History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Kapsabet Pre Mock Exams 2021/2022

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HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
PAPER 1

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  • This paper consists of three sections A, B and C.
  • Answer all questions in section A, three from Section B and two from Section C.

SECTION A: answer all questions in this section (25 marks)

  1. Name one communities in Kenya that belong to the Southern Cushites. (1 mark)
  2. Give one function of the Kayas among the Mijikenda in the pre-colonial period.(1 mark)
  3. State two results of the interaction between the Maasai and the Abagussi in the pre-colonial period. (2 marks)
  4. Give two reasons why the Oman rulers were interested in the Kenyan Coast. (2 marks)
  5. State two ways in which Ludwig Krapf contributed to the spread of Christianity in Kenya. (2 marks)
  6. Give two environmental factors that favored the development of plantation farming along the Kenyan coast in the 19th Century. (2 marks)
  7. State two results of the Bukusu resistance to the British in 1895. (2 marks)
  8. Give two reasons why the British used the IBEA Company to administer Kenya. (2 marks)
  9. State two results of the establishment of Independent churches in Kenya during the colonial period. (2 marks)
  10. Apart from the Nandi name two other communities that resisted the establishment of colonial rule in Kenya. (2 marks)
  11. State the main duty of the Governor during the British colonial rule in Kenya. (1 mark)
  12. State one reason why the colonial government established Local Natives Councils in Kenya in 1924. (1 mark)
  13. Give one reason why Kenyan communities were settled in reserves during the colonial period. (1 mark)
  14. Which document prevented the white settlers from making Kenya a white man’s colony? (1 mark)
  15. What was the main reason for the formation of the Ukamba Members’ Association? (1 mark)
  16. State the main ideological difference between KANU and KADU before independence in Kenya. (1 mark)
  17. What is dual citizenship? (1 mark)

SECTION B (45 MARKS)
Answer any THREE questions from this section.

  1.        
    1. State three practices which were introduced by Cushites to other communities in Kenya. (3marks)
    2. Explain six social results of the migration and settlement of the Oromo speakers by the 19th century (12marks)
  2.        
    1. State three positive impacts of British colonial rule in Kenya. (3marks)
    2. Explain six reasons why the Wanga, a section of the Abaluhya collaborated with the Europeans during the process of establishment of colonial rulein Kenya. (12marks)
  3.            
    1. Give three reasons why Africans moved to urban areas during the colonial period. (3marks)
    2. Explain six negative consequences of urbanization in Kenya during the colonial period. (12marks)
  4.      
    1. State five characteristics of the coastal towns by 1500 A D. (5marks)
    2. Explain five factors which led to the decline of the coastal towns after 1500 AD. (10 marks)

SECTION C:(30 MARKS)
answer any two questions in this section

  1.        
    1. Highlight clearly five factors that are likely to interfere with free and fair election in Kenya.(5marks)
    2. Explain five roles of the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission. (IEBC) (10marks)
  2.         
    1. State three circumstances that can lead to revocation of citizenship obtained through registration in Kenya. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six civic responsibilities of a Kenyan citizen.(12 marks)
  3.             
    1. What is the composition of the National Executive arm of the government(3 marks)
    2. Explain six reasons that may make a Member of Parliament lose his/her seat in parliament. (12 marks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1.  Name one communities in Kenya that belong to the Southern Cushites. (1 mark)
    • Dahallo/Sanye
  2. Give one function of the Kayas among the Mijikenda in the pre-colonial period. (1mark)
    • Religious centers/Ritual centers
    • Political/Administrative centers
    • Settlements
  3. State two results of the interaction between the Maasai and the Abagussi in the pre-colonial period. (2 marks)
    • Led to intermarriages
    • Led to warfare/raids
    • Increased the volume of trade
    • The KwaviMaasai adopted cultivation from the Abagussi
  4. Give two reasons why the Oman rulers were interested in the Kenyan Coast. (2 marks)
    • To have control of the Indian Ocean trade
    • To assist the Muslims along the Kenyan coast in ending the rule of the Christian Portuguese
    • To establish political control over the Kenyan coastal towns
    • There was fertile land and the climate was good for settlement and cultivation
  5. State two ways in which Ludwig Krapf contributed to the spread of Christianity in Kenya. (2 marks)
    • He trained catechists to assist in spreading the gospel
    • Translated the Bible into Kiswahili which enabled the local people to understand the gospel
    • He encouraged other missionary societies to come to Kenya to spread the gospel
    • Established a mission station at Rabai where he preached the gospel
  6. Give two environmental factors that favored the development of plantation farming along the Kenyan coast in the 19th Century. (2 marks)
    • Fertility of the soils
    • Suitable climate
    • Availability of water/rain
  7. State two results of the Bukusu resistance to the British in 1895. (2 marks)
    • The Bukusu lost their independence
    • The Bukusu lost their cattle and sheep hence economic disruption
    • Bukusu land was alienated
    • The Bukusu women and children were taken as prisoners by the British
    • Massive loss of life
  8. Give two reasons why the British used the IBEA Company to administer Kenya. (2 marks)
    • Lack of funds
    • Lack of personnel
    • Absence of a clear policy on the administration of colonial possessions
    • The IBEA Company had a long experience in the region
  9. State two results of the establishment of Independent churches in Kenya during the colonial period. (2 marks)
    • Led to the establishment of independent schools
    • Accelerated the spread of Christianity in Kenya
    • More Africans were trained as clergy
    • African cultural practices were incorporated into the independent churches
    • Give African clergy leadership opportunities in the church
  10. Apart from the Nandi name two other communities that resisted the establishment of colonial rule in Kenya. (2 marks)
    • Somali
    • Giriama
    • Bukusu
  11. State the main duty of the Governor during the British colonial rule in Kenya. (1 mark)
    • In charge of colonial administration
  12. State one reason why the colonial government established Local Natives Councils in Kenya in 1924. (1 mark)
    • To involve the local people in the running of the government
    • To link the central government and the rural community
    • To provide a legal forum for the local people to air their views
    • To provide specific services to the people residing in a particular area
  13. Give one reason why Kenyan communities were settled in reserves during the colonial period. (1 mark)
    • For the security of the European settlers
    • To enable the European administrators control the Africans easily
    • To facilitate the reservation of land for European settlement
    • For European settlers to acquire labor easily
  14. Which document prevented the white settlers from making Kenya a white man’s colony? (1 mark)
    • The Devonshire White Paper
  15. What was the main reason for the formation of the Ukamba Members’ Association? (1 mark)
    • To oppose the colonial policy of destocking
  16. State the main ideological difference between KANU and KADU before independence in Kenya. (1 mark)
    • KANU favored a unitary government while KADU favored a federal form of government
  17. What is dual citizenship? (1 mark)
    • Being a citizen of two countries at the same time
  18.   
    1. State three practices which were introduced by Cushites to other communities
      • Circumcision
      • Clitoridectomy
      • Milking of animals
      • Use of animal dung as manure
      • Taboo against fish eating among the Bantu
      • Age-set systems
        3 x 1 = 3marks
    2. Explain six social results of the migration and settlement of the Oromo speakers by the 19th century
      • Population increased in the region where they settled
      • They introduced some cultural practices in Kenya
      • They intermarried with other communities
      • It led to population redistribution in Kenya
      • They displaced other communities from their land
      • They fought other communities killing many people in the process
      • They spread Islam in the region
        6 x 2 = 12marks
  19.         
    1. State three positive impacts of British colonial rule in Kenya
      • It led to advancement of infrastructure
      • New crops and livestock breeds were introduced
      • Introduction of western education and religion
      • New eating and dressing habits were introduced
      • They helped to draw the independence constitution
      • Kenyans realized the need to remain united during various resistances
        3 x 1 = 3marks
    2. Explain six reasons why the Wanga a section of the Abaluhya collaborated with the Europeans during the process of establishment of colonial rule in Kenya.
      • Desire by Mumia to ascend to a paramount chief in Western Kenya
      • Need to be protected from their enemies
      • In order to be assisted to expand their territory
      • In order to acquire modern fire arms
      • It was prestigious to associate with the British
      • Need to acquire Western education and religion
      • The realization on the futility of resisting the Europeans.
        6 x 2 = 12marks
  20.          
    1. Give three reasons why Africans moved to Urban areas during the colonial period
      • To search for jobs with better wages
      • Landlessness left them without alternative settlement
      • They escaped forced labour and taxation
      • African entrepreneurs wanted to invest in towns
      • Need to enjoy good recreational facilities and other social amenities like piped water
        3 x 1 = 3marks
    2. Explain six negative consequences of Urbanization in Kenya during the colonial period
      • Unemployment due to the high population and few jobs
      • Inadequate housing which led to development of slums
      • Erosion of African cultures
      • Increased environmental degradation, pollution and outbreak of diseases due to overcrowding
      • Racial discrimination increased in social places
      • Restrictions were set to control African migration into towns
      • Disruption of economic activities in the rural areas by absence of men
        6 x 2 = 12marks
  21.          
    1. Kiswahili was used as the main medium of communication in the coastal towns
      • Islam was the main religion practiced in towns
      • Islamic law (sheria) was used in administration.
      • Houses were constructed using Arabic architecture.
      • Trade was the main economic activity in the town.
      • In the city – states were gauzily divided into two sections, one for Muslim and the other African class of merchants / sultan and sheik.
      • Imams ruled the city state
      • The city-state were independent political entities
      • Town minted and used their own coins-money
      • People wore woven and silk clothes.
    2. Disruption of trade by the Portuguese which resulted in loss of revenue
      • Constant warfare and conflict between Portuguese and the coastal towns led to total destruction of some coastal settlements.
      • Invasion of coastal settlement by the wazimba led to the disruption of economic activities of the coastal settlements.
      • Increased conflicts between the city states discouraged traders from the interior to bring trade goods to the coast.
      • The drought spell hindered farming activities / lack of water
      • Conflicts between Mazrui family and Al-Busaidy family over the control of the coastal settlement.
      • Taxes levied on the coastal settlement by corrupt Portuguese administrator weakened the economic base of the settlement.
      • Rivalry between European nations for the control of the trade.
        (Any five well stated fact with justification =5x2=10mks)
  22.        
    1. Ethnic loyalties / polarization /allegiance
      • Party loyalties
      • Harassment of voters by rival groups
      • Incompetent election officials
      • Parties election officials
      • In accessibilities of polling stations
      • Communication problem between the headquarters
      • Extreme weather conditions
      • Illiteracy of some voters
      • Corruption of candidates and their voters
      • Inefficient distribution of election materials
      • Use of negative propaganda by party leaders/supporters.
      • Insecurity / fear instilled in candidates
      • Gender insensitivity
      • Use and misuse of the mass media.
    2. Organizes county, National and Presidential elections
      • Identify – appoint and train election officials
      • Clear party candidates for participation in elections
      • Verifies and announces election results
      • Prepare ballot papers and other election materials
      • Educate / inform the general public on requirements for voters and contestants
      • Identifies and recommends polling stations
      • Prescribes and reviews electoral boundaries.
      • Registers voters
      • Maintain and updates registers of voters
      • supervises the election process
      • Participates in the formulation of election code of conduct.
        (Any well stated role 5x2=15mks)
  23.             
    1. State three circumstances that can lead to revocation of citizenship obtained through registration in Kenya.
      • If it is proved registration was obtained through fraud
      • If during war the person has traded the secrets to the enemy
      • If one has been convicted of treason or an offence with a penalty of at least seven years imprisonment after registration
      • If one is sentenced to imprisonment for a period of three years or more within five years from the time of registration
        3x1=3marks
    2. Explain six civic responsibilities of a Kenyan citizen.
      • To participate in national debates
      • To fight corruption and promote proper utilization of resources by all
      • To take care of the environment in order to promote healthy living
      • To obey laws so as to enhance peace in society
      • To assist in promoting the rule of law by reporting wrong doers to the police
      • To allow other people space to exercise their rights and freedoms
      • To pay taxes to enable the government to provide services to the people
      • To participate in democratic processes by voting during elections
        (6x2=12 marks)
  24.            
    1. what is the composition of the National Executive arm of the government.
      • President
      • Deputy President
      • Cabinet Secretaries
        (3x1=3 marks)
    2. Explain six reasons that may make a Member of Parliament lose his/her seat in parliament.
      • Ceases to be a Kenyan citizen
      • Receive a jail term exceeding six months or a death penalty from court of law
      • Resigns from the National Assembly in writing to the speaker
      • Is declared bankrupt by a court of law
      • Is found to be of unsound mind
      • Is found to have committed an election offence and had their election nullified
      • Resigns from the sponsoring party or as an MP
      • Fails to attend eight consecutive sessions during the life of particular parliament without the permission of the speaker
      • Was elected to parliament as an independent candidate but decides to join a political party (6x2=12 marks)

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