    2. Give the full meaning of the term OPEC (2 marks)

SECTION B
Answer question 6 and any other two questions from this section.

  1.  The statistical diagram below represents export of forest products by Canada between 2008 - 2012
    Geop2q06
    1.        
      1. Identify the type of statistical method shown above (1 marks)
      2. State the steps you would follow to construct the statistical diagram above (4 marks)
      3. Describe the trend of export of pulp products between 2008 to 2012 (3 marks)
    2.   
      1. What is agroforestry? (2 marks)
      2. Give three Ecological reasons why it is important to manage and conserve forests. (3 marks)
      3. Explain three differences between natural and exotic forests in Kenya (6 marks)
    3. Explain three reasons why Canada exports more softwood forest products than Kenya. (6 marks)
  2.       
    1.       
      1. Define the term pastoralism (2 marks)
      2. State five characteristics of Nomadic pastoralism as practiced in the semi-arid regions of Kenya (5 marks)
    2.  
      1. Give three factors that favour pastoral farming in Kenya (3 marks)
      2. Explain three ways in which the Kenya Government assists nomadic pastoralists improve the quality of their livestock (6 marks)
    3.  
      1. What is dairy farming? (2 marks)
      2. Name three dairy products (3 marks)
      3. State four ways in which the dairy cooperatives in Denmark help the farmers (4 marks)
  3.         
    1.         
      1. Draw a map of Kenya (1 mark)
      2. On the map you have drawn mark and name the following
        Maasai mara game reserve (1 mark)
        Nairobi National park (1 mark)
        Tsavo East National park (1 mark)
      3. State four conservation measures under taken by tthe Kenyan government to control poaching/ illegal hunting of wildlife in game parks/ reserves (4 marks)
    2. The table below shows the number of foreign tourists who visited Africa between 1980 and 200
      1. Calculate the percentage decrease in the number of foreign tourists who visited Eastern Africa between 1980 and 1990 (2 marks)
      2. State three possible causes of the decline in foreign tourists who visited Eastern Africa between 1980 and 1990 (3 marks)
      3. Explain three Physical factors favouring tourism in Kenya (6 marks)
    3.  
      1. State two environmental hazards that hinder development of tourism in Kenya (2 marks)
      2. Explain two ways in which political neutrality has promoted tourism in Switzerland (4 marks)
  4.         
    1.            
      1. Define the term fish farming (2 marks)
      2. Below is a food pyramid of marine life. Name the parts A and B (2 marks)
        Geop2q09aii
      3. Name three traditional methods of preserving fish. (3 marks)
    2. Use the map of North-East Atlantic fishing grounds below to answer question 9b.
      Geop2q09b
      1. Explain how the warm North Atlantic drift promotes fishing in the fishing grounds above. (2marks)
      2. Other than the warm North Atlantic drift, state three physical factors observed from the map that promote fishing in the fishing grounds (3marks)
      3. Name the two leading fishing countries in the fishing region (2marks)
    3.    
      1. Identify the fishing method below (1mark)
        Geop2q09c
      2. Describe how the identified fishing method is carried out (5 marks)
      3. The number of fish stock and species are fast reducing in Lake Victoria. State five measures that the Kenya government may undertake to improve it. (5 marks) 
  5.             
    1.         
      1. What is transport? (2marks)
      2. Name two towns in Kenya with modern water ports (2marks)
      3. State four advantages of transporting goods between Nairobi to Mombasa using the standard gauge railway over Nairobi Mombasa Highway. (4marks)
      4. Name the final destinations of the great North Road and Trans African Highways (2marks)
    2. Study the sketch map of the great lakes and the St. Lawrence sea way. Use it to answer b (i) and b(ii).
      Geop2q10b
      Name
      1. The port marked M (1mark)
      2. The Lakes marked Q and R (2marks)
    3.     
      1. Give how the following natural short comings found on the St. Lawrence Sea way were solved.
        • Natural barriers like rapids and waterfalls (2marks)
        • Shallowness (2marks)
        • Difference in the level of the rivers and lake (2marks)
      2. Explain three ways in which the seaway contributed to the economies of Canada and the USA (6marks)

Marking Scheme

  1.          
    1. Name two polders in the zuyder zee project (2 marks)
      • Wieringermeer polder
      • Eastern Flevoland polder
      • Markerward polder
      • North Eastern polder
      • South Flevoland polder Any 2 x 1 =
    2. State three ways in which the Zuyder Zee project contributed to Horticulture farming in the Netherlands. (3marks)
      • Provided more land for horticultural farming
      • The fertile silt salt from the sea bed were utilized.
      • The fresh water lake Yossel was used for irrigation
      • The dykes were used as roads and used to transport the produce to the market.
  2.    
    1. Name two types of environments (2 marks)
      • Human environment
      • Physical environment 2x1=
    2. State three consequences of environmental degradation (3 marks)
      • Formation of acidic rainfall which destroys vegetation corrodes buildings.
      • Pollutes water bodies may cause death of aquatic life
      • Some plants and animals become endangered / extinct
      • Cause migration of wild animals
      • Drying up of water resources and cause water shortage.
      • The land may become unaesthetic 
  3.       
    1. List two major exports of Kenya to the middle East countries (2 marks)
      • Cement
      • Foodstuffs i.e. fish and beef
      • Floriculture produce
      • Man power 2x1=
    2. State three advantages of shopping in supermarkets (3marks)
      • The price of goods is displayed
      • Many commodities are available under one roof
      • Some are opened for 24 hours
      • The services offered are fast and efficient
      • They offer secured parking for cars
      • The goods are relatively cheaper.
  4.    
    1. What is urbanization? ( 2 marks)
      • It is a process in which an increasing number of people in a country settle in towns.
      • Process by which a country’s population changes from rural based life style to urban based lifestyle.
    2. State three factors which have led to the development of Mombasa into a major sea port in the world. (3marks)
      • It has a deep sheltered harbour
      • It has a fine weather throughout the year
      • It has a large hinterland
      • Strategically located on the East African Coast.
      • Early settlers from the middle East established, the old goat
      • Modern port facilities i.e cranes and many berths i.e oil terminus
      • Linkage to the standard gauge railways 3 x 1 =
  5. The diagram below shows an anticlinal mode of oil occurrence.
    1. Name the minerals that wells A, B and C will extract during drilling for oil. (3marks)
      • A – oil
      • B – Gas
      • C – Water
    2. Give the full meaning of the term OPEC (2marks)
      • Oil producing and exporting countries of the world
  6. The statistical diagram below represents export of forest products by Canada between 2008 - 2012
    1.      
      1. Identify the type of statistical method shown above (1marks)
        • Comparative / Group/ multiple bar graph
      2. State the steps you follow to construct the statistical diagram above (4 marks)
        • Draw X and Y axis and label the variables
        • Choose a suitable scale or use the given one, rank the first years data from the highest to the lowest and maintain the sequence for all the following years.
        • Start with the first group of bars, draw bars with equal width and the bars touching each other.
        • Leave a gap between the first group of bars before drawing the next.
        • Shade differently component bars in the first group but consistently with the responding ones.
        • Add a key to help in the interpretation of the data
        • A title for the graph is given at the top
          Any 4 x 1 =
      3. Describe the trend of export of pulp products between 2008 to 2012 (3marks)
        • Highest export was in 2011 and 2012
        • Lowest export was in 2008
        • Exports steadily rises from 2008 towards 2012
        • The export remained constant between 2011 and 2012.
    2.      
      1. What is agroforestry? (2marks)
        • Agroforestry is the combination of tree planting crop growing and livestock rearing on the same piece of land simultaneously.
      2. Give three Ecological reasons why it is important to manage and conserve forests. (3marks)
        • Maintaining water catchment areas
        • Controlling soil erosion
        • Preventing siltation of water bodies
        • Adding humus to the soils
        • Purifying the atmospheric air
        • Breaking the speed of wind.
      3. Explain three differences between natural and exotic forests in Kenya (6marks)
        • Natural forests consist mainly of hardwoods while exotic forests consist mainly of soft woods
        • Natural forests occur in mixed species while exotic in pure strands
        • In natural forests there is random occurrence of trees in exotic they are planted in rows and spaced.
        • Natural forests have big trunks while exotic have slender trunks.
        • Natural forests take long to mature over 70 years, while exotic mature faster 15 – 30 years.
    3. Explain three reasons why Canada exports more softwood forest products than Kenya (6mks
      • In Canada there are many softwood species leading to more varieties of products that are of high demand leading to more exports.
      • In Canada there is highly advanced technology in harvesting and processing of softwood trees leading to high quality products, while Kenya has less advanced technology in harvesting and processing leading to low quality products.
      • In Canada there is cheap water transport provided by many navigable rivers, there is fast delivery of softwood products to the market while in Kenya road net worth which is expensive is used.
      • Canada has high capital to be inverted in softwood products production while Kenya has limited capital hence limited production.
      • In Canada there are large areas under softwood product production and economic to exploit and export while in Kenya the area is small hence uneconomical to exploit. 3 x 2 =
  7.         
    1.        
      1. Define the term pastoralism (2marks)
        • This is the extensive grazing on natural pasture involving constant or seasonal migration of pastoralists and their livestock. 2x1=
      2. State five characteristics of Nomadic pastoralism as practiced in the semi-arid regions of Kenya (5marks)
        • Indigenous animal breeds are kept
        • Herds are large in numbers
        • Grazing land is communally owned
        • Animals are grazed in natural pastures
        • Herdsmen and their animals more over long distances in search of water and pasture
        • Uncontrolled breeding is common
        • Cattle are kept as a sign of wealth.
        • Many kinds of animals are kept i.e cattle, goats, sheep and camels
    2.       
      1. Give three factors that favour pastoral farming in Kenya (3marks)
        • Extensive land which is communally owned provides large grazing area.
        • Harsh climate of low rainfall limit crop growing
        • Low economic activities i.e Industries encourage pastoralism
        • The culture of the people is centered round livestock keeping
      2. Explain three ways in which the Kenya Government assists nomadic pastoralists improve the quality of their livestock (6marks)
        • Setting up demonstration ranches to educate pastoralists on modern methods of livestock keeping.
        • Cattle dips have been constructed to control pests
        • Extension services are provided to give services to the pastoralists
        • Boreholes and dams have been constructed to provide water during the dry season.
        • Feeder roads have been constructed to enable pastoralists transport their products to the market.
        • Group ranches have encouraged to enable commercial livestock keeping.
        • Encouraging cross breeding of indigenous breeds with hybrid and services to improve quality of livestock.
        • Establishment of anti-stock theft unit to curb cattle rustling.
        • Reviving Kenya meat commission which provide market to the animals.
    3.     
      1. What is dairy farming? (2marks)
        • This is the rearing of cattle for milk production
      2. Name three dairy products (3marks)
        • Milk
        • Cheese
        • Butter
        • Caselen
        • Ghee
      3. State four ways in which the dairy cooperatives in Denmark help the farmers
        • Marketing – They collect, grade and sell on behalf of the farmers.
        • Processing – They own creameries which process milk
        • Education – They pass the latest agricultural techniques to the farmers
        • Research- Conduct research in various aspects of dairy farming.
        • Finance- Provide credit to farmers for purchase of livestock feeds and veterinary services.
  8.            
    1.        
      1. Draw a map of Kenya (1mark)
        Geop2qa08a
      2. On the map you have drawn mark and name the following
        • Maasai mara game reserve (1mark)
        • Nairobi national park (1mark)
        • Tsavo East national park (1mark)
      3. State four conservation measures under taken by the Kenyan government to control poaching/illegal hunting of wildlife in game parks/ reserves (4marks)
        • Banning the hunting of wildlife
        • Setting anti-poaching unit to arrest poachers.
        • Banning illegal trade in game trophies
        • Fencing off all game parks and reserves
        • Educating the local communities surrounding the parks on the importance of conserving wildlife
    2. The table below shows the number of foreign tourists who visited Africa between 1980 and 2000
      1. Calculate the percentage decrease in the number of foreign tourists who visited Eastern Africa between 1980 and 1990 (2marks)
        • 1200 - 900 x 100% = 300 x 100%
          1200 1200
          =25%
      2. State three possible causes of the decline in foreign tourists who visited Eastern Africa between 1980 and 1990 (3marks)
        • Political insecurity i.e civil wars
        • High cost of traveling by air
        • High rates charged in parks and hotels
        • High level of inflation in the region competition from other regions.
      3. Explain three Physical factors favouring tourism in Kenya (6marks)
        • Climate, Kenya is found a long the tropic’s and has a warm sunny weather throughout the year.
        • Wildlife – the country has varied plant and animal attractions.
        • Geographical /physical features i.e Coastal and Lake beaches, mountains, rift valley, all these attract tourists.
    3.       
      1. State two environmental hazards that hinder development of tourism in Kenya
        • Fire outbreaks in parks and receives
        • Water and land pollution
        • Diseases i.e corona, bird flu
        • Flooding which makes the attraction sites inaccessible
      2. Explain two ways in which political neutrality has promoted tourism in Switzerland (4marks)
        • Due to her policy of neutrality many UN special bodies i.e the international red cross, ILO, WHO, many conferences are held in the country attracting many visitors.
        • She is free of international terrorism attracting many visitors to the country as their safety is assured.
        • Neutrality and political stability has made Switzerland to be an international banking centre attracting many investors in the country.
  9.       
    1.     
      1. Define the term fish farming (2 marks)
        • This is the rearing of fish in water bodies i.e dams/lakes under controlled conditions.
      2. Below is a food pyramid of marine life. Name the parts A and B (2marks)
        • A – Mammals
        • D- Zooplanktons/ microscope animals
      3. Name three traditional methods of preserving fish (3marks)
        • Smoking
        • Sun drying
        • Salting
        • Use of honey
    2. Use the map of North-East Atlantic fishing grounds below to answer question 9b.
      1. Explain how the warm North Atlantic drift promotes fishing in the fishing grounds above. (2marks)
        • It keeps the Coast ice free enabling fishing to take place throughout the year
      2. Other than the warm North Atlantic drift, state three physical factors observed from the map that promote fishing in the fishing grounds (3marks)
        • The Coastline is indented with many bays i.e Bay of Biscay which are sheltered from strong winds and ideal fish breading sites.
        • Several islands i.e Lototen Islands which are ideal fish landing sites.
        • The Norther position is cool and ideal for fish breading and preservation.
      3. Name the two leading fishing countries in the fishing region (2marks)
        • Russia
        • Norway
    3.      
      1. Identify the fishing method below (1mark)
        • Trawling 
      2. Describe how the identified fishing method is carried out (5marks)
        • A trawl net which is a bag shaped net is used.
        • The mouth of the net is kept open by other boards.
        • The net is held in position by floats at the top line and weights at the bottom.
        • The net is attached to a vessel called a trawler. The trawler drags the net on a smooth sea floor.
        • Fish swim into the net and are trapped
        • Once enough fish has been caught the net is hauled into the trawler and the fish removed.
      3. The number of fish stock and species are first reducing in Lake Victoria. State five measures that the Kenya government may undertake to improve it. (5marks)
        • Controlling pollution in the Lake
        • Establish research institutions to investigate the best way of conserving, breeding and controlling diseases.
        • Eradicating the growth and spread of the water hyacinth weed.
        • Restocking the depleted fishing zones in the lake
        • Seasonal ban on fishing to all breeding and growth.
        • Control over fishing and indiscriminate fishing.
        • Promote increased fish farming to reduce pressure on the lake.
  10.          
    1.           
      1. What is transport? (2marks)
        • This is the activity of moving people and commodities from one place to another
      2. Name two towns in Kenya with modern water ports (2marks)
        • Mombasa
        • Lamu
        • Kisumu
      3. State four advantages of transporting goods between Nairobi to Mombasa using the standard gauge railway over Nairobi Mombasa Highway. (4marks)
        • The SGR carries more heavy and bulky goods over long distance at once.
        • The SGR is cheaper than road transport
        • The standard gauge railway operates on a fixed time table hence more efficient than highway.
        • The SGR is less prone to accidents as compared to the Nairobi Mombasa Highway.
        • The SGR is faster than the Highway.
      4. Name the final destinations of the great North Road and Trans African Highways
        • Great North Road – Cairo/Cape town
        • Trans African Highway – Mombasa/Lagos
    2. Study the sketch map of the great lakes and the St. Lawrence sea way. Use it to answer b (i) and b (ii).
      Name
      1. The port marked M (1mark)
        • M – Duluth 1 x 1 =
      2. The Lakes marked Q and R (2marks)
        • Q – Lake Erie
        • R – Lake Ontario 
    3.    
      1. Give how the following natural short comings found on the St. Lawrence Sea way were solved.
        • Natural barriers like rapids and waterfalls (2marks)
          • Constructive of canals i.e the sea canal by passed sault Marie rapids
        • Shallowness (2marks)
          • Dredging the river and Lake beds to deepen them
        • Difference in the level of the rivers and lake (2marks)
          • Establish of locks which raised or reduced water levels to match the gradient of connection points.
      2. Explain three ways in which the seaway contributed to the economies of Canada and the USA (6marks)
        • Increased trade between Canada and U.S.A i.e Canadian wheat and timber producer expected to the U.S.A and in turn American manufactured foods to Canada.
        • Industrial growth, many industries i.e Iron and steel, paper manufacture, came up in Canada and USA, as raw materials and manufactured goods were easily transported along the sea way.
        • Hydro electric power production. The Dams along the Sea route produced H.E.P to be used in the industries and domestically.
        • Employment opportunity – The transport industry provided employment opportunities raising the peoples standards of living in the area.
        • Source of foreign revenue as foreign ships using the Sea way were charged.
        • Urbanization, several towns and lake port towns developed along the seaway both in Canada and USA i.e Montreal Ottawa, Buffalo, Chicago.
        • Development of Agriculture as Horticulture and market gardening provide food to the emerging towns.

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