GEOGRAPHY PAPER 2 - KCSE 2019 NYANDARUA PRE MOCK EXAMINATION

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SECTION A
ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS

  1.  
    1. Define the term mining.                                                                                         (2 mark   
    2. Identify three problems facing Gold mining in South Africa.                          (3 marks)
  2.  
    1. What is agroforestry.                                                                                             (2 marks)
    2. Give four reasons why agroforestry is encouraged in Kenya.                         
  3.  
    1. Name two exotic breeds of dairy cattle reared in Kenya.                                 (2 marks)
    2. Give three reasons why Nomadic pastoralists keep large herds of animals. (3 marks)
  1. Use the map below to answer the following questions.
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    1. Name the rivers marked E,F, and G.                                                                  (3marks)
    2. State two reasons why most African rivers are not navigable. (2marks)
  1.  
    1. Give two reasons why some industries are located near the source of raw materials.  (2 marks)
    2. Give three characteristics of Jua kali Industries in Kenya.                                (3 Marks)

SECTION 11
ANSWER QUESTION 6 AND ANY OTHER TWO

  1.  
    1. The table below shows the number of tourists that visited Kenya from year 2010 to 2013 in ‘000’ thousands.
      1. Using a scale of 1 cm represent 10,000 tourist, construct a cumulative bar graph to represent the data above.                      
      2. State two advantages of using this method to present data.                            (2 marks)
      3. Outline two conclusions from the graph presented.                                         (2 marks)
    2. Give four reasons why domestic tourism is being encouraged.                       (4 marks)
    3. Explain three measures that Kenya should take in order to attract more tourists        (6 marks)
  2.  
    1.  
      1. Define the term land reclamation.                                                                    (2 marks)
      2. Apart from irrigation, give two methods used to reclaim land in Kenya.     (2 marks)
    2.  
      1. Name two rivers that supply water to Mwea irrigation scheme.                   (2 marks)
      2. State three benefits of the scheme to the local people.                                        (4 marks)
    3.  
      1. Name two crops grown in the polders in Netherlands.                                    (2 marks)
      2. Explain four differences between land reclamation in Kenya and the Netherlands. (8 marks
    4. You intend to carry out a field study on irrigation farming in Perkerra Irrigation Scheme.
      1. Identify two objectives you would develop for the study.                                 (2 marks)
      2. State three physical factors that could have led to the establishment of the scheme.(3 marks)
  3.  
    1. Differentiate between Fishing and Fisheries.                                                     (2 marks)
    2. Explain how the following physical factors influence fishing.                     (6 marks)
      1. Shallow waters
      2. Cool waters
      3. Convergence of cold and warm ocean currents.
    3. Use the diagram below to answer question (i) and (ii)
      GEO2Q8CHAJSCZFXD
      1. Identify the method of fishing illustrated above.                                                  (2 marks)
      2. Briefly explain how the fishing exercise is carried out through the above method.(6 marks)
      3. Give three characteristics of demersal fish.                                                        (3 marks)
    4. Give two differences between fishing in Kenya and Japan, under the following Subtopics.        (4 marks)
      1. Climate
      2. Ocean currents
    5. Name two inland fishing in Kenya.                                                                     (2 marks)
  4.  
    1.  
      1. Define the term population.                                                                              (2 marks)
      2. Give two primary sources of population data.                                                   (2 marks)
    2. Explain how the following factors influence population growth.                     (4 marks)
      1. Mortality
      2. Migration
    3. Explain four causes of rural to rural migration in Kenya.                                   (8 marks
    4. The Pyramid below represents population structure in Kenya.
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      1. Describe the characteristics of the population as represented by the pyramid. (4 mks)
      2. State three factors that may have led to large population increase in Kenya. (3mks)
      3. Outline two forms of information that can be derived from a population pyramid.(2 marks)
  5.  
    1.  
      1. Differentiate management and conservation of the environment.           (2 marks)
      2. List three environmental hazards.                                                                        (3 marks)
    2. Explain four reasons for environmental conservation.                                      (8 marks)
    3. Explain three effects of land pollution on the environment.                             (6 marks)
    4. A Field study was conducted on noise pollution.
      1. List three common causes of noise pollution the students would have studied. (3mks)
      2. List three effects of noise pollution the students would have studied.         (3 marks)


MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A

  1.  
    1. Define the term mining.                                                                                        (2 marks)
      Is the process of extracting valuable minerals, either solid liquid or gas on or below the earth surface.
    2. Identify three problems facing Gold mining in South Africa.  
      Low mineral contents in the ore making its processing expensive
      Fluctuation of world market prices
      High cost of mining and processing of diamond
      Labour competition with other sectors of the economy e.g. manufacturing industry
      Reduction of diamond reserves /Depletion of the mineral deposits.
  2.  
    1. What is agroforestry.                                                                                             (2 marks)
      Is a land use system where trees are planted grown together with other crops; livestock, can also be reared in the same unit of land to maximize productivity and sustainability of the land
    2. Give four reasons why agroforestry is encouraged in Kenya.                        (3 marks)
      • For supply of forest products such as timber
      • To protect soil from erosion
      • To expand habitat for wildlife
      • For aesthetic purpose/beauty
      • To protect water catchment areas (maintain hydrological cycle)
  3.  
    1. Name two exotic breeds of dairy cattle reared in Kenya.                                (2 marks)
      • Freshian
      • Guernsey
      • Jersey
      • Alderney
      • Brown swiss
    2. Give three reasons why Nomadic pastoralists keep large herds of animals. (3mks)
      • Animals are kept to be used to pay dowry
      • Animals are kept as a sign of wealth and prestige
      • Used as source of food/milk/meat/blood
      • Used as source of income
      • It’s a form of Insurance against natural calamities e.g. drought. 
  1. Use the map below to answer the following questions. 
    1. Name the rivers marked E,F, and G.
      E – River Congo
      F - River Zambezi
      G – River Orange
    2. State two reasons why most African rivers are not navigable.
      Fluctuation of water levels
      River channels have numerous rock outcrop
      Rugged terrain with numerous steep slopes – presence of waterfalls, rapids, and cataracts.
    3. Some rivers have shallow waters
    4. Some rivers have floating vegetation
    5. Some rivers have narrow channels –unsuitable for sailing
  1.  
    1. Give two reasons why some industries are located near the source of raw materials.
      To reduce transport cost
      Some raw materials are perishable so they are processed before transportation
      The raw material may be too bulky and thus cumbersome to transport.
    2. Give three characteristics of Jua kali Industries in Kenya.  
      Are operated by individual or small groups
      They require low capital
      They use local /recycled materials
      They are mostly operated in the open/sheds

SECTION 11
ANSWER QUESTION 6 AND ANY OTHER TWO

  1. The table below shows the number of tourists that visited Kenya from year 2010 to 2013 in ‘000’ thousands.

    Year

    Countrys

    2010

    2011

    2012

    2013

    Britain

    25

    20

    30

    35

    France

    15

    15

    20

    15

    Germany

    10

    20

    20

    25


    1. Using a scale of 1cm represent 10,000 tourists,construct a cumulative bar graph to represent the data above.         (11 marks)
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    2. State two advantages of using this method to present data.                          (2 marks)
      • Provide clear visual impression of total values of components.
      • Represent a wide range of data/variables
      • There is easy comparison for similar components in diff bars.
      • Totals in diff years can be read at a glance by checking the length of bars.
    3. Outline two conclusions from the graph presented.                                       (2 marks)
      • The year 2013 registered the highest number of tourists
      • Most of the tourists came from Britain
      • France recorded the lowest number of tourists in 2013
    4. Give four reasons why domestic tourism is being encouraged.                   (4 marks)
      • To create employment –income to government and individuals
      • To expose Kenyans to a wider variety of recreational facilities
      • To make use of tourist facilities
      • To allow interactions between different communities and thus enhance national unity
      • Kenyans are exposed to move about their Country
    5. Explain three measures that Kenya should take in order to attract more tourists      (6 marks)
      • Improve infrastructure to all tourist sites in order to make them accessible.
      • Improve security to ensure safety of tourists is guaranteed
      • Establish modern tourists facilities in areas with tourists sites and potential
      • Market /advertise the Country as a tourist destination in the global market
      • Increase/diverse tourist attractions to avoid depending on few traditional attractions.
      • Intensify domestic tourism to reduce reliance as foreign tourists.
  2.  
    1.  
      1. Define the term land reclamation.                                                                   (2 marks)
        Is the process by which less useful land is converted into more useful land.
      2. Apart from irrigation, give two methods used to reclaim land in Kenya. (2 marks)
        • Draining swamps
        • Controlling pests
        • Aforestation and Reafforestation
        • Rehabilitation of quarries
        • Planting draught resistant crops
        • Control of floods
        • Agroforestry
        • Application of manure/fertiliser
    2.  
      1. Name two rivers that supply water to Mwea irrigation scheme.                 (2 marks)
        River Thiba
        Riber Murubaru
        River Nyamindi
      2. State three benefits of the scheme to the local people.                                   (4 marks)
        • Led to increased food supply
        • Led to settlement of the landless
        • Control of floods
        • Creation of employment
        • Development of infrastructure
    3.  
      1. Name two crops grown in the polders in Netherlands.                                  (2 marks)
        Oat                  Rye                    Flowers       Wheat
        Barley             Vegetables       Oat               Potatoes
      2. Explain the differences between land reclamation in Kenya and the Netherlands. (8 marks)
        • In Netherlands, technology employed is very advanced while low technology is used in Kenya
        • Land is mainly reclaimed from the sea in Netherlands while in Kenya it is from swampy and arid areas.
        • In Neatherlands, dykes are constructed to prevent sea waters from entering reclaimed lands while in Kenya, dykes prevent river waters from spreading on land.
        • In Neatherland, the main method used is draining of the seas while in Kenya a variety of methods are used such as irrigation, tsetsefly control. etc
    4. You intend to carry out a field study on irrigation farming in Perkerra Irrigation Scheme.
      1. Identify two objectives you would develop for the study.                               (2 marks)
        To find out the type of irrigation used
        To find out the type of crops grown
      2. State three physical factors that could have led to the establishment of the scheme.
        To utilize excess water of river perkerra
        Gently sloping terrain which enables water to flow by gravity
        Fertile loamy soils, deposited by the floods thus reduces use of fertilsers
        Dry condition of the area necessitated use of irrigation
  3.  
    1. Differentiate between Fishing and Fisheries.                                                   (2 marks)
      Fishing is exploited /or the act of catching fish and other aquatic animals while fisheries are water bodies where fish and other aquatic organisms are found.
    2. Explain how the following physical factors influence fishing.                (6 marks)
      1. Shallow waters
        Allows penetration of sunlight, which is required for growth of planktons, which is the main food for the fish. Majority of fishing ground are found in shallow continental shelves i.e. less than 180m below the water surface.
      2. Cool waters
        Cool waters (less than 200c) encourages numerous fish species to thrive. Warm waters however are not suitable for the growth of planktons.
      3. Convergence of cold and warm ocean currents.
        Here, the circulation of oxygen is improved and nutrients are also distributed for the fish. The temperature of the warm water is lowered, making it ideal for the survival of fish. There is also upwelling of ocean water thus bringing minerals and plankton from the sea bed to the surface.
    3. Use the diagram below to answer question (i) and (ii)
      1. Identify the method of fishing illustrated above.                                                (2 marks)
        Trawling
      2. Briefly explain how the fishing exercise is carried out through the above method.(6 marks)
        A bag-shaped net is attached to the trawler/ship. The net mouth is kept open by head beams.
        The upper port is kept afloat by floats while weights keep the lower part at the seabed.
        The net is dragged a long the sea bed, and then its pulled/haled to the trawler to empty the fish after sufficient fish are caught.
      3. Give three characteristics of demersal fish.                                                     (3 marks)
        • Live in the deep sea
        • They feed on small fish and sea animals
        • They are large in size
        • They are found singly /individually
        • They do not have migratory habits
    4. Give two differences between fishing in Kenya and Japan, under the following subtopics.   (4 marks) 
      1. Climate
        Kenya is located within the tropics, making its waters warm, hence discouraging fishing while Japan is in temperatures making its waters cool, thus conditions ideal for the growth of planktons.
      2. Ocean currents
        Kenya is washed by warm Mozambique currents making the waters warm and limits fishing while Japan is washed by both warm Kuro siwo and cold Oya siwo currents an ideal condition for the growth of planktons.
    5. Name two inland (Fresh water ) fishing in Kenya.                                           (2 marks)
      Lake Victoria
      Lake Naivasha
  4.  
    1.  
      1. Define the term population.                                                                             (2 marks)
        Refers to total number of people living in an area such as a Country, region or a country
      2. Give two primary sources of population data.                                                   (2 marks)
        National census head count
        Sample survey
        Registration of birth and deaths
    2. Explain how the following factors influence population growth.                 (4 marks)
      1. Mortality
        It reduces the number of people in a given population thus affecting its composition in terms of age and sex ratios.
      2. Migration
        Movement of people from one place to another especially in large numbers leads to change in population, population increases where they move to, and decreases in places where they move from.
    3. Explain four causes of rural to rural migration in Kenya.   (8 marks)
      • Pastoral communities move from one rural area to another in search of pasture/water
      • Establishment of government development projects in rural areas attracts settlements around them
      • Natural disasters such as floods forces people to migrate to other safer places.
      • Insecurity in some areas makes people to move to other safer areas.
      • Population pressure in some areas makes some people to settle in schemes and less populated areas.
      • People migrate to areas where minerals are discovered to seek for jobs e.g. titanium mines in Kwale.
    4. The Pyramid below represents population structure in Kenya.
      1. Describe the characteristics of the population as represented by the pyramid. (4 mks)
        • Dependency ratio is high
        • The population has a high birth rate
        • The middle age population is low
        • The number of male & female is almost equal
      2. State three factors that may have led to large population increase in Kenya.   (3mks)
        • Early marriages thus allowing them a longer period of fertility
        • Improved diet which results to better health
        • Improved health services which leads to high chances of survival for mothers and children
        • Cultural beliefs that large families are a sign of wealth
        • Poor use of family planning methods
      3. Outline two forms of information that can be derived from a population pyramid.          (2 marks)
        • Population composition by sex
        • The size of the population
        • Dependancy ratio
        • Differentiate age group
        • Proportion of males to females
  5.  
    1.  
      1. Differentiate management and conservation of the environment.       (2 marks)
        Management is the effective planning and control while conservation is the protection of the environment
      2. List three environmental hazards.                                                                       (3 marks)
        • Floods
        • Lightening
        • Windstorms
        • Pests & diseases
        • Earthquakes
        • Volcanic eruption
        • Nuclear wastes 
    2. Explain four reasons for environmental conservation.                                   (8 marks)
      • For aesthetic value – Natural resources .e.g wildlife are attractive sceneries which even attract tourists.
      • To sustain life – conservation ensures that sources of law materials for industries are sustained.
      • Protection of endangered species – It helps to curb poaching and deforestation which has threatened some species with extinction.
      • To curb global warming
      • For economic value – resources are extracted, processed and sold to earn income
      • For Posterity – For future generation
      • To protect water catchment areas
      • To increase food supply
    3. Explain three effects of land pollution on the environment.                         (6 marks)
      • Garbage can become a breeding grounds for rodents, cockroaches, flies which can cause diseases.
      • In case it rains, the dumped waste is washed to rivers, causing water pollution
      • Garbage dumped on the land results to foul smell which pollutes the air and it is also dangerous to human health.
      • Accumulation of garbage leads to blockage of roads and drainage systems.
      • Collection of garbage makes the environment ugly thus degrading the aesthetic value of the environment
      • Some form of land pollution e.g. oil spillage leads to destruction of flora.
    4. A Field study was conducted on noise pollution.
      1. List three common causes of noise pollution the students would have studied.     (3mks)
        • Booming music
        • Motor vehicles (hooting)
        • Large aeroplanes
        • Machines producing loud noise in factories
      2. List three effects of noise pollution the students would have studied.     (3 marks)
        • Causes stress which may lead to physical or mental illness.
        • Causes people to become irritable or excited or raises blood pressure
        • Leads to impaired hearing
        • Can lead to total deafness

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