History and Government Paper 2 Pre Mock Questions and Answers - Mokasa I Joint Examination July 2021

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Instructions to Candidates

  1. This paper consists of three sections A, B and C.
  2. Answer all questions in section A, three from Section B and two from Section C.
  3. Answers to all the questions must be written legibly in the answer booklet provided.
  4. This paper consists of three printed pages
  5. Candidates should check the question paper to ensure that all pages are printed as indicated and no questions are missing
  6. Candidates should answer the questions in English

QUESTIONS

Section A (25 marks)
Answer all questions in this section

  1. Define the term Anthropology. (1 mark)
  2. Identify one theory that explains the origin of man. (1 mark)
  3. State two characteristics of Kenyapithecus. (2 marks)
  4. Name one type of irrigation used during early Agriculture in Egypt. (1 mark)
  5. State two methods of trade. (2 mark)
  6. Give two advantages of human porterage. (2 marks)
  7. Identify one early form of water transport. (1 mark)
  8. State two features of a cellphone as a means of communication. (2 mark)
  9. Define the term telecommunication. (1 mark)
  10. Identify two uses of steam as a source of energy during industrial revolution. (2 marks)
  11. State one early urban centre in Africa. (1 mark)
  12. Identify two problems facing Johannesburg as a modern urban centre in Africa. (2 marks)
  13. Give the main importance of Golden stool among the Asante society. (1 mark)
  14. State the main reason for convening the Berlin conference (1884-1885). (1 mark)
  15. Identify two factors that influenced British to use indirect rule in northern Nigeria. (2 marks)
  16. State two reasons why nationalism in South Africa was more complex compared to other countries. (2 marks)
  17. State one political party that fought for independence in Ghana. (1 mark)

Section B (45 marks)
Answer any three questions from this section

  1.                                                    
    1. Give five examples of oral traditions as a source of information on history and government. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five limitations of using archaeology as a source of information on history and government. (10 marks)
  2.                            
    1. Give five reasons that made man to domesticate plants and animals. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five factors that led to Agrarian Revolution in the United States of America (USA). (10 marks)
  3.                              
    1. Outline five methods used to acquire slaves during the Trans-Atlantic trade. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five factors responsible for the decline of the Trans-Saharan trade. (10 marks)
  4.                                          
    1. State five economic activities of the Baganda during the pre-colonial period. (5 marks)
    2. Describe the social organization of the Asante kingdom during the pre-colonial period. (10 marks)

Section C (30 marks)
Answer any two questions from this section

  1.                              
    1. State three economic activities for the scramble and partition of Africa by Europeans. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six effects of the partition of Africa. (12 marks)
  2.                                    
    1. Give three reasons why the policy of assimilation was easily applied in the four communes in Senegal. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six effects of Assimilation in Senegal. (12 marks)
  3.                                
    1. State three roles of Kwameh Nkrumah in the struggle for independence in Ghana. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six factors that promoted nationalism in Africa. (12 marks)

MARKING SCHEME

Section A (25 marks)

  1. Define the term Anthropology. (1 mark)
    • This is the study of human beings, their origin, development, customs, beliefs and social relationships.
      1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)
  2.  Identify one theory that explains the origin of man. (1 mark)
    • The evolution theory/Darwinian/scientific
    • The creation theory/Biblical/Koranic
    • Mythical /traditional theory
      Any 1 point @1 mark each (1 mark)
  3. State two characteristics of Kenyapithecus. (2 marks)
    • It weight between 18 and 36 kilograms
    • It had bigger brain capacity than earlier apes
    • It had small canines
    • It had massive jaws
    • Could occasionally walk on two legs
  4. Name one type of irrigation used during early Agriculture in Egypt. (1 mark)
    • Canal
    • Basin
    • Shadoof
      Any 1 point @1 mark each (1 mark)
  5. State two methods of trade. (2 mark)
    • Barter
    • Currency
      2 points @ 1 mark (2 marks)
  6. Give two advantages of human porterage. (2 marks)
    • Readily available
    • It is a cheap method
    • Its flexible/has no fixed times
    • Can be used in any terrain
    • Accidents are rare
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)
  7. Identify one early form of water transport. (1 mark)
    • Sailing boats/ oar driven boats
    • Rafts/ logs
    • Canoes
    • Sailing ships
      Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)
  8. State two features of a cellphone as a means of communication. (2 mark)
    • Making and receiving calls
    • Has a personal phone book
    • Has the ability to store messages
    • Ability to send and receive messages/SMS
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark (1 mark)
  9. Define the term telecommunication. (1 mark)
    • These are means of sending ideas, news, and information quickly and efficiently over long distances.
      1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)
  10. Identify two uses of steam as a source of energy during industrial revolution. (2 marks)
    • Pumping water from mines
    • Running machines in factories
    • Providing power to move locomotives and ships.
    • Generating electricity.
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)
  11. State one early urban centre in Africa. (1 mark)
    • Cairo
    • Kilwa
    • Meroe/Merowe
      Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)
  12. Identify two problems facing Johannesburg as a modern urban urban centre in Africa. (2 marks)
    • There exists a huge gap between the wealthy Europeans and the poor Africans
    • High unemployment rate among the people due to high population
    • High rate of infection of HIV/AIDS pandemic has increased the cost of treatment/ loss of lives
    • There is land/air/water pollution caused by emission of poisonous gases from industries
    • There is inadequate housing which has led to the development of slums/shanties
    • There is discrimination where Africans are mistreated/despised in work places/mines
    • It experiences industrial unrests/strikes by industrial workers
    • Traffic jams are rampant due to many vehicles in the city
    • High rate of crimes leading to insecurity, prostitution
    • Congestion in the town due to rural-urban migration
    • Inadequate social amenities like schools and hospitals
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)
  13. Give the importance of Golden stool among the Asante society. (1 mark)
    • It symbolized unity.
    • It symbolized the powers of the chief.
    • It symbolized stability in the empire.
    • It contained the spirit or soul of the Asante people.
    • Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)
  14. State the main reason for convening the Berlin conference (1884-1885). (1 mark)
    • To divide/partition Africa among European nations in a peaceful way
    • 1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)
  15. Identify two factors that influenced British to use indirect rule in northern Nigeria. (2 marks)
    • To reduce administrative cost of the colony since the region was vast
    • The British lacked enough trained personnel to administer the area
    • There existed an already acceptable system of administration through Emirs and Kadhis.
    • They did not want to provoke the people of Northern Nigeria into rebellion by introducing new rules
    • Indirect rule had already succeeded in Uganda and India so they had a point of reference
    • Poor transport and communication network prompted them to use the policy
    • The European administrators were ignorant of African language and culture.
    • The adoption of the dual mandate policy by the British government encouraged the development of the colony for its own good and the good of the people
    • Any 2 points @ 1 mar each (2 marks)
  16. State two reasons why nationalism in South Africa was more complex compared to other countries (2 marks)
    • The country was not colonized by one specific European power/races
    • There were many ethnic groups
    • Long period of European colonization
    • The country is expansive
    • Existence of valuable mineral deposits made the situation complex
    • Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)
  17. State one political party that fought for independence in Ghana. (1 mark)
    • The United Gold coast convention (UGCC)
    • The Convention Peoples Party (CPP)
    • The National League of the Gold Coast (NLGC)
    • Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)
  18.                            
    1. Give five examples of oral traditions as a source of information on history and government. (5 marks)
      • Riddles
      • Myths
      • Songs
      • Poems
      • Tongue twisters
      • Proverbs
      • Stories/narratives/folk tales
      • Legends
      • Dances
      • Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)
    2. Explain five limitations of using archaeology as a source of information on history and government. (10 marks)
      • It is an expensive method.
      • It is time consuming to organize visits to museums and archeological sites where information can be found.
      • It is difficult to locate an archeological site.
      • The fragile fossils and artifacts can be destroyed by weather or by man during excavation.
      • It is limited to the study of ancient period
      • It‘s not easy to determine the date when the events happened except estimation through Carbon dating.
      • Some information may be inaccurate because in some cases it’s based on inference/indirectly.
      • There are few archaeologists.
      • It is difficult to identify particular people e.g. by name and language
      • Any 5 points @ 2 marks each 10 marks)
  19.                      
    1. Give five reasons that made man to domesticate plants and animals. (5 marks)
      • The need to supplement hunting and gathering which was tedious/ tiring.
      • Overhunting depleted stocks of animals on which human beings relied on
      • The realization that some animals were social e.g. a cat
      • Presence of indigenous crops like wheat and barley.
      • Some crops and animals had economic value
      • Migration of animals made man to seek an alternative source/ reduction of animal population/ calamities such as bush fires/floods destroyed vegetation and drove away animals.
      • Climatic changes which caused poor root and fruit yields/ weather at sometimes hindered gathering and hunting.
      • Development of improved tools which enabled effective cultivation of crops.
      • Increase in human population led to high demand for food.
      • Some animals were domesticated for security.
      • There was competition for food between human beings and animals
      • Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)
    2. Explain five factors that led to Agrarian Revolution in the United States of America (USA). (10 marks)
      • Introduction of land enclosure system in Britain forced the landless to migrate to America where they introduced new farming methods.
      • Availability of fertile land for growing different types of crops like tobacco, cotton and wheat.
      • More land was also reclaimed and irrigated thus more fertile land for farming.
      • The government recognized individual land ownership after passing the Homestead Act of 1860. This encouraged settlers to farm.
      • The granting of financial aid to the farmers to buy and develop their land.
      • Introduction of slave labour ensured adequate supply of labour for farming.
      • Determination by European immigrants to succeed in agriculture as there was no other source of livelihood.
      • The increase in demand for agricultural raw materials by European industries encouraged expansion of agriculture.
      • Mechanization of agriculture stimulated agricultural productivity e.g. the use of the steel plough, mechanical reaper, and the cotton gin
      • Development of food preservation methods of canning and refrigeration.
      • Development of good transport and communication networks
      • Application of new and improved farming methods like use of fertilizers and genetic engineering in livestock production.
      • Increase in population created demand for food
      • Development of methods of controlling animal and crop diseases
      • Any 5 points @ 2 marks each 10 marks)
  20.                                  
    1. Outline five methods used to acquire slaves during the Trans-Atlantic trade. (5 marks)
      • Raids organized by chiefs
      • Sale of war captives
      • Leaders sold their subjects to enrich themselves/ Slaves were exchanged with European products
      • They were obtained through kidnapping
      • Social misfits were also sold
      • Through enticement or trickery
      • Selling of debtors or panyarring
      • Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)
    2. Explain five factors responsible for the decline of the Trans-Saharan trade. (10 marks)
      • The mine fields got exhausted and this discouraged the traders from coming to West Africa.
      • Political instability in the region brought about anarchy and insecurity following the fall of empires.
      • The invasion of the Songhai by the Almoravids and Tuaregs who spread Islam through Jihads in increased insecurity along trade routes.
      • The Moroccan invasion of western Sudan in the 16th century (1591) undermined trading activities.
      • The colonization of North Africa and West Africa took over the resources thus weakening it.
      • The invasion of North Africa by the Turks created insecurity along the trade routes thus undermining the trade.
      • Change of roles by the Tuaregs from guiding and protecting the caravans undermined the trade.
      • The abolition of slave trade affected the trade.
      • Increased possession of fire arms intensified warfare between trading centers.
      • The growth of Tran’s Atlantic trade attracted some Trans Saharan traders thus weakening it.
      • Any 5 points @ 2 marks each 10 marks)
  21.                                  
    1. State five economic activities of the Baganda during the pre-colonial period. (5 marks)
      • They were cultivators of crops like bananas, millet and sorghum.
      • They kept large herds of cattle, sheep and goats for prestige, food and their products.
      • Fishing on Lake Victoria was also an important economic activity.
      • They took part in local, regional and international trade
      • Iron working was also done and they made weapons and farm tools.
      • Salt mining was also practiced by the Baganda.
      • They practiced craft working like weaving and pottery.
      • They manufactured bark clothes
      • Boat/canoe making for fishing and for use by the navy was also done.
      • They also took part in hunting and gathering.
      • Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)
    2. Describe the social organization of the Asante kingdom during the pre- colonial period. (10 marks)
      • The kingdom was composed of many communities who spoke Akan/ Twi language.
      • The Asante were organized in clans.
      • Marriage between members of the same clan was prohibited/they practiced exogamy.
      • Inheritance of property was matrilineal.
      • The community was bound together by the Golden Stool.
      • There was an annual cultural festival (odwira) held at Kumasi to honour the ancestors.
      • The society was divided into social classes (social stratification).
      • The Asante worshipped many gods and goddesses.
      • The King, chiefs and Omanhenes were religious leaders (semi divine).
      • The ancestors mediated between god and the people.
      • They believed in a supreme god called Onyame.
      • Any 5 points @ 2 marks each 10 marks)
  22.                              
    1. State three economic activities for the scramble and partition of Africa by Europeans. (3 marks)
      • Search for market for their manufactured goods.
      • Search sources of raw materials for their industries.
      • Desire by the entrepreneurs to invest surplus capital.
      • Need to protect European traders and investments in Africa.
      • To introduce legitimate trade
      • Any 3 points @1 mark each (3 marks)
    2. Explain six effects of the partition of Africa. (12 marks)
      • Africans lost their independence as Europeans established colonies.
      • African economies were weakened through European exploitation of their resources.
      • African systems of government were replaced by European systems.
      • Africans adopted European languages which became official languages in the colonies.
      • Modern African states were created by the boundaries drawn during the partition.
      • Some African communities were split by the boundaries drawn during partition.
      • Africans lost their land as Europeans established permanent settlements.
      • Africans lost their lives and property as they resisted occupation.
      • African cultures were undermined through introduction of western education, Christianity and health services.
      • Closer ties were forged between Africans and Europeans which created overdependence on Europe.
      • It intensified warfare among African communities.
      • Infrastructure was developed to link agriculture and major mining areas.
      • Introduction of new policies like taxation and forced labour which were unpopular among African communities.
      • Introduction of new crops together with new farming methods.
      • Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)
  23.                              
    1. Give three reasons why the policy of assimilation was easily applied in the four communes in Senegal. (3 marks)
      • The people had interacted with the Europeans
      • They had intermarried with the Europeans
      • Most people were Christians
      • People were exposed to the outside world due to proximity to the coast
      • Most people were detribalized/of mixed origins/mullatoes
      • People in the communes had learnt to speak French
      • Any 3 points @1 mark each (3 marks)
    2. Explain six effects of Assimilation in Senegal. (12 marks)
      • It promoted the French culture in Senegal
      • It undermined the African culture as people adopted French culture
      • It undermined the authority of traditional rulers as they were replaced by French rulers.
      • Senegal was incorporated into French Republic and regarded as an overseas province of France.
      • Africans from Senegal were allowed to participate in the political affairs of France as ministers and deputies in the French government.
      • It created division of Africans in Senegal as some became citizens while others while others became subjects.
      • The policy undermined the spread of Islam because those who were assimilated adopted Christianity.
      • Led to the development of French education in the Four Communes.
      • It created a class of privileged Africans who were regarded to be equal to the French people.
      • It created a class of educated African elites who spearheaded nationalism in the country.
      • It led to economic exploitation of Senegal since all economic resources were to be processed in France.
      • It led to political dependence in France by Franco-phone Africa (countries colonized by France) even after political independence.
      • Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)
  24.                                                
    1. State three roles of Kwameh Nkrumah in the struggle for independence in Ghana. (3 marks)
      • He started a newspaper/ Accra Evening News which articulated African grievances/their plight.
      • He formed Conventions Peoples Party (CPP) which mobilized the people against the colonial rule.
      • He introduced the party salute/slogan which urged people to support the nationalist cause.
      • He held political rallies which sensitized the people.
      • He made CPP vibrant/popular.
      • He produced the country’s flag
      • He led Ghana to independence from Britain.
      • He used nonviolent methods like strike, go-slows and boycotts
      • Any 3 points @1 mark each (3 marks)
    2. Explain six factors that promoted nationalism in Africa. (12 marks)
      • The experience gained by the Africans during the Second World War.
      • The unfulfilled promises by the colonial government of land and jobs to the participants of the world war left the ex-soldiers bitter.
      • During the war, African soldiers realized that some of the European countries were fighting to protect their independence.
      • The education given the Africans under colonial rule enlightened them about political situations in other parts of the world.
      • The elites were bitter because of racial segregation in jobs.
      • Pan-African movement encouraged African nationalism.
      • International opinion was opposed to colonialism e.g. the U.N.O Charter supported self-determination and independence of all nations including colonies.
      • The British Labour Party which came to power in 1945 and the Socialist party in France were opposed to colonialism.
      • The emergence of U.S.A and U.S.S.R as super powers after the second world war strengthened nationalism because both were opposed to colonialism and were able to influence international opinion against it.
      • The attainment of independence by India in 1947 and Pakistan in 1948 inspired African nationalists to demand for their independence.
      • Alienation of African land and pushing them to reserves inspired them to fight for their independence.
      • Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)

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