Agriculture Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Bondo Joint Mocks Exams 2022

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Instructions to Candidates

  • Answer all the questions in section A and B.
  • Answer any two questions in section C.

Answer all questions in this section

  1. Give two reasons for docking in sheep production. (1 mark)
  2. Give four ideal qualities of a good calf pen (2 marks)
  3. Outline four characteristics of Romney marsh sheep breed (2 marks)
    1. State two disadvantages of using metal frames in construction of farm buildings (1 mark)
    2. Give two reasons for seasoning timber (1 mark)
  5. Outline four reasons for swarming of bees (2 marks)
  6. List two methods that can be used to preserve fish (1 mark)
    1. What is a notifiable disease? (1 mark)
    2. Name four examples of notifiable diseases in livestock. (2 marks)
  8. Name two major physical differences between Bactrian and Dromedary breeds of camel. (1 mark)
  9. State two characteristics of heavy poultry breeds. (1 mark)
  10. List two maintenance practices of a wood chisel. (1 mark)
  11. State four ways of controlling tsetse flies. (2 marks)
  12. State four characteristics of livestock roughage feedstuff. (2 marks)
  13. List two equipment used in handling cattle during agricultural exhibition. (1 mark)
  14. State the gestation period of the livestock animals given below
    1. Rabbit (½ mark)
    2. Goat (½ mark)
  15. State four disadvantages of natural mating (2 marks)
  16. State one egg content added to it at the magnum during egg formation process. (1 mark)
  17. State four methods used to control cannibalism in a deep litter system (2 marks)
    1. Give three uses of Biogas in the farm (1 ½ marks)
    2. State three reasons why the use of wind power on the farm is limited. (1 ½ marks)

Answer all questions in this section.

    1. The illustration below represents equipment used in poultry production. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow:
      1. Identify the equipment illustrated above. (1 mark)
      2. Name the parts labeled C, D and E on the diagram of the equipment illustrated on the equipment in (a) above (1 ½marks)
      3. What are the functions of the parts labeled C, D and E (3marks)
      4. Why is it important to turn the eggs around 180 oc every 6- 8 hours? (1mark)
    2. The diagram bellows shows the reproductive system of a cow. Study it and answer the questions that follow.
      1. Name the parts labeled J, F and H. (1½ marks)
      2. State one function of each of the parts labeled J and H
      3. Name three reproductive hormones in dairy cattle (3 marks)
    1. The illustrations below labeled V, W, and X show three different ways some hens were debeaked.
      1. Which hen was correctly debeaked? (1 mark)
      2. State two reasons for your choice in (i) above. (1 mark)
    2. Name any two tools which would be used for debeaking. (2 marks)
  3. Boran Dam X FRIESIAN SIRE – f1 heifer x charolais
    1. What type of breeding system is shown above? (1 mark)
    2. Why would you recommend such a breeding system? (1 mark)
    3. What characteristic in the heifer are you improving by using such a breeding system? (1 mark)

Answer any two questions

    1. Outline ten differences between a tractor drawn mould plough and an ox mouldboard. (10 marks)
    2. Describe management of growers to point of lay. (10 marks)
      1. Give three factors considered in siting a farm structure. (3 marks)
      2. Describe the functions of each of the following parts of a plunge dip. (7 marks)
        1. Foot bath
        2. Entrance race
        3. Roof
        4. Drainage race
        5. Jump
        6. Dip tank
        7. Exit step
        8. Describe the procedure of constructing a barbed wire fence. (10 marks)
      1. Give three factors affecting the amount of food given to an animal. (3 marks)
      2. State and explain seven essential of clean milk production. (7 marks)
    2.  Describe digestion of grass in the rumen of a cow. (10 marks)

Marking Scheme

  1. Reasons for docking in sheep)
    • Facilitate easy mating
    • Control accumulation of faeces which attract blow flies.
    •  For uniform distribution of fats.
    • To achieve uniformity in appearance
      (1/2 x2= 1mk)
  2. Qualities of a good calf pen.
    • Easy to clean
    • Should be dry and warm.
    • Have good ventilation and not affected by draught.
    •  Should house one calf.
    • Should be spacious
    • Have good drainage
    • Have feed and water troughs.
  3. Outline four characteristics of the Romney marsh sheep breed
    • Wide head with poll covered with wool
    • It has a straight back
    •  It has black hooves
    • It has short legs
      (1 x2=2mks)
    1. Disadvantages of using metals frames for construction;
      •  It is heavy to transport
      •  It is expensive.
      • Requires skill to construct/fit.
        (1/2 x4=2mks)
    2. Reasons for seasoning timber
      • To prevent insect damage.
      • To avoid fungal infestation and rotting.
      • To prevent warping
      • make it easy to work on.
      • To improve its durability
        (1/2 x3=1 ½)
  5. Reasons for swarming of bees
    • Shortages of food and water.
    • Due to outbreak of diseases and parasites.
    • Death of queen.
    • Unfavorable smell/bad or ad our smell.
    •  Too much noise.
    • Death of brood.
      (½ x2 =1mk)
  6. Methods used to preserve fish
    • Salting
    • Sun-drying
    • Smoking
    • Freezing
      (1/2 x 4)=2mks)
    1. A notifiable disease an infectious disease which once noticed must be reported to the authorities/government authorities for the purpose of taking action. (1mk)
    2. Examples of notifiable diseases
      • Foot and mouth disease
      • Rinder pest
      • Anthrax
      • Rift valley fever
      • New Castle
      • Avian flu in poultry
      • Rabies
        (1/2 x3 = 1 ½ mks)
  8. Name two major physical differences between Bactrian and dromedary breeds of camel
    • Bactrian has two humps while dromedary has single hump
    • Bactrian has long hair while dromedary has short hair (2x ½=1mk)
  9. State two characteristics of heavy poultry breeds
    • Heavy in weight
    • Fast growing
    • Lay fewer eggs
    • Become broody faster
      (2 x 0.5mk=1mk
  10. List two maintenance practices of a wood chisel
    • Sharpening the cutting edge when blunt
    • Replacing the broken handle
      (2 x 0.5mk=1mk)
  11. State four ways of controlling tsetse flies
    • Bush clearing to control breeding places
    • Spraying their hiding places with suitable insecticides
    • Use of flytraps with impregnated nets
    • Use of sterilizing agents for example, radio isotopes on male flies
      (4x 0.5mk = 2mks)
  12. Chacteristics of livestock roughage feedstuff
    • High fibre content
    • High moisture content
    • Low protein content
    • High carbohydrate content
      (4x 0.5mk= 2mks)
  13. Equipment used in handling cattle during agricultural exhibition
    • Halter
    • Bull ring and land stick
  14. State the gestation period of the livestock animals given below
    • Rabbit -28-32 days
    • Goat – 143-153 days
      (2x½ = 1mk)
  15. State four disadvantages of natural mating
    • Inbreeding is very difficult to be controlled
    • Transmission of breeding diseases for example brucellosi
    • Males animals used in breeding require extra feed
    • Large male’s animals may injure small female animals
    • a lot of semen is wasted
    • It is expensive and cumbersome to transport bull
      (Any four correct x0.5mk = 2mks)
  16. Give one egg content added to it at magnum during egg formation
    • Albumen (1x1 = 1mk)
    1. control of external parasites
    2. Supply of balance feeds to the chicken
    3. Regular collection of eggs
    4. Avoiding overcrowding of chicken
      (4x 0.5mk = 2mks)
      • used for cooking
      • used lighting
      • internal combustion of engine
      • provides power to light jobs
      • Its effectiveness depends on speed and size of wind mill
      • Its unreliable in terms of directions strength and availability
      1. artificial egg incubator
      2. C – thermometer
        D – Warm water
        E- Damp cloth
      3. C- checking the temperature
        D- Maintains the humidity
        E – Assists in maintaining the relative humidity
        (3x1mk each = 3mks)
      1. J – uterine wall
        F – Cervix
        H – fallopian tube/oviduct
        (3x0.5 =1.5mks)
      2. J – where implantation of the zygote occurs
        H – Fertilization takes place there.
      3. oestrogen
        (3x1 =3mks)
      1. V
      2. – uses the lower pick to pick food and drink water
        -1/3 of the upper beak is cut
    2. Debeaker
      Hot iron blade
    1. cross breeding
    2. to develop a dual purpose breed
      improve hybrid vigour/heterosis
    3. to improve the production of meat
      To increase milk yield
    1. Outline ten differences between a tractor drawn mouldboard plough and an ox-drawn mouldboard plough (1x10=10mks)
      • Tractor drawn plough are expensive to buy while ox-drawn plough are cheap to buy
      • Tractor drawn plough can be used on hard soils while ox-drawn plough can only be used on soft soils
      • tractor drawn plough are heavy hence require more power to pull while ox-drawn plough are light hence require less power to pull
      • Tractor drawn plough is expensive to maintain while ox-drawn plough are cheaper tomaintain
      • tractor drawn plough can only be used for few operations while ox-drawn plough can be used for more operations such as weed control and ploughing
      • Tractor drawn plough require high technical know how to operate while ox-drawn plough require low technical know how to operate.
      • Tractor drawn plough is operated by one person while ox-drawn plough is operated by more than one person
      • Tractor drawn plough is faster and works on a bigger area per given time while ox- drawn is slower and works on a small area per given time.
      • Tractor drawn plough can only be used on a flat or gently sloppy land while ox-drawn plough can be used on steep slope
      • tractor drawn plough ploughs the land deeply while ox-drawn plough ploughs the land shallowly
    2. Describe management of growers to a point of lay (1x10=10mks)
      • provide the birds with adequate floor space
      • provide them with adequate feeders and waterers
      • provide enough roosts for perching
      • provide them with oyster shells as a source of calcium
      • provide them with clean water all the time
      • scatter the grains on the floor to keep the birds busy
      • hang green leaves in the house to keep them busy and provide them with vitamins
      • feed the birds with growers mash up to the 16 th week
      • gradually introduce layers mash from the 16 th week
      • carry out vaccination against fowl typhoid and Newcastle
      • control internal parasites
      • dust to control external parasites
      • change the litter regularly
      1. Factors considered in siting the farm structure(3Marks)
        • Availability of water
        • Drainage of the area/ slope of the land
        • Central location/ accessibility
        • Firm ground
        • Type of soil (1x3 = 3mks)
      2. Foot bath– To wash the feet of the animal
                             To control the foot rot
        Entrance race – it allows the animals to enter the dip tank
        Roof - it prevents the rain water from diluting the acaricides solution
                 -it prevents the sun rays from reaching the acaricides solution causing evaporationDrainage race- it allows the dip wash from the animals body to drip off and drains back to the dip tank
        Jump – it allows the animals to jump singly into the dip tank
        Dip tank – it contains the acaricides solution where the animals are immersed to control the external parasites
        Exit step – it allows the animals to come out of the dip wash slowly
        (Each part x 1mk each = 7mks)
      • clear the fence line
      • measure and mark the points on the fence line where holes are to be dug determining the positions of the gates
      • Dig holes to a depth of 60cm for the main fence and 75-90cm for the corner and the gates posts
      • place treated posts in the holes in the upright position
      • mix concrete of 1:3:5 ratio and place it in the hole.
      • put soil and stones in the holes
      • ram to make the pole firm at the base
      • stretching the wire using the wire strainer
      • nail the barbed wire onto the posts with fencing staples
      • fix the lower strand of wire first, and use it as a guide to fix the next strands up to the required number
        (Mark procedurally, 1 Mk for each step correctly written)
        • the level of production
        • the health status of the animal
        • the age of the anima
        • the type of feed content egg protein or energy giving feeds
          (3x1mk= 3mks)
        1. healthy milking herd- prevents spread of diseases to other animals or herdsman
        2. Clean milking cows- to prevent contamination of milk with dirt
        3. Healthy and clean milkman- to prevent contamination of milk
        4. Clean milking shed- to prevent contamination of milk by dirt
        5. Clean milking utensils- for high quality milk
        6. Milk filtration, cooling and storage- to get rid of dirt and for longer keeping quality
        7. Avoid flavours in milk- for high quality milk
          (½ mk for stating and ½mk for explanation= 7mks)
    2. Digestion of grass in the rumen
      • Grass (coarse grass) is stored temporary in the rumen
      • Course grass is regurgitated from the rumen for further chewing in the mouth
      • Saliva that mixes with the feed creates alkaline/medium suitable for micro-organisms
      • Feed undergoes microbial fermentation
      • Carbohydrates are broken down into volatile fatty acids (VFAs) which include Acetic,butyric and propionic acids
      • Gases like methane, CO2 and H2 are released
      • Proteins are broken down to amino acids/peptides and ammonia gas is released.
      • Amino acids/non essential amino acids are synthesised from ammonia gas and other non-protein nitrogen by micro-organisms
      • Synthesis of vitamin B complex and vitamin K by micro-organisms
      • Volatile fatty acids are absorbed through the rumen wall into the bloodstream
      • Gases are expelled through belching
        (Each1mk x10 = 10mks)

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