Geography Paper 2 Questions and Answers- Kapsabet Pre Mock Exams 2021/2022

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GEOGRAPHY
PAPER 2

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  • This paper has two sections A and B.
  • Answer all the questions in section A.
  • Answer question 6 and any other two questions from section B.
  • All answers must be written in separate answer sheets.

SECTION A.
Answer all the questions in the section.

  1.      
    1. Define the term animal sanctuary. (2mks)
    2. Name any three marine parks in Kenya. (3mks)
  2.           
    1. Differentiate between horticulture and market gardening. (2 mks)
    2. Mention three factors that have favoured horticulture industry in Kenya. (3 marks)
  3.     
    1. Statethree physical factors that influenced location of Perkerra irrigation scheme. (3 mks)
    2. State two problems that face farmers in (a) above. (2mks)
  4.       
    1. Name two dairy cattle breeds reared in Kenya. (2mks)
    2. State three differences between beef farming in Argentina and Kenya. (3mks)
  5.        
    1. Give two examples of softwood trees found in Kenya (2mks)
    2. State three problems facing forestry in Canada (3mks)

SECTION B
Answer question 6 and any other two questions from this section

  1. The table below shows crops production in Kenya for a period of five years in 1000 kilograms. Use it to answer question (a)
    CROP/YEAR 2005  2006 2007 2008 2009
    Coffee  1000 900  800  700  800
     Tea  700  700  600  680  600
    Cotton  500  400  300  600  350
    Pyrethrum  300  200  300  440  450

    1.        
      1. Using a scale of 1 cm represent 200 kilograms present the above data using a compound bar graph.(9 marks)
      2. List two advantages of using a compound bar graph to represent statistical data.(2 mks)
    2.      
      1. Other than Ghana, name other two counties West Africa where cocoa is grown (2 mks)
      2. State three physical conditions that favor the growth of cocoa in Ghana.(3 mks)
    3. Describe how cocoa is processed in Ghana (6 mks)
    4. Give three importance of cocoa production to the economy of Ghana. (3 mks)
  2.                
      1. identify two types of open cast mining. (2mks)
      2. Describe the stages involved in deep-shaft mining. (6mks)
    1. State three negative effects of mining on the environment. (3mks)
    2. Give two reasons why Kenya import her oil in crude form. (2mks)
    3. Explain four ways in which mining contributes to the economy of Kenya. (8mks)
    4. Explain how the following factors influence exploitation of minerals.
      1. Technology (2mks)
      2. Quality of the ore. (2mks)
  3. Use the map of North America to answer the questions below.
    KapPreM Geo p2q8
    1.            
      1. Name the ocean currents named K and L (2 mks)
      2. Name two methods of fishing used in the shaded area. (2 mks)
    2. Explain how the following factors favour fishing in the shaded area.
      1. Indented coastline (2 mks)
      2. Ocean currents (2 mks)
    3. Explain four ways in which marine fisheries in Kenya can be conserved (8 mks)
    4.       
      1. Give three methods used to preserve fish in Kenya (3 mks)
      2. Explain three problems experienced by fishermen in Lake Victoria (6 mks)
  4.             
    1.      
      1. Name two geothermal power stations in Kenya (2mks)
      2. Explain three physical factors that influence the location of geothermal power stations (6mks)
      1. State three negative effects of energy crisis (3mks)
      2. Explain four measures taken by the Kenyan Government to manage and conserve energy (8mks)
    2.       
      1. State three challenges facing energy management in Kenya (3mks)
      2. State three disadvantages of natural gas (3mks)
  5.               
    1.                   
      1. Differentiate between industry and industrialization. (2mks)
      2. Name a town in Kenya where each of the following industries is located.
        • Oil Refining (1mk)
        • Paper manufacturing (1mk)
        • Motor vehicle assembly (1mk)
    2. Study the map of the Ruhr industrial region and use it to answer the question below.
      Name;
      1. The rivers marked X and Y (2mks)
      2. Towns marked Q and R (2mks)
      3. A part from iron and steel industry, name two other industries in the region (2mks)
    3. Explain five factors which influenced the location of iron and steel industry in the Ruhr region of Germany (10mks)
    4. State four problems facing cottage industry in India (4mks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1.            
    1. Define the term animal sanctuary. (2mks)
      • An area of set aside for protection of specific animals or birds that are threatened with extinction ✔✔
    2.               
      • Kiunga✔
      •  Malindi✔
      • Watamu✔
      • Mombasa✔
      • Kisite / mpunguti
  2.               
    1. Differentiate between horticulture and market gardening.
      • Horticulture is the growing of vegetables, fruits and flowers on large scale for sale while market gardening involves growing of vegetables and fruits mainly for local market
        2 marks
    2. Mention three factors that have favored horticulture industry in Kenya.(3 marks)
      • Fertile soils which are mainly of the volcanic type
      • Availability of ready market both locally and internationally
      • Good infrastructural systems
      • Support from the government through horticultural development authority(HAD)
      • Availability of loan facilities
      • Favorable climate e.g sufficient rainfall and temperature which rage from hot to cool and cold.
        Any 3x1=3 marks
  3.             
    1. Factors that have influenced location of Perkerra irrigation scheme.
      • Gently sloping land allows gravity flow of water reducing expenses of pumping.
      • Availability of expansive lands for the expansion of the scheme.
      • Presence of constant water supply from R.Perkerra for use in irrigation.
      • The area has rich black cotton soil /silt that enables a variety of crops to grow. (3x1=3mks)
    2. Two problems that face farmers in Perkerra irrigation scheme.
      • Fluctuation of water levels in R.Perkerra affects irrigation farming.
      • Livestock – human conflict on the irrigation farms.
      • Inter- ethnic conflicts in the scheme affects farming activities. (2x1=2mks)
  4.               
      1. Name two dairy cattle breeds reared in Kenya
        • Ashyire
        • Guernsey
        • Jersey
        • Friesian
        • Sahiwal (2x1 = 2 mks)
      2. State three differences between beef farming in Argentina and Kenya.
    Argentina Kenya
    Has more beef processing plants
    Beef products are exported
    Animals have enough pasture
    Animals mainly transported by rail
    Exotic breeds mainly reared
    |Corn is used to fatten the beef cattle
    Has few processing plants
    None of the beef products is exported / most consumed locally
    Pasture may be scarce in the dry season
    Animals mainly transported by road
    Both exotic and locally indigenous breeds are reared
    Animals mainly rely on natural pastures
      Any 3 complete comparison x 1 = 3mks
  5.                
    1.      
      1. Give two examples of softwood tree found in Kenya (2mrks)
        • podo
        • cypress
        • bamboo
        • pine 2x1=2mks
      2. Problems facing forestry in Canada (3mrks)
        • Severe winters which make tree seedlings to take too long to mature & delay – harvesting
        • The rugged landscape hinders smooth exploitation of forests.
        • Wild fires / pest destroy large tracts of forest cover
        • Pesteg aphids / diseases destroy forest reducing forest cover
        • Over exploitation leading to shortage of some tree special.
  6.                         
    1.         
      1.     
        KapPreM Geo p2qa16a
      2. Advantages of using a compound bar graph to represent statical data. (2 marks)
        • Facilitates comparison of data
        • A number of variables can be represented in one bar
        • Changes /trend is easy to trace
        • Good visual impression (any 2×1=2 marks)
    2.            
      1. Other than Ghana, name two countries in West Africa where cocoa is grown. (2 Marks)
        • Nigeria
        • Cote -de -vore
        • Cameroon (Any 2×1=2 marks)
      2. Physical conditions that favor the growth of cocoa in Ghana. (3 mks)
        • High/ well distributed rainfall, ✔exceeding 1200mm p.a.
        • High temperatures✔ /between 240c-300c
        • High relative humidity✔ throughout the year
        • Deep✔ ,fertile ✔well drained soils✔
        • Low altitude/below 700m a.s.l. ✔ 3×1=3 marks)
    3. How cocoa is processed in Ghana (6 mks)
      • Beans are fermented✔ for 5-6 days and dried✔
      • The fermented beans are washed / cleaned
      • The beans are roasted ✔
      • The roasted beans are then crushed✔to extract cocoa butter
      • Cocoa is blended ✔and mixed with sugar (1 mark×6= 6 marks)
    4. Importance of cocoa production to the economy of Ghana. (3 mks)
      • Has contributed to development of industries which use cocoa as raw materials✔
      • Earn the country foreign exchange since most of it exported ✔
      • Provide employment opportunities to people working in the cocoa farms and distributing it. ✔
      • Has contributed to development of infrastructure in the country✔
      • Has attracted foreign investments into the country✔ (Any 4×1=4 marks)
  7.                   
    1.           
      1. Types of open cast mining
        • Stripping
        • Hill slope mining (2mks
      2. Stages involved in Deep shaft mining
        • Vertical shaft is sunk to reach the minerals, seams or beds
        • Horizontal tunnels are dug from the shaft to reach the mineral bearing rock.
        • Props are erected to support the roof of the tunnels
        • The rocks are blasted with explosives or dug using mechanical shovels and big axes.
        • Ore is transported on light rail tracks or conveyor belts to the bases of the shaft.
        • The ore is then loaded onto a lift or cage for hosting onto the surface.( 6mks)
    2. Negative effects of mining in the environment
      • Pits left on the land are ugly/land dereliction/landslide scars.
      • Dust produced during mining pollute the atmosphere/water.
      • Blasting leads to instability of the basement rocks
      • Ponds created collect water which is habitat for disease causing vectors and pests.
      • Loss of biodiversity
      • leads to soil erosion.
      • Disruption /lowering of water table. (Any 3 x 1= 3mks)
    3. Reasons why Kenya imports her oil in crude form
      • It is cheaper than when it is refined
      • Kenya exports her refined petroleum product
      • After crude oil is refined there are many by-products
      • Waste from refineries is used for roads tarmacking (2mk)
    4. Ways in which mining contributes to the economy of Kenya.
      • It provides raw material for manufacturing / Industry.
      • Mining stimulates development of transport opening up remote mineral rich areas.
      • The mining industry generates employment opportunities which raises the standards of living for the employees.
      • Mining promotes agriculture by providing markets.
      • Mining facilities provision of social amenities eg schools, hospitals
      • Mining encouraged development of skills /technology which can be applied in other sectors f the economy.
      • It leads to setting up of other related industries.
      • Source of income selling the mineral which raises the standards of living (4x2=8mks)
    5.              
      1. Technology
        • Availability of technical skills and relevant modern machines are important for specialized mining operations.
        • If the skills are inadequate, then there would be need to bring in experts from foreign countries. (1x2mks)
      2. Quality of the ores
        • High quality ores are economical to extract as they yield a large amount of metal.
        • Low quality ores are rarely extracted for their metal content is very low. (1x2mks)
  8.                         
    1.                     
      1. ocean currents
        • K - Cold Labrador
        • L - Warm Gulf Stream
      2. Methods of fishing used in the shaded area. (2 marks)
        • Trawling
        • Purse –seining
        • Drifting
        • Lining /line/hook and line /longline (2×1=2 marks)
    2.                   
      1. Indented coastline (2 mks)
        • These provide secure breeding grounds for fish because the bays are sheltered from the sea waves.
        • The sheltered bays provide suitable sites for building fish ports/fish landing sites (2×1=2 marks)
      2. Ocean currents
        • The meeting of the cold and warm currents cause upwelling of the ocean water which brings plankton/fish food to the surface
        • Cold currents provide ideal temperature for survival of numerous species of fish and growth of plankton(2x1=2 marks)
    3. Ways in which marine fisheries in Kenya can be conserved (8 marks)
      • Increasing fish number or restock overfished areas there is breeding of fingerlings in fish farms and then release them into the sea.
      • Restricting disposal of untreated waste into the sea to ensure that the water remains clean for survival of fish
      • Standardizing the size of fish nets used in fishing to ensure that only the mature fish are caught
      • Enforcing the international conventions in order to protect the endangered fish species
      • Licensing fishermen to control their numbers and ensure that there is no overfishing.
      • Restricting fishing to specific seasons to allow for breeding and maturing of fish/ensuring natural regeneration of fish (4×2=8 mks)
    4.                   
      1. Methods used to preserve fish in Kenya (3 marks)
        • Freezing
        • Salting
        • Canning
        • Sun drying
        • Smoking (3×1=3 marks)
      2. Problems experienced by fishermen in Lake Victoria
        • The occurrence of strong winds leads to high waves causing accidental drowning/destruction of fishing vessels and nets
        • Most fishermen have poor fishing equipments/motorboats which are inefficient. This leads to a low catch delaying landing.
        • Fishermen lack appropriate storage /preservation facilities.
        • Presence of floating vegetation /water hyacinth entangles and tears fish nets which is a loss to fishermen /hinders movement of fishing boats
        • Parts of lake shores are swampy /marshy which makes the landing of the catch difficult
        • Insecurity /theft of fish and fishing equipment discourages the fishermen (3×2=6 marks)
  9.                                 
    1.                    
      1. Two geothermal power stations in Kenya
        • Olkaria
        • Menengai crater
      2. Physical factors influencing location of geothermal power stations
        • Presence of supper heated water steam from underground rock
        • The amount of steam is of high temperature and pressure to turn the turbines
        • Presence of a hard basement rock to support the plant.
          (Any 3x2 = 6mks)
    2.                 
      1. Negative effects of energy crisis
        • Energy crisis leads to increase in prices of imports and other locally manufactured goods.
        • Third world countries spend hug sums of money on importation of crude oil.
        • Affects balance of trade since earnings from exports will be lower than imports.
        • Result into inflation since government passes the costs to consumers.
        • Oil crisis lower the GDP of the third world countries since there will be more expenditure than investments.
        • It causes the recession making an economy unable to create more jobs.
        • Causes a rise in the living standards of people.
        • Increased production costs in other industries.(3x1=3mks)
      2. Measures taken to manage and conserve energy
        • Reducing the consumption rate energy by encouraging people to put off electricity when not in use.
        • Rationing of power by distributing company.
        • Encouraging the use of public vehicle, proper maintenance of vehicle to cut down the amount of petroleum consumed.
        • Encouraging the use of alternative source of energy like biogas and solar energy that can be renewed hence saving on non –renewable energy sources.
        • Ensuring the development of energy savings devices like jikos which use wood / charcoal.
        • Development of industrial machines which can use coal that is cheaper as an alternative form of energy.
        • Reduction of taxes on gas and solar panels to cut down on the use of wood fuel.(2x4=8mks)
    3.                   
      1. Challeges facing energy management in kenya
        • Illegal logging as people are still destroying forests even when we have strict policies to protect forests.
        • Failure to hold aggressive campaign for rise of other alternatives sources of energy like biogas and wind.
        • Poverty has also contributed to energy management problems as many people use wood fuel since it is the cheapest option.
        • In rural areas wood fuel is most known source of energy, gas electricity, biogas, solar are unknown to people.(3x1=3mks)
      2. Disadvantages of natural gas
        • It is an exhaustible source of energy.
        • Since it is highly flammable, any leakage may lead to an explosion
        • An expensive source of energy especially to low income earners.
        • It is a pollutant and very dangerous.(3x1=3mks)
  10.                        
    1.                      
      1. Differentiate between industry and industrialization
        • Industry is an enterprise which make it possible for people to produce goods and services for their personal use or sale while industrialization is the process and pace at which a country /community sets and undergoes to establish industries( 2mks)
      2. Name a town in Kenya where each of the following industries is located.
        • Oil refining (1mk)
        • Mombasa
      3. Paper manufacturing (1mk)
        • Webuye
      4. Motor vehicle assembly (1mk)
        • Nairobi
        • Mombasa
        • Kisumu
        • Thika
        • Nakuru
    2.                    
      1. Name the rivers marked X and Y (2mks)
        • X – Lippe Y– RiverWupper (2mks)
      2. Towns marked Q and R
        • Q - Wessel
        • R - Dortmund
      3. A part from iron industry, name two other industries in the region. (2mks)
        • Textile industry – oil refinery
        • Chemical plants
    3. Explain five factors which influence the location of iron and steel industry in the Ruhr region of Germany.
      • Availability of raw material such as coal, iron, limestone
      • Entrepreneurial culture e.g. the Krupp family invested heavily in manufacture of the cast iron and steeltyres for railways.
      • Availability of ready market within the locality and other parts of the world / Europe
      • Availability of power provided by anthracite coal with high percentage of carbon suitable for heating boilers/ burns with great heat.
      • Cheap water transport; the water ways such as river Ruhr and Rhine eases movement of raw materials /finished products
      • Availability of skilled labour; many of the villagers in the valley had already developed skills in metal working hence provided the required labour in the industries.
      • Availability of water, rivers Rhine and Ruhr provides the much needed water in the factories for cooling / cleaning/ producing steam in the boilers.
      • Availability of capital from the rich Merchants and Krupp family.(5x2=10mks)
    4. State four problems facing Cottage industries in India. (4mks)
      • Inadequate funds
      • Stiff competition for market with other countries
      • Exploitation by the middle men where middle men/ Women exploit the artisans
      • Exhaustion of raw materials(4x1=4mks)

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