AGRICULTURE PAPER 2 - KCSE 2019 NYANDARUA PRE MOCK EXAMINATION

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SECTION A (30 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. State four disadvantages of Natural method of servicing cattle. (2mks)
  2. State four maintenance practices carried out on workshop tools and equipments. (2mks)
  3. Give four reasons for castrating male calves not required for breeding in a farm. (2mks)
  4. Give four factors considered when siting a fish pond in a farm. (2mks)
  5. Give four causes of cannibalism in poultry production. (2mks)
  6. State four factors to consider when selecting breeding stock in livestock production. (2mks)
  7. Give four reasons of using litter in a poultry house. (2mks)
  8.  
    1. Give four reasons why identification of livestock is an important rearing practice in a farm.
    2. Explain any two harmful effects of branding as a method of identification in cattle.            [2mk)       
  1. Name four breeds of sheep reared in Kenya.             (2mks)
  2. Distinguish between each of the following terms as used in livestock rearing practices.
    1. Steaming up and flushing.                                                                                                           (1mk)
    2. Kindling and farrowing.                                                                                                            (1mk)
  1. What is quarantine as a preventive measure of livestock diseases? (1mk)
  2. State four factors considered during sorting out and grading eggs for marketing. (2mks)
  3. State two ways by which an animal acquire water in its body. (1mk)
  4. State four control measures of round worm (Ascaris lumbricoides) infestation in livestock. (2mks)
  5. State the function of the following ingredients in the preparation of artificial colostrum for calves.
    1. Castor oil –                                                                                                                         (1/2mk)
    2. Warm water                                                                                                                      (1/2mk)
    3. Eggs- (1/2mk)
    4. Cod liver oil- 1/2mk)

SECTION B (20 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. The diagram below shows a livestock parasite.
    AGRIC2Q16QTHEYFDG
    1. Identify the parasite shown above.                                                                                 (1mk)
    2. State two harmful effects of the above parasite on livestock.                                         (2mks)
    3. Explain any two methods used in the control of the above parasite.                                (2mks)
  1. The diagram below represents the structure of a quarter of the cow’s udder. Study it and answer the questions that follow.
    AGRIC2Q17LMNDJEYR
    1. Name the parts labeled B and C.
    2. Name the process that takes place in the part labeled A and the hormone that controls it.         (2mks)
      1. Process –
      2. Hormone
    3. State the function of the muscle labeled D.                                                                                             (1mk)
  1. Study the photograph below and answer the questions that follow.
    AGRIC2Q18QWEASFZCV
    1. Identify the disease the animal is suffering from             (1mk)
    2. Give three observable symptoms that can be identified from the diagram.                              (3mks)
    3. State one control measure of the above disease.                                                                          (1mk)
  1.  The diagram below represents farm tools and equipments. Study them and answer the questions that follow.
    AGRIC2Q19QDACDFKGL
    1. Identify tool/equipment labeled J, K, L and M.
    2. State one use of each of the tool/equipment labelled K and L                                                     (2mk)
    3. Give one maintenance practices for the equipment labelled K.            

SECTION C (40 marks)
Answer any two questions from this section in the spaces provided after question 22.

  1.  
    1. Describe Anthrax disease under the following sub-headings:
      1. Causal organism                                                                                                                             (1mk)
      2. Signs of infection/symptoms.                                                                                                        (6mks)
      3. Control measures.                                                                                                             (3mks)
    2.  
      1. State and explain condition necessary for artificial incubation.                                               (8mks
      2. State two advantages of artificial incubation.                                                                         (2mks)
  1.  
    1. Describe the feeding practices in artificial rearing of a dairy calf.             (10mks)
    2. State the differences between digestion in Ruminants and non-ruminants.                            (5mks)
    3. State five signs of parturition in cattle.                                                                                   (5mks)
  1.  
    1. Explain five factors that affects the digestibility of a feed material. (5mks)
    2. Describe the causes of stress in poultry management.                                                            (10mks)
    3. State five characteristics of clean and high quality milk.                                                        (5mks)


MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A (30MKS)
Answer All the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. State four disadvantages of Natural method of serving cattle.                                              (2mks)
    • Results to high chances of in breeding.
    • Possible to transmit breeding diseases.
    • Extra pasture required.
    • Large males can injure small females.
    • A lot of sperms wasted.
    • Cumbersome to transport bulls.
    • Expensive to transport bulls.
      4 x ½ = 2mks
  1. State four maintenance practices carried out on workshop tools and equipment. (2mks)
    • Cleaning after use. Reject washing.
    • Sharpening cutting edges.
    • Tightening loose nuts and bolts.
    • Applying oil on metallic parts to prevent rusting.
    • Replacing broken parts.
    • Repairing broken parts.
    • Lubricating/greasing moving parts to reduce friction.
      4 x ½ = 2mks
  1. Give four reasons for castrating male calves not required for breeding in a farm. (2mks)
    • To make them docile.
    • To steer fattening
    • Faster growth rate.
    • To control inbreeding.
    • To control breeding
    • To control breeding diseases.
    • To increase quality of meat.
      4 x ½ = 2mks
  1. Give four factors considered when siting a fish pond in a farm. (2mks)
    • Source of water.
    • Nature of the land /with cracks/anthills.
    • Soil type.
      4 x ½ = 2mks
  1. Give four causes of cannibalism in poultry production. (2mks)
    • Presence of external parasites.
    • Bright light.
    • Mineral deficiency.
    • Introduction of new bird.
       4 x ½ = 2mks
  1. State four factors to consider when selecting breeding stock in livestock production. (2mks)
    • Age
    • Level of production/performance.
    • Mothering ability.
    • Quality of products.
    • Behavior /temperament.
    • Physical fitness.
      4 x ½ = 2mks
  1. Give four reasons of using litter in a poultry house. (2mks)
    • To absorb moisture /help in drying droppings.
    • Makes birds comfortable.
    • Provide warmth to birds.
    • Keep birds busy through scratching.
        4 x ½ = 2mks
  1.  
    1. Give four reasons why identification of livestock is an important rearing practice in a farm. (2mks)
      • Facilitates diseases control and treatment.
      • Facilitates feeding.
      • Facilitates selection and breeding.
      • Help in record keeping
      • Help in culling livestock.
         4 x ½ = 2mks
    2. Explain any two harmful effects of branding as a method of identification in cattle.         (2mk)
      • Causes wounds- which paves way for infections.
      • Causes pain- because heat is used.
      • Reduces quality of hides- because heat damages the hide.
        Reject if not explained     2x1=2mks
  1. Name four breeds of sheep reared in Kenya. (2mks)
    • Black head Persian.
    • Red maasai sheep.
    • Romney marsh
    • Hamshire down.
       4 x ½ = 2mks
  1. Distinguish between each of the following terms as used in livestock rearing practices.
    1. Steaming up and flushing.                                                                                                            (1mk)
      Steaming up is the provision of extra high quality feed to an animal during the last weeks of gestation while flushing is the provision of high quality feed to an animal a few weeks before and after mating.
      (Mark as a whole.)                 1 x 1=1mk
    2. Kindling and farrowing.                                                                                                  (1mk)
      Kindling –is the act of giving birth of a rabbit while farrowing is giving birth of a pig.
      (Mark as a whole.) 1 x 1=1mk
  1. What is quarantine as a preventive measure of livestock diseases? (1mk)
    Quarantine is the restriction of movement of animals and their products from and into the affected areas in the event of an outbreak of a notifiable disease. 1 x 1=1mk
  1. State four factors considered during sorting out and grading eggs for marketing. (2mks)
    • Size of eggs.
    • Candling quality.
    • Egg colour. 4 x ½=2 mks
  1. State two ways by which an animal acquire water in its body. (1mk)
    • From metabolism/metabolic water.
    • From food/bound water.
    • From drinking /free water.
      2x ½=1mk
  1. State four control measures of round worm (Ascaris lumbricoides) infestation in livestock. (2mks)
    • Feeds free from contamination.
    • Rotational grazing.
    • Improved sanitation.
    • Drenching with appropriate antihelmintics.
    • Proper use of latrines.
      4 x ½=2 mks
  1. State the function of the following ingredients in the preparation of artificial colostrum for calves.
    1. Castor oil –To enable calf have laxative effects /for good cleaning of the bowels.         (1/2mk)
    2. Warm water -To provide appropriate temperature /body temperature.                        (1/2mk)
    3. Eggs- Provides nutrients for growth and disease resistance/provide calf with proteins, vitamins, mineral salts  (1/2mk)
    4. Cod liver oil- To enable the calf resist against infections.                                             (1/2mk)

SECTION B (20 MARKS)
ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION IN THE SPACES PROVIDED.

  1. The diagram below shows a livestock parasite.
    1. Identify the parasite shown above.                                                                                  (1mk)
      -Tsetse fly /Glossina spp.   1 x 1=1mk                  
    2. State two harmful effects of the above parasite.                                                 (2mks)
      • Vector/transmit Trypanosomiasis
      • Causes anaemia /sucks blood.
      • Damages skins & hides.
      • Causes wounds. 2 x 1=2mks
    3. Explain any two methods used in the control of the above parasite.                                  (2mks)
      • Bush clearing –to destroy breeding places.
      • Spraying with appropriate insecticide- to kill the parasite.
      • Use impregnated nets- to trap the parasite.
      • Sterilise male flies – to prevent breeding.
        (Reject if not explained)                                               2 X 1=2marks
  1. The diagram below represents the structure of a quarter of the cow’s udder. Study it and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Name the parts labeled B and C.
      B –Lactiferous duct /milk duct.                                                                                              (1mk) 
      C- Gland cistern /milk cistern/lactiferous sinus.                                                                    (1mk)
    2. Name the process that takes place in the part labeled A and the hormone that controls it.  (2mks)           
      Process –lactogenesis /milk secretion.
      Hormone – 2 x 1 = 2 mks
    3. State the function of the part labeled D.                                                                             (1mk)
      - guards the teat canal.
      - controls the opening and closing of the teat canal.             1 x 1=1mk
  1. Study the photograph below and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Identify the disease the animal is suffering from                                                  (1mk)
      -Newcastle.                                                                             1 x 1=1mk
    2. Give three observable symptoms that can be identified from the diagram.                      (3mks)
      • Beak wide open.
      • Neck strained.
      • Eyes are closed.
      • Wings down /drooping wing. 3 x 1 =3mks
    3. State one control measure of the above disease.                                                     (1mk)
      • Killing of infected birds and proper disposal. 1 x 1=1mk
  1. The diagram below represent farm tools and equipment. Study them and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Identify tool/equipment labelled J, K, L and M.
      Watering can ½ mk
      Milk churn/milk can (Reject milking churn /can.)                                                             ½ mk  
      Claw hammer (reject hammer alone) ½ mk
      Mason’s Trowel. (Reject trowel alone.)                                                                            ½ mk
    2. State one use of each of the tool/equipment labelled K and L                                                         (2mk)
      K- Temporary storage of milk /holding milk /holding milk during transportation.
      L- Driving in nails into wood /removing nails from wood/straightening nails when bent.
      2 x 1 = 2mks
    3. Give one maintenance practices for the equipment labelled K.                                                      (1mk)
      • Clean after use.
      • Painting with aluminium paint.
      • Repair or replace broken parts.
      • Sterilizing the equipment.                       1 x 1=1mk

SECTION C (40 MARKS)
ANSWER ANY TWO QUESTIONS FROM THIS SECTION IN THE SPACES PROVIDED AFTER QUESTION 22.

  1.  
    1. Describe Anthrax disease under the following sub-headings:
      1. Causal organism                                                                                                                (1mk)
        Bacteria/Bacillus spp / Bacillus anthracis                           (1x1) = 1 mark
      2. Signs of infection.                                                                                                              (6mks)
        • Swollen underside of the body
        • Extensive bloating of stomach
        • Fever
        • Blood stains in feaces & milk
        • Swollen throat in pigs
        • Tar-like watery blood oozed out from the body orifice
        • Blood does not clot quickly
        • Lack of rigor mortis in carcasses                            (6 x1=6 marks)
      3. Control measures.                                                                                                             (3mks)
        • Administering antibiotics
        • Treatment of wounds
        • Deep burying/burning
        • Application of quick lime/calcium oxide
        • Not opening carcass
        • Vaccination with Blanthrax
        • Imposing quarantine (3x1) = 3 marks
    2.  
      1. State and explain condition necessary for artificial incubation.                                     (8mks)
        • Temperature – Should be maintained at 37.50C-39.40 lower or higher Temperature kill the embryo
        • Ventilation – To facilitate gaseous exchange since oxygen is necessary for embryonic development
        • Relative Humidity – should be maintained at 60% since low humidity results to drying and death of embryo.
        • Egg turning – This prevents the germinal disc sticking onto the egg shell which may lead to death of embryo
          Award 1 mark for stating and 1 mark for correct explanation (4x2= 8 marks)
      2. State two advantages of artificial incubation.                                                                      (2mks)
        • Many chicks can be hatched at one time.
        • Possible to plan when to hatch chicks
        • Incubator ready when required
        • Chicks free from parasites and diseases (2x1=2 marks)
  1.  
    1. Describe the feeding practices in artificial rearing of a dairy calf. (10mks)
      • Train the calf to feed from a bucket
      • Ensure the calf suckles colostrum within the first 8 hours.
      • Feed calf with colostrum for the first 4 days to one week
      • Introduce the feeding of whole milk/milk substitutes after the 4th
      • Feed the calf with the correct amount of milk up to weaning.
      • Feed the calf 2-3 times per day for the first 4 weeks.
      • Provide adequate clean water from the third week.
      • Feed the calf with warm milk at regular intervals.
      • Introduce calf pellets/concentrates and good quality grass from the third week.
      • Provide mineral supplements/licks.
      • Any change of feed should be done gradually to avoid nutritional disorders.
      • Observe hygiene/use of clean buckets.
        (10 x 1 =10 marks)
    2. State the differences between digestion in Ruminants and non-ruminants.                   (5mks)

      Ruminants

      -          Chew cud

      -          Polygastric/four stomach chambers

      -          Regurgitate food

      -          Cellulose digested in the rumen

      -          No ptyalin enzyme in saliva

      -          Most digestion and absorption takes place in the rumen

      -          Alkaline saliva

      Non-Ruminants

      -          Do not chew cud

      -          Monogastric/one stomach chamber

      -          Cannot regurgitate

      -          No cellulose digestion in the stomach

      -          Have ptyalin enzyme in the saliva

      -          Most digestion and absorption takes place in the intestines

      -          Neutral saliva


      (5 x 1=5 marks)
    3. State five signs of parturition in cattle.                                                              (5mks)
      • Restlessness
      • Enlarged/swollen vulva
      • Clear mucus discharge from the vulva
      • Slackening of the pelvic muscles
      • Full and distended udder
      • Thick milky fluid from the teats
      • Water bag appears and bursts             (5X1= 5 marks)
  1.  
    1. Explain five factors that affects the digestibility of a feed material. (5mks)
      • Chemical composition of the food- high cellulose and lignin in the feed lowers digestibility.
      • Form in which food is offered to the animal- crushed/ground feeds have higher digestibility.
      • Species of the animal- digestibility of grass is higher in ruminants than in non-ruminants.
      • Ratio of energy to protein- feeds with high protein ratio have higher digestibility.
      • Quantity of food already present in the digestive system of the animal- the more the food the lower the digestibility.
        Factor must be explained
        Mark as a whole (5X 1= 5 marks)
    2. Describe the causes of stress in poultry management.                                                  (10mks)
      • Sudden change the routine – (Reject if sudden is omitted)
      • Disease infestation
      • Parasite infestation
      • Inadequate water and food
      • Strangers and predictors in the house
      • Sudden noise
      • Poor handling of birds during routine practices
      • Overcrowding
      • Sudden change of weather
      • Poor lightening in poultry house
      • Inadequate laying nests
      • Introduction of new birds
      • Unbalanced diet.
        (10x1=10 marks)
    3. State five characteristics of clean and high quality milk.                                              (5mks)
      • Free from pathogens
      • No hair, dirt/dust
      • High keeping quality
      • Good flavor
      • Its chemical composition is within the expected standard.
        (5x1=5 marks)

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