AGRICULTURE PAPER 1 - KCSE 2019 NYANDARUA PRE MOCK EXAMINATION

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SECTION A (30 MARKS)
Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Define organic farming (1mark)
  2. List THREE soil constituents (1 ½ mark)
  3. Give FOUR benefits of crop rotation (1mark)
  4. State TWO disadvantages of using hydram pumps in pumping water in the farm (1mark)
  5. List FOUR benefits of land consolidation in farming (2marks)
  6. Name a crop weed that is:
    1. Parasitic to maize crop (1/2 mark)
    2. Alternate host for rusts ( ½ mark)
    3. Aquatic ( ½ mark)
    4. Has medicinal value ( ½ mark)
  7. State THREE ways in which nitrogen is lost from the soil (1½ marks)
  8. State FOUR benefits of mulching in soil and water conservation (2marks
  9. Give FOUR disadvantages of using organic manures in crop production (2marks)
  10.  
    1. Define opportunity cost (1mark)
    2. Name Two types of inventory records kept by farmers (1mark)
  11. Give TWO importance of sub-soiling (1mark)
  12. Give THREE ways in which nutrients can be lost from silage in a silo (1½ mark)
  13.  
    1. TWO destructive effects of moles in crop production (1mark)
    2. Apart from moles, name TWO other rodent pests (1mark)
  14. Give THREE characteristics of fixed inputs (1½ marks)
  15. List FOUR financial documents kept by farmers (2marks)
  16. State FOUR field pests that attack maize (2marks)
  17. Differentiate between apiculture and aquaculture as used in Agriculture (1mark)
  18. State TWO ways in which burning leads to loss of soil fertility (1mark)
  19. State TWO benefits of hardening off seedlings before transplanting . (1mark)

    SECTION B (20 MARKS)
    Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided.
  20. The photograph below shows a farming practice. Study it and answer the questions that follow.
    AGRIC20HJYUIPO
    1. Name the practice (1mark)
    2. Name one crop to which the practice is applicable (1mark)
    3. Give TWO benefits of the practice above (2marks)
  21. Study the farm record below and use it to answer the questions that follow.
    Date Amount sold Price per unit
    (Kshs.)
    Total Value
    (Kshs)
    Where Sold Remarks
    19/5/2018 120 Kg 30 3600 Mkulima Agrovet Fair price
    20/5/2018 150 Kg 32 Nyahururu Agrovet To supply more
    1. Name the type of farm record above (1mark)
    2. On the record fill the missing values (1mark)
    3. Give a farm statement that heavily depends on information extracted from the farm record named above (1mark)
  22. The diagram below illustrates a tomato fruit infested by a certain pest.
    AGRIC20AHSGDFCV
    1. Identify the pest (1 mark)
    2. State the damage caused by the pest on the fruit. (1 mark)
    3. Name one alternate host of the pest in the diagram. (1 mark)
    4. State one methods of controlling the pest. (1 marks)
  23. The diagram below shows a method of planting used to establish a certain variety of crop
    AGRIC23QFADSXZCV
    1. Identify the method of planting used (1mark)
    2. Give the spacing followed above (1mark)
    3. Give THREE advantages of the above method of planting crops (3marks)
    4.  The spacing above was used to establish a crop on an area of land measuring 6m by 3m. Calculate the crop population. Show your working (4marks)

      SECTION C (40 MARKS)
      Answer ANY TWO questions from this section in the spaces provided.
  24.  
    1. Explain challenges faced by Kenyan vegetable farmers in the production of crops (10mks)
    2. Discuss various safety precautions observed when using herbicides (5mks)
    3. Describe the benefits of minimum tillage in crop production (5mks)
  25.  
    1. Outline various ways in which land fragmentation increases the cost of food production in Kenya (5mks)
    2. Describe the importance of top dressing in pasture establishment (5mks)
    3. Explain FIVE factors that influence soil erosion (10mks)
  26.  
    1. Describe the importance of any FIVE nursery management practices in crop production(10mks)
    2. Explain various management practices that can be carried out by a farmer to maintain soil fertility on his farm. (10 marks)


MARKING SCHEME 

SECTION A (30 MARKS)
Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Define organic farming
    - It is the growing of crops and rearing of livestock without using agricultural chemicals (1mk)
  1. List THREE soil constituents
    - Soil air
    - Soil water
    -Mineral matter
    - Organic matter
    - Living organisms                                                                       3 x ½ (1 ½ mk) max 1½ mk
  1. Give FOUR benefits of crop rotation
    - Improves soil fertility
    − Control weeds
    − Improve soil structure
    − Control soil erosion
    − Maximum utilization of nutrients
    − Control build-up of soil borne pests and diseases                           (4 x ½) = 2mks
  1. State TWO disadvantages of using hydram pumps in pumping water in the farm
    - Pumps only stationery water
    − Pumps little quantities of water                                                       (2 x ½) = 1mk
  1. List FOUR benefits of land consolidation in farming
    - Economic use of time
    − Saves transportation cost
    − Proper supervision of land
    − Sound farm planning and adoption of crop rotation programmes
    − Makes delivery of agricultural advice by extension officers easy
    − Easy to construct permanent structures like fencing and building
    − Easy to control pests, weeds and diseases
    − Easy to conserve soil and water                                                      (Any 4 x ½ ) 2mks
  1. Name a crop weed that is:
    1. Parasitic to maize crop
      - Striga / witch weed                                                                            1 x ½ = ½ mk
    2. Alternate host for rusts
      - Wild oats / avena fatua                                                                      1 x ½ = ½ mk
    3. Aquatic
      - Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)                                             Any 1 x ½ = ½ mk
    4. Has medicinal value
      Sodom apple (Solanum Incanum)
      Double thorn (oxygonum stinuatum) Any 1 x ½ = ½ mks
  1. State THREE ways in which nitrogen is lost from the soil
    - Volatilisation
    − Leaching
    − Combustion
    − Denitrification                                                                                 (Any 3 x ½ mk) 1 ½ mk
  1. State FOUR benefits of mulching in soil and water conservation
    - Reduces speed of run-off
    − Reduces rate of evaporation
    − Prevents splash erosion
    -Increase water retention
    − Increases water infiltration
    − Increases organic matter thus improving drainage                         (Any 4 x ½ mk) = 2mks
  1. Give FOUR disadvantages of using organic manures in crop production
    - Spread of diseases, pests and weeds
    − Bulky to transport and apply
    − Labourious in application and transportation
    - Loses nutrients if poorly stored
    − Do not benefit crops if used when not fully decomposed                 (Any 4 x ½ mk) 2mks
  1.  
    1. Define opportunity cost
      Opportunity cost is the returns from the best alternative forgone (O.W.T.T.E)           1mk
    2. Name Two types of inventory records kept by farmers                                                         
      Permanent goods inventory
      Consumable goods inventory (2 x ½ mk) = 1mk
  1. Give TWO importance of sub-soiling
    -Encourages gaseous exchange in soil (aeration)
    − Breaks hard pans
    − Brings leached minerals to the surface
    − Improves soil drainage                                                                    (Any 2 x ½ mk) = 1mk
  1. Give THREE ways in which nutrients can be lost from silage in a silo
    - Surface spoilage
    − Seepage losses
    − Gaseous losses                                                                                (3 x ½ mk) 1 ½ mk
  1.  
    1. Give TWO destructive effects of moles in crop production
      - Destroys crop roots thus interfering with absorption of water and nutrients
      − Pulls plants underground causing their death
      − Spoils pastures by covering them with soil from burrowed tunnels             (Any 2 x ½ )1mk
    2. Apart from moles, name TWO other rodent pests                                                     
      - Squirrels
      − Rats
      − Mice
      − Porcupine
      − Hedgehogs                                                                                      (Any 2 x 1 ½) = 1mk
  1. Give THREE characteristics of fixed inputs
    -Constancy
    − Not varying with level of production
    − Their costs are not allocated to specific enterprises                        (3 x ½ mk) = 1 ½ mk
  1. List FOUR financial documents kept by farmers
    - Invoice
    − Receipt
    − Delivery note
    − Statements
    − Purchase order                                                                                (Any 4 x ½) = 4mks 
  1. State FOUR field pests that attack maize
    - Maize stalk borer (ReJ: stalk borer)
    − Army worm
    -Aphid
    − Birds
    − Rats                                                                                                             (Any 4 x ½) = 2mks
  1. Differentiate between apiculture and aquaculture as used in Agriculture
    -Agriculture is the rearing of bees in beehives
    -Aquaculture is the rearing of fish in fish ponds (Mark as a whole) 1mk
  1. State TWO ways in which burning leads to loss of soil fertility
    - Destroys organic matter
    − Ash accumulation leads to nutrient imbalance
    − It kills/ destroys soil micro-organisms
    − Exposes soil to agents of soil erosion
    − Destroys soil structure increasing soil erodibility
    -Exposure of soil nutrients to high temperature causes increased volatilization of nutrients
    (Any 2 x ½) 1mk
  1. State TWO benefits of hardening off seedlings before transplanting .
    - Reduces chances of drying-up of seedlings after transplanting
    − Enables seedlings to establish themselves faster in the main field   ( 2 x ½) 1mk 

SECTION B (20 MARKS)
Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. The photograph below shows a farming practice. Study it and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Name the practice                       
      - Trelishing                                                                                          (1mk)
    2. Name one crop to which the practice is applicable                 
      - Passion fruit
      -Tomatoes                                                                                          (Any 1 x 1) 1mk
    3. Give TWO benefits of the practice above                                                          
      - Ensures production of clean fruits
      -Enables easy harvesting
      − Enable easy spraying of chemical
      − Control of fungal diseases
      − Controls growth pattern of the crop                                                            (Any 2 x 1) = 2mks
  2. Study the farm record below and use it to answer the questions that follow.

    Date

    Amount sold

    Price per unit (Kshs.)

    Total Value (Kshs)

    Where Sold

    Remarks

    19/5/2018

    120 Kg

    30

    3600

    Mkulima Agrovet

    Fair price

    20/5/2018

    150 Kg

    32

    4,800/-

           √1mk

    Nyahururu Agrovet

    To supply more

    1. Name the type of farm record above                            
      - Marketing record                                                                        (1mk)
    2. On the record fill the missing values                                                                             
    3. Give a farm statement that heavily depends on information extracted from the farm record named above                                    
      - Profit and loss account                                                               (1mk
  1. The diagram below illustrates a tomato fruit infested by a certain pest.
    1. Identify the pest
      Bollworm (1mk)
    2. State the damage caused by the pest on the fruit.
      - Bores holes on the fruit leading to fruit rot                    (1 mark)
    3. Name one alternate host of the pest in the diagram.                                             
      - orange fruit                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
      -cotton fruit                                       (1 mark)
    4. State one methods of controlling the pest.                          
      -Field Hygiene                                                                                         
      -Spray with correct insecticides
      -Use certified seeds                                                                                                                             
      -following a suitable crop rotational programme                                                                                              (Any 1 correct 1 marks)
  1. The diagram below shows a method of planting used to establish a certain variety of crop
    1. Identify the method of planting used
      Row planting                                     (1mark)
    2. Give the spacing followed above
      30cm × 60cm  (reject 30cm by 60cm)                                 (1mark)
    3. Give THREE advantages of the above method of planting crops                            
      Easy to establish crop population
      Easy to use machines between the rows
      Low seed rate is used
      Easy to estimate crop yield
      Easy to carry out cultural practices e.g. weeding, spraying, harvesting etc (Any 3 x 1 = 3mks)
    4. The spacing above was used to establish a crop on an area of land measuring 6m by 3m. Calculate the crop population. Show your working                       
      Plant population =      Area of land                                                                √1mk
                                         Spacing
      Area of Land   = 600cm x 300cm                               √1mk
      Spacing           = 30cm x 60cm
      Plant population =      600cm x 300                                                                √1mk
                                       30cm x 60cm 
      180,000cm      =100 plants                                         √1mk 
      1800cm                                                           (Total = 4mks)

SECTION C (40 MARKS)
Answer ANY TWO questions from this section in the spaces provided.

  1.  
    1. Explain challenges faced by Kenyan vegetable farmers in the production of crops
      - High cost of farm inputs
      − Lack of storage facilities leading to spoilage of produce
      − Poor transport network leading to deterioration of produce before reaching market
      − Lack of technical knowhow on the best farming practices to adopt when growing the crops
      − Inadequate market for their produce
      − Exploitation by middlemen
      − Unfavourable environmental factors e.g. poor rainfall patterns: poor soils
      − Pests and diseases
      -Inadequate extension                                                                                   (10 x 1 ) = 10mks
    2. Describe various safety precautions observed when using herbicides                       
      - Read and follow manufacturers instructions
      − Wear protective clothing
      − Avoid inhaling the herbicides by not spraying against wind, not smoking and wearing a breathing mask
      − Don’t blow or suck blocked nozzles with the mouth
      − Bath thoroughly after handling the chemicals
      − Keep chemicals out of reach of children (safe storage)
      − Proper disposal of empty containers
      − Don’t wash spraying equipment in water sources                                       (Any 5 x 1mk = 5mks)
    3. Describe the benefits of minimum tillage in crop production             
      -Reduces cost of cultivation
      − Control of soil erosion
      -Maintain soil structure
      − Conserve soil moisture
      − Prevent disturbance of crop roots
      − Prevent exposure of humus to sun’s heat                                                    (Any 5 x 1mk = 5mks)
  1.  
    1. Outline various ways in which land fragmentation increases the cost of food production in Kenya
      - Increased transport cost moving from one plot to another
      − High Managerial cost for the different plots
      − Increased cost of extension advice visits
      − High cost of pest, weed and disease control
      − High costs of replacing temporal fences and other structures on the different plots
      − Poor farm mechanization causing manual operations which are expensive
      Any other relevant point                                                                      (Any 5 x 1mk = 5mks)
    2. Describe the importance of top dressing in pasture establishment               
      - Replenish soil nutrients and ensure proper nutrient balance
      − To increase herbage yield
      − To improve the nutritive value of the crop
      − To correct/amend physical and chemical properties of soil e.g. soil structure, water holding capacity and soil PH
      − To enable the soil micro-organism to break down organic resolves into available nutrients
      (5 x 1mk) = 5mks
    3. Explain FIVE factors that influence soil erosion                                 
      -Type of soil – sandy soils are easily eroded than clay soils
      − Amount and density of rainfall – Heavy rainfall causes more erosion
      − Slope of land/topography – steep slopes increase erosion rate
      − Soil depth – shallow soils are easily eroded
      − Vegetation cover – Bare lands are easily erodes
      − Human activities – activities like deforestation, overgrazing, burning of vegetation cover and clean weeding encourage soil erosion
      (Any five well explained x 2 marks = 10mks)
  1.  
    1. Describe the importance of any FIVE nursery management practices in crop production
      - Mulching – Helps to conserve moisture but should be removed immediately seedlings begin to emerge
      − Weed control – To avoid competition for water and nutrients
      − Shading- Prevents loss of soil moisture and prevent direct sun heat to the seedlings
      -Pricking out – To prevent overcrowding of seedlings and excessive competition Watering – To supply adequate moisture to the seedlings to avoid drying of the seedlings Pest and disease control - To control death of seedling
      −To prevent quality reduction
      -Hardening off – To prepare seedling to adapt to conditions in the main field
      (Any five well explained x 2 mks = 10mks)
    2. Explain five ways in which soil fertility can be maintained                                            (5marks)
      - adding manure to the soil to enrich it with nutrients.
      − using inorganic fertilizers which releases nutrients in forms that are readily available to plants.
      -practicing crop rotational to ensure balanced nutrients use.
      − using appropriate tillage, for instance minimum tillage.
      − regulating soil ph though liming
      − controlling soil erosion
      -practicing a forestation and reforestation
      − By irrigation which increases availability and uptake of plant nutrients and reclaims saline soil through mulching
      − By weeding to reduce competition for nutrients.
      − By practicing inter cropping preferably with legume to enhance nitrogen fixation.
      (Any five  5x 1 mks = 5mks)
    3. Describe five effect of over application of nitrogenous fertilizer. (5mrks)
      - Occurrence of blossom and rot diseases
      − Delayed maturity of plants
      − Fruits crack when young .
      − Grow more vegetative parts and produces less fruits
      − Scorching effective on leaves
      (Any five  5x 1 mks = 5mks)

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