Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Mangu High School Mock Exams 2022

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Answer ALL Questions in this section.

  1. State two economic effects of HIV/Aids on agriculture.
  2. State three guidelines used in coming up with a crop rotation programme.
  3. Give four factors to consider when planning a farm.
  4. Outline four functions of trees in soil conservation.
  5. List three factors that affect the selectivity and effectiveness of herbicides.
  6. Distinguish between the terms below as used in pasture utilization. 
    1. carrying capacity
    2. stocking rate
  7. Why is it not advisable to use manure in carrot production
  8. State two methods of frame formation in tea.
  9. Give two reasons why processing of raw materials is important.
  10. State two ways in which agriculture contributes to the development of industries.
  11. State three biological factors that influence the weathering process.
  12. Give three qualities of trees used in agro forestry.
  13. List three common risks and uncertainties in most farms.
  14. Give two financial statements a farmer may prepare on a well organized farm.
  15. List two liming elements in agriculture.
  16. State three causes of fragmentation and land sub-division.
  17. Give two disadvantages of feeding livestock on lush pasture.
  18. Give two examples of working capital in a poultry enterprise.
    1. Give three advantages of drip irrigation
    2. State two surface water sources on the farm
  20. State two ways of increasing labour efficiency in the farm.

Answer ALL questions in this section

  1. The diagram below shows an illustration of a method of crop propagation. Use it to answer the questions that follow.
    21 zda
    1. Identify the method
    2. Name two ways of inducing the rooting in plantlets.
    3. Outline two disadvantages of the method shown above.
  2. The diagram below shows a method of silage preparation. Use it to answer the questions that follow.
    22 adad
    1. Identify the structure.
    2. State one way of improving the palatability of silage.
    3. What is the importance of chopping silage material before ensiling.
    4. Give two ensiling losses in silage making,
  3. Study the illustration below and answer the questions that follow.
    23 sadad
    1. What do the figures labeled on the diagram stand for.
    2. A farmer was advised to apply 20kg of N, 30kg of phosphorus and 10kg of potassium. The fertilizers available are CAN (20%N), SSP (10%P2O5) and KCI (20%K2O). Calculate the amount of each fertilizer the farmer needs to apply on his farm. Show your working.
  4. The diagram below is of a tea cutting. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.
    24 adada
    1. Which part of the branch is the most appropriate for raising a new seedling.
    2. Give reasons for your answer in (a) above.
    3. Give four reasons why farmers are advised to raise tea in polythene sleeves.
    4. State two factors that promote rooting in cuttings.
    5. What is the name given to a stem cutting used to propagate sugarcane.

Answer any TWO questions from this section in the spaces provided after the question.

    1. Discuss the production of Napier grass (pennisetum perpureum) under the following headings.
      1. Ecological requirement (3mks) 
      2. Land preparation (3mks)
      3. Establishment and management. (3mks)
      4. Utilization (2mks)
      1. Explain the benefits of a mixed grass-legume pasture over pure grass pasture.(5mks)
      2. State four effects of late defoliation (4mks)
  2. Use the data from the table below to answer the questions that follow.
     Unit of labour input  Maize in kgs yield  Marginal product  Average product
     0  0    
     1  600    
     2 1800    
     3 3000    
     4 3600    
     5 3700    
     6 3600    
    7 3400    
    1. Calculate and fill the columns for:
      1. Marginal product. (7mks)
      2. Average product. (7mks)
    2. Assume the cost of labour in (i) above is Kshs.200 per day and the price of maize to be Kshs.20 per unit
      1. Calculate the value of the maize yield produced against the corresponding units of labour inputs. (2mks)
      2. Calculate the cost of labour for producing various quantities of maize given in the table. (2mks) 
    3. Determine from (b) above the most profitable level of production. (2mks)
    1. Discuss the factors that determine the spacing of crops. 
    2. Explain the importance of the following practices in crop production.
      1. Chitting 
      2. Seed dressing 
      3. Seed innoculation
      4. Earthing up
      5. Rogueing
    3. State reasons for raising seedlings in a nursery.


    • Shortage of farm labour. 
    • Increase cost of living of Aids patients and their relatives. 
    • Low food supply and poverty in general 
    • Resources that could be used in agriculture are used in treatment.
    • Crop root depth
    • Crop nutrient requirements
    • Weed control
    • Pest and disease control
    • Soil fertility
    • Soil structure
    • Size of the farm.
    • Climatic conditions
    • Security
    • Government policy
    • Communication and transport facilities 
    • Available resources.
    • Expected returns 
    • Farmer's objectives and performance.
    • They intercept the raindrops therefore reducing splash erosion
    • They reduce the surface evaporation by providing shade.
    • They reduce wind speed thereby minimizing wind erosion.
    • The trees bind soil particles together.
    • They slow down theerosive of forces water hence reducing erosion.
    • Stage of plant growth. 
    • Plant morphology and Anatomy 
    • Herbicide characteristics. 
    • Environmental factors
  6. Carrying capacity - This is the ability of the forage stand to maintain a particular number of livestock units per unit area.
    Stocking rate - This is the number of animals maintained per unit area of land. 
    • It leads to forking
    • It leads to bursting
    • Formative pruning
    • Pegging
    • Increase shelf life of a commodity. 
    • Transforms commodities into utilizable forms. 
    • Reduces bulkness and therefore eases storage. 
    • Makes commodities easy to handle.
    • Improves flavour of a commodity.
    • Agriculture supplies raw materials to the industries.
    • Agriculture provides market for industrial goods.
    • Agriculture provides capital which is used to start industries.
    • Large animals
    • Soil organisms and micro-organisms
    • Human activities
    • Plant roots.
    • Fast growth 
    • Deep rooted 
    • Nitrogen fixing 
    • Good in by products. 
    • Have appropriate canopy (should not shade the other crops) 
    • Should be nutritious and palatable.
    • Should not be allelopathic to crops
    • Weather changes 
    • Theft of crops/livestock/machines
    • Outbreak of pests and diseases
    • Health of the farmer
    • Accidents to employees/employer
    • Fire
    • Price fluctuation
    • Balance sheet
    • Profit and loss account
    • Cash analysis
    • Sulphur
    • Magnesium
    • Calcium
    • Shifting cultivation
    • Buying several pieces of land scattered
    • Farmer sub-dividing land to his heirs.
    • Accumulation of land holdings by money lenders.
    • Land offered to pay debts.
    • High moisture content which depresses DM intake
    • Low total digestible nutrients
    • Less laxative effects
    • Bloat
    • Casual labour
    • Fuel
    • Feeds
    • Drugs
    • Little amount water used.
    • Water under low pressure can be used.
    • Discourages fungal diseases such as blight
    • Discourages the growth of weeds between the rows
    • Training
    • Supervision
    • Mechanization
    • Giving incentives e.g. promotions and rewards
    • Provide welfare services for workers e.g. medical, housing etc.
    • Assigning specific duties
    1. Tissue culture.
      • Use of culture medium with correct nutrients
      • Use of growth regulators e.g. hormones.
      • Introducing correct light intensity.
      • Providing correct temperature and relative humidity.
      • Can only be done under specific structures e.g. green houses and laboratories.
      • Requires high level of sanitation.
      • Requires high skills and careful handling.
    1. Trench silo
    2. Adding feed addictives. 
    3. For easy compaction.
    4. Through seepage
    1. 18%N, 47% P2O5, 0% K20
    2. Amount of CAN
      100% kg of CAN contain 20 kg N
      What about 20kg N.
      100 - 20N

      20x100 = 100kgCAN

      Amount of Phosphorus
      100kg DSP-10% Phosphorus

      100x30 = 300kg SSP
      Amount of Potassium required 10kg
      100 - 20
      ? - 10
      10x100 = 50kg Muriateofpotash
    1. X
    2. Not too succulent/soft or too mature because when it is too succulent/soft it can rot faster or too much mature, cannot rot easily.
      • For easy transplanting
      • Roof system is not disturbed during transplanting.
      • Can be carried over a long distance
      • Seeds can easily be stored before transplanting.
      • Temperature 
      • Oxygen amount
      • Chemical treatment
      • Relative humidity
      • Leaf area 
      • Light
    5. Sett
      1. Ecological requirements 
        • Attitude range 0 -2100 above sea level
        • Rainfall of atleast 750mm per annum
        • Temperature range of 24°C -29°C.
        • Soil pH of 6.5
        • Fertile soil with free drainage.
      2. Land preparations 
        • Should be done during the dry season.
        • Clear the vegetation and remove stumps. 
        • Carry out primary cultivation. 
        • Harrow/carry out secondary cultivation. 
        • Harrow the land to medium tilth. 
        • Make furrows/holes at spacing of 90 - 100 x 50cm
      3. Crop establishment and management 
        • Apply manure i.e. 7-10 tonnes of well rotten organic manure per hectare. 
        • Use stem cutting or splits of selected varieties. Stem cuttings to have 2-3 nodes. 
        • Plant the materials at the onset of rains. 
        • Apply NPK fertilizer at the rate of 200kg/ha at planting time.
        • Plant the cuttings at a slanting manner and at appropriate depth. 
        • Cover the furrows/holes adequately i.e. 2 nodes to be underground and a node above the soil surface.
        • Control weeds early by inter-row cultivation and uprooting. 
        • Top dress using nitrogen fertilizers at the rate of 200kg/ha. 
        • Defoliation is done from 6-8 weeks after planting depending on rainfall availability.
      4. Utilisation 
        • When ready, Napier grass is cut and fed to livestock. (i.e. when 3-5 months old) 
        • Excess Napier grass is conserved as silage for future use. 
        • Can be cut, dried and used as mulching material.
        • Makes maximum use of soil nutrients because of different nutrient requirements.
        • Reduces soil erosion because of good coverage.
        • Increases soil fertility, due to Nitrogen fixation.
        • There is better distribution of growth e.g. a mixture of early and late maturing varieties.
        • There is economical use of fertilizers in mixed pasture.
        • Has better weed control effect. - Yields are higher per unit area of land than pure grass alone. 
        • It is more nutritious than pure grass i.e. more palatable.
        • Ensures security against total loss due to attack by pests, diseases, bad weather etc (hence a way of diversification)
       Unit of labour input  Maize in kgs yield  Marginal product  Average Product
           -  -
           600  600
           1200  900
           1200  1000
           600  900
           100  740
           -100  600
          200 500
      1. value of maize produced         
         units of labour  value of maize
         0  0
         1  600 x 20 = 12000
         2  1800 x 20 = 36000
         3  3000 x 20 = 60000
         4  3600 x 20 = 72000
         5  3700 x 20 = 74000
         6  3600 x 20 = 72000
        7 3400 x 20 = 6800
        Mark as a whole if any unit is missing candidate loses the 2mks
      2. cost of labour     
         units of labour  value of maize
         0 0
         1 200
         2 400
         3 600
         4 800
         5 1000
         6 1200
        7 1400
        Mark as a whole if any unit is missing candidate loses the 2mks
    3. The level of 5 units of labour when the value of maize is Kshs.74000 against Kshs. 1000 for labour.
      • Growth habit of the crop
      • Type of machinery to be used.
      • Fertility of the soil
      • The size of the plant.
      • Moisture availability
      • Use of the crop
      • Pests and disease control
      1. Chitting
        • Ensures faster establishment 
        • Ensure uniform germination
        • Maximum use of the rains
      2. Seed dressing
        • Seeds are dressed with appropriate chemicals to control soil borne pests and diseases.
      3. Seed inoculation - Application of appropriate Rhizobia on legume seeds to promote nitrogen fixation.
      4. Earthing up
        • heaping soil around the roof zone of the crop.
        • Preserve moisture
        • Support/prevent lodging
        • Easier harvesting of tuber crops
        • Easier of enlargement of tubers
        • Brings nutrients closer to the crop roots.
        • To control soil erosion.
      5. Roguing
        • uprooting and destroying of infected crops.
        • Helps in preventing further spread of diseases and pests to health crops
      • Easy to carry out routine management practices.
      • Easy to select health and vigorous growing seedlings
      • Favours germination of tiny seeds
      • Excess seedlings can be sold
      • Enhances fasters maturity in the main seed bed.

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