Geography Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Kangundo Subcounty Pre Mock Exams 2021/2022

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Instructions to candidates

  1. This paper consists of two sections: A and B.
  2. Answer ALL questions in section A. In section B answer question 6 and any other TWO questions.
  3. All answers to be written on the answer booklet provided.
  4. Candidates should check the question paper to ascertain that all the pages are printed as indicated and that no questions are missing.

SECTION A
Answer all the questions in this section

  1.    
    1. Identify Two forces responsible for the spherical shape of the earth. (2mrks)
    2. Give Three reasons why the interior of the earth is still hot. (3mks)
  2.    
    1. What is climate? (2 mks)
    2. What are the negative effects of climate change on physical environment? (4 mks)
  3. The diagram below represents zones of natural vegetation on a mountain in Africa. Use it to answer question (a) (i)
    1
    1.    
      1. Name the vegetation zones marked W, X and Y. (3 marks)
      2. Name the temperate grasslands found in the following countries:
        • Canada (1 mark)
        • Russia (1 mark)
  4.    
    1. What is land breeze? (2 marks)
    2. Give two ways in which sea breezes influence the adjacent land. (2 marks
  5.    
    1. State three conditions necessary for the development of a Karst scenery (3 mks)
    2. Give two reasons why there are few settlements in Karst landscapes (2 marks)

      SECTION B
      Answer question 6 and any two other questions from this section.
  6. Mapwork (compulsory) Kijabe scale 1:50,000
    1.    
      1. What is the title of the map area (2mks)
      2. What is the Longitudinal extent of the map (2mks
    2.    
      1. Apart from forest give three types of natural vegetation in the map area (3mks
      2. What is the appropriate height of the top of Kijabe hill? (2mks
    3.    
      1. Describe the drainage of the area covered by the map (5mks
      2. Give the six figure grid reference of the primary trigonometrical station 2610 on the Eastern side of the map extract (2mks
    4. Citing evidence from the map, identify four economic activities in the area covered by the map (4mks
    5. Draw a rectangle measuring 10cm by 8cm to represent the area enclosed by
      Easting 30 and 35 and Northing 90 and 94.
      On it sketch and label the following
      1. All weather road bound surface A104
      2. River upper Eneaso kedong
      3. Regional/provincial boundary
      4. Dry weather road (5mks)
  7.    
    1.    
      1. What is vulcanicity (2marks)
      2. With the help of a diagram describe how a lava plateau is formed. (6marks)
      3. Distinguish between a crater and a caldera (3marks)
    2. Explain four negative influences of vulcanicity and associated features to human activities in Kenya (8marks)
    3. Suppose you have been asked by your Geography department to carry out a
      Field study of volcanic activities around your school,
      1. Design a working programme (schedule) you would use during the day of the study. (3marks)
      2. State three follow-up activities you may have been involved in after the field study (3mks
  8.    
    1.    
      1. Name three conditions necessary for wind deposition to take place in hot
        Desert (3mks
      2. State three mechanisms of wind transportation in hot deserts. (3marks)
    2. With the aid of labelled diagrams describe how the following features are formed.
      1. Rock pedestal. (6marks)
      2. Zeugen. (6marks)
    3. You are supposed to carry out a field study of a semi- arid area in Kenya:
      1. Name two Counties which you would visit for your study. (2mks
      2. What information would you collect through observation that would indicate that the area is turning into a desert? (2marks)
      3. State three measures you would recommend to combat desertification in the area. (3marks)
  9.    
    1.      
      1. Differentiate between soil profile and soil catena (2mks)
      2. Draw a well labeled diagram of soil catena (5mks)
    2.    
      1. State three factors that influence soil formation (3mks)
      2. Identify any two components of soil (2mks)
    3. Explain any four farming methods that help conserve soils (8mks)
    4. You intend to carry out a field study on soils around your schools.
      1. State three reasons why you would need a route map (3mks)
      2. Name two tools you will need to carry for use during their field study (2mks)
  10.    
    1.    
      1. What is an ice-sheet? (2mks)
      2. Give two reasons why there are no ice-sheet in Kenya (2mks)
      3. Explain three factors that influence movement of ice from where it has accumulated. (6mks)
    2. Describe how an arete is formed (4mks)
    3. The diagram below shows types of moraines in a glacial valley.
      2
      • Name the types of moraines marked S,T and V (3mks)
    4. Explain four positive effects of glaciations in lowland areas. (8mks)


MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A 

  1.    
    1. Identify two forces responsible for the spherical shape of the earth. (2mks)
      • Force of gravity
      • Centrifugal force
      • Centripetal force 1 x 2 = 2mks
    2. Give three reasons why the interior of the earth is still hot (3mks)
      • Pressure exerted by overlying rock masses
      • Radioactivity
      • Heat retained during formation of the earth 1x 3 = 3mks 2
  2.    
    1. Climate is the average weather condition of a particular place for a long period of time between 30 -35 years.
    2. What are the negative effects of climate change on physical environment?
      • Flooding of land /coast lands caused by increased temperature leads to melting of glaciers resulting to a rise in seal level / change in rainfall patterns / change in seasonal pattern / change in winds or air masses pattern
      • Drought caused by increased temperatures resulting to high evaporation / change in rainfall pattern /change in seasonal pattern
      • Disruption of natural ecosystems/ loss of biodiversity / abnormal growth of plants caused by change in seasonal pattern / rainfall pattern / global warming / increased ultraviolet radiation
      • Drying up of water reservoirs (there by reducing their lifespan) may be caused by increased temperature.
      • Soil erosion by water due to increase in rainfall / soil erosion by wind caused by change in wind /air masses pattern
      • High ocean / sea waves / sea storms due to change in wind / air masses pattern when they blow more frequently and are more destructive (such as cyclones) any 3 x 1 = 3 marks
  3.    
    1. W - Rain forest (1 mark)
      X - Bamboo forest (1 mark)
      Y - Heath and moorland (1 mark)
    2. Name the temperate grasslands found in the following countries
      • Canada - Prairies (1 mark)
      • Russia - Steppes (1 mark)
  4.    
    1. It is a mass of cool air blowing from the land to the sea during the night. (2marks)
    2.    
      • It lowers temperature of adjacent areas
      • It may increase rainfall
      • It may increase relative humidity
      • It moderates diurnal range of temperature
      • It may lead to convectional rainfall
  5.  
    1.      
      • An area of limestone
      • Thick layers of calcium carbonate rocks
      • Moderate to abundant rainfall
      • A low water table
    2.    
      • The areas are rocky
      • They have thin soils
      • They have poor vegetation
      • There is inadequate water supply
  6. Mapwork ( Compulsory )- Kijabe Scale 1:50,000
    1.    
      1. Map title – Kijabe (1mk
      2. Longitudinal extent (2mks
        36º 301E to 36º 451E
    2.    
      1. Three types of natural vegetation apart from forest (3mks
        • Thicket
        • woodland
        • Scrub
        • Bamboo
        • Scattered trees
      2. Approximate height of the top of Kijabe hill (2mks
        2661-2679M
    3.    
      1.      
        1. Drainage of the area covered by the map (5mks
          • The main drainage permanent rivers in the map i.e Tongitongi /Maumau
          • The Eastern part of the map has radial drainage pattern.
          • The Eastern part of the map has dendritic drainage pattern
          • Some rivers form parallel drainage pattern
          • There is a water trough in grid square 2701 (5 x 1 = 5mks )
      2. Grid reference of a trigonometrical station 2610 on the Eastern side of the map extract (2mks
        378939
    4. Four economic activities in the area covered by the map (4mks)
      Economic activity Evidence
      Transportation  Road/Railway/Motorable track
      Forestry  Forest/Forest station/Forest guard post
      Trade  Shops/Petrol station 
      Communication Post Office 
      Quarrying  Murram pit/Quarry 
      Lumbering  Saw Mill 
      Catttle rearing/keeping Cattle dip/water trough 
      Dairy farming Dairy
      Manufacturing/processing Kagwe cabacid plant
      Crop farming Plantation
    5.  
      3   
  7.    
    1.    
      1. What is vulcanicity (2mks)
        This is process by which Solid, liquid and gaseous materials are forced out either on the surface of the earth or into the sub-crustal layers of the earth.
      2. With the help of a diagram describe how a lava plateau is formed. (6mks)
        4
        A lava plateau is formed when basic /basaltic lava spreads out from several fissures 
        Because lava has low viscousity it may spread covering great distances /wide area before cooling and solidifying. Successive eruptions makes lava to form different layers on top of each other resulting to formation of a fairly level land called a lava plateau
        Nb.last point must be mentioned to score all marks (5 max. 3mks).
      3. Distinguish between a crater and a caldera (2mks)
        • A crater is a funnel-shaped volcanic depression at the mouth of a volcanic vent while a caldera is a very large basin shaped depression surrounded by steep sides /cliffs on top of a volcano. (2mks)
    2. Explain four negative influences of vulcanicity and associated features to human activities in Kenya (8mks)
      • Recent weathered volcanic materials like ashes and granites form infertile soils. These soils fail to support farming as they are poorly developed e.g on slopes of Mt. Longonot.
      • Some volcanic features create barriers that make building of transport and communication lines difficult and expensive.
      • The rugged nature of some volcanic landscapes discourages economic activities like agriculture and settlement.
      • Mofettes and Solfatara which are associated with volcanicity emits poisonous gases that are harmful to human beings and livestock as they cause pollution.
      • Volcanic mountains like Mt. Kenya create rainshadow effects on their leeward sides which cause aridity in such areas. ( Any 4 x 2 = 8mks)
    3. Suppose you have been asked by your Geography department to carry out a field study of volcanic activities around your school.
      1. Design a working programme (schedule) you would use during the day of the study. (3mks)
        Time activity
        6:00-7:00 am  Assemble equipmens
        7:10 am  Depart from school to the field
        7:30  Arrive at the area of study 
        8:40-12:00  Embark on data collection 
        12:20p.m  Report to the school 
        (Any relevant 3 x 1 = 3mks)
        Nb. The time and activity must be indicated to score
      2. State three follow-up activities you may have been involved in after the field study (3mks)
        • Report writing
        • Class discussions
        • Asking /answering questions
        • Reading more about the topic
        • Displaying collected specimens
        • Analysing photographs /tape recorded work.( Any 3 x 1 = 3mks)
  8.      
    1.      
      1. Name the conditions necessary for wind deposition to take place in hot deserts.
        • Presence of an intervening obstacle. e.g. scrub, grass or rock on the path of wind.
        • Reduction in the velocity of the wind.
        • Increase in the amount of load transported by the wind. (3 x 1 = 3 marks)
        • State three mechanisms of wind transportation in hot deserts.
        • Suspension- where light materials such as dust are picked up and transported in the turbulence of wind.
        • Saltation. Where by medium sized particles are lifted and carried by rolling and bouncing on the ground.
        • Surface creep – where the heavier materials like gravel and pebbles are rolled along the ground. (3 x1 = 3 marks)
    2. With the aid of labelled diagrams describe how the following features are formed.
      Rock pedestal
      5
      • It is formed where there is a rocky mass consisting of alternate layers of hard and soft rock, lying horizontally in the path of wind.
      • The rocky mass is attacked by wind loaded with debris.
      • Through wind abrasion the soft layers are eroded faster than the resistant layers.
      • Abrasion is greater at the ground level due to heavier material transported by wind.
      • This leads to the formation of an irregular rock pillar called a rock pedestal.
        Diagram 2 marks
        Text 4 marks
        Total 6 marks
        6
      • Formed where the desert surface has a layer of resistant rock underlain by a layer of weak rocks.
      • Weathering opens up the joints on the top resistant layer.
      • Wind abrasion slowly erodes the open joints
      • With time a ridge and furrow landscapes are formed.
      • The ridges are the zeugens (must mention the last statement to score maximum.)
        Diagram 2 marks
        Text 4 marks
        Total 6 marks
    3. You are supposed to carry out a field study of a semi-arid area in Kenya.
      1. Name two Counties which you would visit for your study.
        Wajir, Manders, Marsabit, Turkana, West Pokot, Moyale, Garissa. . (Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)
      2. What information would you collect through observation that would indicate that the area is turning into a desert?
        • Information on the density of vegetation/ number of plants. Scanty plants cover will indicate desertification.
        • Information on height of plants stunted growth will indicate desertification.
        • Occurrence of plants species.
        • Foliage/ leaf coverage.
        • Presence of drought evading plants
        • Productivity of the soil e.g crops grown. (Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)
        • State three measures you would recommend to combat desertification in the area.
        • A forestation programs.
        • Land reclamation through irrigation
        • Planting drought resistance crops
        • Controlled grazing.
        • Controlling soil erosion.
          (Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)
  9.    
    1.      
      1. Soil profile is the vertical arrangement of soil particles in layers while soil catena is the horizontal arrangement of soil on a mountain slope. (2mks for well diffentiated )

      2. 7
        (Total 5mks)
    2.        
      1. 3 factors that influence soil formation
        • Topography
        • Climate
        • Time
        • Living organisms / biotic factors
        • Nature of parent rock (Any3x1=3mks)
      2. Two components of soil
        • Soil air,
        • organic matter
        • Soil water,
        • mineral particles
    3. 4 methods that helps in soil conservation
      • Crop rotation – reduces the rate of soil exhaustion as difference crops require different minerals.
      • Contour ploughing – reduces surface run-off and trap soil along contours to control soil erosion.
      • Strip cropping – reduces both wind and water erosion.
      •  Intercropping – provide cover over soils balances minerals in the soil.(4x2=8mks)
    4. 3 reasons why they need a route map.
      • Estimate the distance of the area of study
      • Avoid getting loss in the field / on the way.
      • Help them identify the shortest route so as not to waste time on the way.
      • To know the general nature of the terrain to the area of the study. (3x1=3mks)
    5. Tools they would carry for use.
      • Jembes / pangas / spade
      • Bags / paper bags / baskets (2x1=2mks)
  10.    
    1.    
      1. What is an ice sheet?
        It is a continuous mass of ice covering a large area surface (2mks)
      2. Give two reasons why there are no ice sheets in Kenya.
        • Kenya is located along tropical areas and experienced high temperatures therefore ice sheets cannot form.
        • Most parts of Kenya have steep gradient / are highlands thus discouraging accumulation of ice.
        • Kenya is found at low latitudes and experiences high temperatures. (2x1=2mks)
      3. Explain the factors which influence the movement of ice sheet from the place of accumulation
        • Gradient of the land – ice moves faster when the slope is steeper than gentle gradient.
        • Temperature / seasonal changes – Higher temperatures results in to Thawing leading to faster movement of ice.
        • Nature of the surface When the surface on which ice is moving is rough It causes friction lowering the speed of the movement of ice. Smooth / even surfaces enlarge faster ice movement.
        • Size / thickness of glacier .Large masses of ice exerts pressure which lead to melting of ice underneath. This increases the speed of ice movement.
          (Any3x2=6mks)
    2. Describe how an arete is formed
      • Two adjacent cracks / hollows exist on mountain side.
      • The two hollow / cracks are filled with ice.
      • The ice erodes the \sides through plucking and deepens the hallow through abrasion.
      • Through erosion, The back walls of the hollows slowly recede.
      • Eventually the hollows (acquires) are separated by a knife –edged ridge of a rock.
      • he feature is called an arête
        N/B The last point must be mention for one to score a maximum of 4.(4x1=4mks)
    3. Name the types of moraines marked S,T and V. see the question on the question paper
      S – medial
      T –Lateral
      V – Terminal
      Explain four effects of glaciations in lowland area.
      • Glacial till provides fertile soils for arable farming
      • Ice sheet, in their scouring effects lower land surface and depict to expose minerals which becomes easy to extract.
      • Out wash plains comprise of land, and gravel which are used as materials for building and construction.
      • Lakes formed through glaciations can be exploited for various economic uses such as fishing transportation or as tourist attraction.
      • Glaciated features are tourists attractions which earn foreign exchange.
      • Glaciated lowlands are generally flat due to erosional and deposition and are for ideal for construction of building and communication lines.
        (Any 4x2=8mks)

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