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    1. State three reasons why we study Geography. (3mks
    2. Give two forces that are responsible for the shape of the earth.   (2mks
    1. What is the effect of crossing the international date line from west to east. (2mks
    2. State three reasons why the interior of the earth is still hot. (3mks
    1. Differentiate between river rejuvenation and river capture. (2mks
    2. State three conditions for river capture to occur. (3mks
    1. State two causes of soil creep.   (2mks
    2. Name three types of land slide. (3mks
    1. Define the term mineral.   (2mks
    2. Outline three differences between volcanic and plutonic rocks.   (3mks


    1. Study the map of Taita hills 1:50000 sheet 189(4) provided and answer the following questions.
      1. State the longitudinal extent of the area covered by the map.        (2mks
      2. Calculate the magnetic variation.     (2mks
      1. Draw a cross section between grid 310 140 to 390 140.   (4mks
        Mwatunge hill
        Sisal estate
        Road bound surface      (3mks
        Use a vertical scale of 1cm rep. 20m
      2. Calculate vertical exaggeration of your cross section.  (2mks
    3. Describe drainage of the area covered by the map.   (5mks
      1. State two evidences for wet climate in Taita hills.   (2mks
      2. Mention three ways in which relief has been represented on the map.  (3mks
      3. Give two types of settlement patterns found on the map.       (2mks
      1. State three characteristics of ITCZ.   (3mks
      2. Describe how the following factors influence climate.
        Configuration of the coastline.       (2mks
        Distance from the sea.         (2mks
      1. Name the temperate grasslands in the following regions.
        South Africa
        Europe                                                                                                                         (4mks
    3. Explain three ways in which the coniferous forests have adapted to the climatic conditions.   (6mks
    4. Students of Bujumba AC carried out field work in a marginal areas experiencing desert encroachment.
      1. State two objectives for the study.   (2mks
      2. How did they record their findings in the field. (3mks
      3. Describe three findings on the cause of encroachment.                                         (3mks
      1. Identify two features formed by vertical earth movement. (2mks
      2. Explain how the following factors cause earth movements.
        1. Gravitative pressure.   (2mks
        2. Isostatic adjustment. ( 2mks
    2. Describe the plate tectonic theory.   (5mks
      1. What is faulting.    (2mks
      2. Draw the diagram of a normal fault on it name and mark.
        Hade                    (2mks
      3. A part from the above fault name two other types of faults.                                                   (2mks
    4. Explain four ways in which faulting influences drainage.   (8mk
      1. Define the term desert.   (2mks
      2. Mention two desert landscapes.                                                                                 (2mks
      1. Explain two ways how wind transports it’s load. (4mks
      2. Describe how a barchans is formed.   (7mks
      1. State three reasons why wind action is pronounced in hot regions than in cold regions. (3mks
      2. Differentiate between mesas and buttes.   (2mks
    4. Give five positive effects of desert features to man. (5mks
    1. Distinguish between glacial till and fluvio-glacial till. (2mks
    2. Explain three factors that determine the rate of ice movement.   (6mks
      1. Mention four depositional features of glaciation. (4mks
      2. Describe how the following features are found.
        Moraine – dammed lake.           (4mks
        Outwash plain.                         (4mks
    4.  You carried out fieldwork on a glaciated area.
      1. Mention two methods of data collection you used. (2mks
      2. State one negative effect of glaciation. (1mk
      3. Give two follow up activities that you carried out.     (2mks)


    1. Reasons for studying Geography.
      - it helps to develop skills e.g interviewing.
      -It helps the learners to manage time properly.
      -It leads to development of career opportunities.
      -encourages international awareness.                                                               (3x1 3mks)
    2. Forces responsible for the shape of the earth.
      - Force of gravity.
      - Centrifugal force.
      - Centripetal force.                                                                              2x1=2mks
    1. Effect of crossing international date line.
      - 1 day is gained.
      -time is adjusted by 24hrs ahead.                                                                                  (2mks
    2. Reasons why the interior of earth is hot.
      -The original heat is still retained.
      -The weight of overlying rocks exert pressure generating heat in the interior.
      -Explosion of radioactive materials in interior of the earth that release heat.   (3x1=3mks
    1. River rejuvenation is the rebirth of a river’s erosive power while river capture is the diversion of the headwaters of a weaker river into the system of adjacent more powerful river. (2mks
    2. The two rivers must flow in adjacent valley.
      - Pirate river must flow in a wider valley.
      - Pirate river must flow at a lower level than the weaker one.
      - Pirate must have more active headward erosion than weaker river.   (3x1=3mks
    1. State two causes of soil creep.
      - wetting and drying of soil particles.
      - frost hearing beneath the soil.
      - External forces such as earth quakes and heavy vehicle movements.
      - alternate heating and cooling of the soil particles.     (2x1=2mks
    2. Slump
      -Debris fall
      -rock fall
      -Debris flow
      -Debris slide/earth slide.                        (3x1=3mks
    1. A minerals is a naturally occurring crystalline inorganic substance with definite chemical composition and physical properties. (2mks
    2. Differences between plutonic and volcanic.
      -Plutonic rocks are made of large crystals while volcanic rocks are made of tiny crystals.
      -plutonic rocks are formed when magma solidifies in the earth’s interior while volcanic rocks are formed when lava solidifies on the earth’s surface.
      -The rate of cooling during formation in plutonic is slow while it’s high during formation of volcanic rocks.                         3x1 =3 mrks

      MAP WORK
      1. 38017’E to 38030’E                                                    2 mrks
      2. 0030’                 1mrk
      1. on the graph
      2. 1/2000x50000/125 times           2 marks
    3. The area covered by the map has rivers
      There are many rivers.
      The main river is R Voi. Gosh, R. VoiGoshi flows from central area to SE part.
      R VoiGoshi has tributaries that form dendritic drainage pattern
      There are water reservoirs grid 3926     5x1=5 marks                            
      1. Permanent rivers e.gVoiGoshi forests such as Rouge   2marks
      2. Use of contours
        spot heights
        cliff drawings           3x1=3 marks
      3. Linear – evidence 3115
        Dispersed – 3917
        Nucleated – 2924     any 2x1=2 marks
      1. State three characteristics of the ITCZ.
        Found with latitude 23 ½ 0 N & S of the equator
        Experience high temperature
        A zone of low pressure and the doldrums
        Associated with convectional rainfall and thunderstorms   3x1=3marks
      2. Describe how the following factors influence climate.
        Configuration of the coastline.- This is the alignment of the coastline in relation to the prevailing onshore winds.
        - An irregular indented coastline will experience moist onshore wind thus resulting in high rainfall.
        -A regular/straight line experiences low/very little rainfall because the winds blow parallel to the coastline. 2 marks
      1. Distance from the sea.
        -Areas near the sea experience a cool sea breeze during the day.
        -Which lower the temperature/areas further inland remain to high temperature.
        -Areas near the sea experiences a warm land breeze during the night which increases the temperature/areas inland remain cold due to low temperatures.
        -Areas close to the sea experiences high humility due to high rate of evaporation this decreases inland.
        -areas close to the sea experience high convectional rainfall which decreases inland. 2 marks
      2. Temperate grasslands.
        Argentina – pampas
        South Africa – veldts
        Australia – Downs
        Europe – steppe                                          4x1=   4 marks
    3. Explain three ways in which the coniferous forest have adapted to climatic conditions.
      -Trees have needle like leaves to reduce the loss of water from trees winter.
      -Leaves have tough waxy skin to protect them from winter cold.
      -Trees are conical in shape and flexible branches to combat snow/snow to slide of easily.
      -Most trees and evergreen to allow maximum utilization of sunlight during.
      -Short growing season.
      -Tree trunks are flexible to enable them sway without breaking during strong water winds.
      -Trees have widely spread shallow root for utilization of moisture from top soil                       .                             any 3x2=6marks 
      1. objectives
        to find out the cause of encroachment
        to find out the effect of desertification
        to investigate measures put in place to check encroachment any 2x1= 2 marks
      2. data recording methods
        photographing/ video taking
        note taking
        filling of questionnaire     3x1=3 marks
      3. findings
        overgrazing by the neighboring communities
        deforestation as people look for timber
        insufficient rainfall
        location of the placethat is far away from water bodies any 3x1=3 marks
    1. Identify two features formed by vertical earth movement.
      Fault scarps/escarpments
      Tilt block
      Rift valleys
      Submerged coasts
      Emerged coasts.                     2x1=2 marks
    2. Explain how the following factor causes earth movements
      Gravitative pressure
      When large amount of magma escape to the surface of the earth large cavities of voids are behind.
      The force of gravity exerts pressure on the crustal rocks from the voids causing them to move inwards hence causing vertical movements. 2 marks
      Isostatic adjustment
      If ice sheet melt over the highland or soil erosion occurs and deposition of water or soil in the sea or depression.
      A vertical Isostatic uplift will occur on the highland because it is light while Isostatic sinking will occur on the depression because it is heavier.
      The adjustment which is meant to maintain isostacy is called Isostatic adjustment.   2 marks
      Describe plate tectonics theory
      -It is the study of movement of plates and the resultant land forms rigid blocks called plates.
      -The theory suggest that the earth lithosphere is made of semi-rigid blocks called plates.
      -These plates are fracture and constantly moving to each other long their plate margin forming various physical feature.
      -Their movement are caused by convectional current within the mantle. 5 marks
      1. What is faulting?
        The process through which the brittle crustal rocks fracture or break due to tectonic forces.2 marks 
      2. Name the parts marked
        –Heave – displacement
        -Hade – angle             2 marks
      3. Apart from the above type of fault name two other types of faults.
        Reversed fault
        Shear/tear fault
        Thrust fault
        Anticlinal fault.any 2 x1=2 marks
    4. Explain four ways in which faulting influences drainage
      -If rift faulting occurs in an enclosed area, a basin may be formed when river flow into the basin a lake may be formed.
      -Some rivers may end up flowing along fault lines thus forming a fault – guided drainage pattern.
      -Uplifting of land which follow faulting may block a river. This may cause it to reverse/change it ds direction of flow.
      -When faulting occurs a cross a river valley it may cause the river to disappear into the ground through fault lines.
      -When faulting occurs across a river valley vertical displacement of land may occur causing the river to form a waterfall where it descends an escarpment.
      -Faulting may lead to the formation of escarpment with spring forming at the base due to exposure of the water table. Any 4x2=8 marks
      1. What is a desert?
        It is an arid area with scarcity of rainfall and with little or no vegetation cover.2 marks
      2. Desert landscapes
        Sand deserts/Erg/koum
        Rocky desert/Hamad
        Stony desert/Reg/semir
        Balkabdsany 2x1= 2 marks
      1. wind transport
        surface creep
        Wind transportation of heavy particles by pushing and rolling along the desert surface.
        Wind transportation of particles by a series of jumps and hops, they are rolled, collide and get lifted
        Wind lifting and holding particles such as dust by air currents and transporting them over long distances
        Any 2 x2 =4
      2. Barchan
        Prevailing wind is interrupted by an obstacle leading to deposition of sand around the obstacle – where sand pile up to form a low hill of sand. 
        Wind pushes more sand over the sand hill to form a gently sloping convex windward.
        The wind cross over the hill and form eddy current on leeward side which push sand forward and side ways to create a shallow depression and steep concave slope.
        The sand pushes forward form sharp edges or horn on the leeward side.
        The processes form a crescent-moon shaped low ridge of sand at right angle to the prevailing wind direction called barchans.
      1. Reasons why wind action is pronounced in hot deserts.
        - Scarcity of vegetation in hot areas.
        -Presence of loose and unconsolidated materials in hot deserts.
        -Presence of strong tropical storms in hot regions.                                           3x1=3 marks
      2. Mesas are large flat topped tabular hills made up of resistant rock layers while buttes are
        small flat topped tabular hills made up of resistant rock layers.2marks
    4. Positive effect of desert features to man identified.
      - A scenery that attract tourists.
      -Extreme ground for testing bombs/films developments.
      -Sand harvested for building and construction industry.
      -loess deposits areas rich for agriculture.
      -Oasis provide water for settlement/livestock.
      -Salts from playas salines exploited for income.
      -Strong winds tapped for energy/hot sun for solar energy.
      -loess deposits curved into cool dwelling in summer.   (any 5x1=5mk)                                                                                                                                 
    1. Till and fluvio-glacial till
      -glacial till is the moraine directly deposited by ice on melting in a stratified manner while fluvio-glacial till is moraine that is deposited by water from melting ice in a stratified manner. (2mks
    2. Factors for ice movement
      - gradient of the land – ice moves faster on steep slopes than on gentle slopes.
      -season – movement of ice is faster during summer than in winter.
      - Friction – the Centre parts of a glacier more faster than the side and at the bottom.
      -Thickness and weight – Thick mass exerts pressure beneath causing melting unlike thin masses which remain frozen most of the time.          (any 3x2=6mks)
      1. Depositional features
        Eskers, till plain, drumlins, boulder train erratics, kames (any 4x1=4mks)
      2. Formation of features
        Moraine dammed lake.
        -Widening of a valley through ice – erosion.
        - Deposition of terminal moraine across the widened valley at the snowline.
        - The glacier meets and retreats.
        -Accumulation of melt water behind the terminal moraine.
        -Continued melting of ice boosts amount of melt water behind the terminal moraine to
        Form a moraine – dammed lake.
        Must be mentioned   to score all marks                                                          (max4mks)
        Outwash plain
        -large ice sheets stagnate on a gently sloping landscape and start melting along edges.
        -sub-glacial material deposited further down slope as ice retreats.
        -pre-existing valleys/depressions are buried by these fluvio-glacial materials.
        -The unconsolidated clay silt, sand and gravel that is deposited in mass covers a wide area forming an undulating plain called outwash plain.      (max 4mk)
        Field work
        Methods of data collection
        Taking photographs
        Content analysis                                                                            (2x1=
        negative effects
        Glacial rugged landscape can make it difficult for settlement (agriculture   (1mk
      3. Follow up activities
        -reading more on the topic
        -displaying photographs
        -writing reports
        -accessing the information against hypothesis.(any two 2x1 2mks)
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