History Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Kapsabet Pre Mock Exams 2021/2022

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HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
PAPER 2

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  • This paper consists of THREE sections A, B and C.
  • Answer ALL questions in section A, THREE in section B and TWO in section C

SECTION A (25 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section

  1. Give two contributions of Archaeology to the study of History. (2 marks)
  2. Identify two tools used by early man in the second phase of the Old Stone Age period. (2mark)
  3. Identify the contribution of Jethro Tull in the field of agriculture. (1 mark)
  4. Give the main commodity of trade from West Africa during the Trans-Atlantic trade. (1 mark)
  5. Mention two negative impact of internet today. (2 marks)
  6. Name one engineer credited with the construction on Roman roads. (1mark)
  7. State two uses of water as an early source of energy in industries. (2marks)
  8. Identify two challenges faced by Athens as an ancient urban centre. (2marks)
  9. State two ways in which centralized authority contributed to the success of Buganda Kingdom. (2marks)
  10. Give one type of democracy. (1 mark)
  11. Identify two chartered companies which were used to administer European colonial possessions in Africa. (2mark)
  12. Who was the first Senegalese to be elected to the French chamber of Deputies? (1mark)
  13. Give the main reason for the failure of the League of Nations. (1 mark)
  14. Identify one way in which the common wealth has helped to promote democracy and good governance among its members. (1mark)
  15. Mention two personalities who led in the formation of the Non-Aligned Movement. (2marks)
  16. Name the president of Front For Liberation Of Mozambique(FRELIMO) in 1962 (1mark)
  17. Who is the head of government in India? (1 mark)

SECTION B: 45 MARKS
Answer Any three questions in this section

  1.          
    1. State five ways in which man used fire after its invention in the Middle Stone age.(5mks)
    2. Discuss the impacts of early agriculture on man. (10 mks)
  2.          
    1. State three ways of acquiring slaves during the trans-Atlantic slave trade. (3mks)
    2. Explain six problems faced by London as a city. (12 mks)
  3.       
    1. Identify three terms of the Berlin conference. (3mks)
    2. Explain six reasons why Lawanika collaborated with the British. (12mks)
  4.      
    1. Identify five reasons why the Pan-African movement was not active in Africa before 1945.(5mks)
    2. Explain five reasons for the early achievement of independence in Ghana. (10 mks)

SECTION C: 30 MARKS
Answer Any two questions in this section

  1.    
    1. Give three reasons why British used direct rule in Zimbabwe. (3mks)
    2. Explain why the use of indirect rule in Southern Nigeria was unsuccessful. (12 mks)
  2.       
    1. State five objectives of the economic organization of West African States (5mks)
    2. Discuss five factors that led to the collapse of East Africa community in 1977. (10 mks)
  3.         
    1. State three ways through which one can become a member of parliament in Britain. (3mks)
    2. Explain six roles of the British Prime Minister. (12 mks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1. Give two contributions of Archaeology to the study of History. (2 marks)
    • It provides information on the origin of man.
    • It provides information on the people’s way of life / culture of early man.
    • It helps people to locate historical sites.
    • It provides information on chronological order of historical events / dating historical events.
      (Any 2x1 = 2mks)
  2. Identify two tools used by early man in the second phase of the Old Stone Age period.
    • Acheulian.
      (Any 1x1=1 mrk)
  3. Identify the contribution of Jethro Tull in the field of agriculture. (1 mark)
    • Invented the seed drill
      (Any 1x1 =1mrk)
  4. Name the main commodity of trade from West Africa during the Trans-Atlantic trade.(1 mark)
    • Slaves
      (Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk)
  5. Mention two negative impact of internet today. (2 marks)
    • Addiction 
    • Cyber crime
      (Any 2x1 =1mrks)
  6. Name one engineer credited with the construction on Roman roads. (1mark)
    • John Metcalfe
    • George Wade
      (Any 1x1 =1mrk)
  7. State two uses of water as an early source of energy in industries. (2marks)
    • Cooling machines.
    • Mixing chemicals.
    • to turn spinning machines in texture industries.
    • Grinding grains into flour.
      (Any 2x1=2 mrk)
  8. Identify one challenge faced by Athens as an ancient urban centre. (1mark)
    • Water / food shortage.
    • Congestion – people / overcrowding.
    • Attacked by Sparta.
    • Outbreak of plague / diseases.
    • Conquered by Macedonians.
      (Any 1x1 =1mrk)
  9. State two ways in which centralized authority contributed to the success of Buganda Kingdom(2marks)
    • enhanced effective control of the kingdom
    • promoted control of other traditional leaders
    • it enhanced loyalty to one single leader
    • it led to the emergence of able Kabakas who propelled the kingdom from strength to strength
      (Any 2x1=2mks)
  10. Give one type of democracy. (1 mark)
    • Direct rue
    • Indirect rule.
      (Any 1x1 =1mrk)
  11. Identify two chartered companies which were used to administer European colonial possessions in Africa. (1mark)
    • Imperial British East Africa Company
    • Germans East Africa Company
    • Royal Niger Company
    • British Southern Africa Company
      (Any 2x1 =2mrkS)
  12. Who was the first Senegalese to be elected to the French chamber of Deputies? (1mark)
    • Blaise Diagne
      (Any 1x1 =1mrk)
  13. Give the main reason for the failure of the League of Nations. (1 mark)
    • Re-armament of Germany
      (Any 1x1 =1mrk)
  14. Identify one way in which the common wealth has helped to promote democracy and good governance among its members. (1mark)
    • Through parliamentary meetings
    • Sending observers during elections
      (Any 1x1 =1mrk)
  15. Mention two personalities who led in the formation of the Non-Aligned Movement. (2marks)
    • Garmel Nasser.
    • Marshal Tito
    • Surkano
    • Jawaharlal Nerhu
    • Chou En-lai
      (Any 2x1 mrk)
  16. Name the president of Front For Liberation Of Mozambique(FRELIMO) in 1962 (1mark)
    • Eduardo Mondlane
      (Any 1x1 =1mrk)
  17. Who is the head of government in India? (1 mark)
    • Prime minister
      (Any 1x1=1 mrk)
  18.           
    1. State five ways in which man used fire after its invention in the Middle Stone age.(5mks)
      1. Fire provided warmth in the night and during cold seasons.
      2. It provided lightening at night.
      3. It was used for hunting. Bush fire pushed animals into confined areas.
      4. Fire was used for frightening or keeping away wild animals.
      5. Fire was also used as a means of communication.
      6. Fire was used as a food preservative e.g was used for drying fish and meat.
        (Any 5 x 1= 5 mks)
    2. Discuss the impacts of early agriculture on man. (10 mks)
      1. Trade developed as a result of agricultural surplus and human inter-dependence. Specialization in making certain items of trade eventually led to their refinement to suit market tastes.
      2. Methods of cultivation were improved.
      3. Man was freed from dependence on the environment as adequate food was produced usually with a surplus for storage.
      4. The production of enough food supplies freed man from farming to other activities.
      5. Members of different working groups formed distinct social classes.
      6. Increased food production created more leisure time and man devoted more time to religion.
      7. Food production lead to a sedentary life such that man became settled became cultivation required patience before planted crops can be harvested.
      8. Rulers such as chiefs, Kings and Emperors began to reign over well-defined territories.
        (Any 5 x 2 = 10 mks)
  19.          
    1. State three ways of acquiring slaves during the trans-Atlantic slave trade. (3mks)
      1. Lovely travellers were also kidnapped.
      2. Exchange for European manufactured goods.
      3. Prisoners of war were also sold to the slaves dealers.
      4. The weak in society such as the feeble-minded, widows’ and orphans were sold into slaves.
      5. Some slave dealers enticed the locals particularly children and sold them into slaves.
      6. Slaves were acquired through raids in African villages upon which the captives were sold.
        (Any 3x 1= 3 mks)
    2. Explain six problems faced by London as a city. (12 mks)
      1. Air pollution continues to be a major challenge.
      2. The crime levels are high.
      3. Unemployment has continued to increase with the growing population.
      4. Poor housing, the large number of people came to London to look for jobs which led to overgrowing in the city.
      5. Rural –urban migration, Large number of people came to London to look for jobs which led to overcrowding in the city
      6. Poverty. This was a great problem in London especially in the initial stages of its growth.
        (Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)
  20.              
    1. Identify three terms of the Berlin conference. (3mks)
      1. There was to be freedom of navigation for trade on rivers Niger, Longo and Zambezi.
      2. The European powers agreed on the stoppage of slave trade and encouragement of legitimate trade.
      3. King Leopold of Belgium was recognized as the head of the new Congo independent stage by all the powers.
      4. Any claim of any African territory had to be followed by effective occupation.
        (Any 3x1 = 3 mks)
    2. Explain six reasons why Lawanika collaborated with the British. (12mks)
      1. He was encouraged by missionaries to seek British protection.
      2. Lewanika realized the futility of resisting against the British.
      3. He desired Western education and civilization for his people.
      4. Lewanika wished to protect his kingdom against external invasion e.g he was threatened by the Portuguese and Germans.
      5. Another problem was caused by the Ndebele who raided the Lozi from time to time. Lewanika wanted to protect his people from them.
      6. He was influenced into making a decision about British protection by Khama the paramount chief. of the Ngwato of Botswana who had accepted British protection in 1885.
      7. Lewanika decided to ally with the British because of the internal and external problems affecting his position and state.
        (Any 6 x 2 = 12 mks)
  21.          
    1. Identify five reasons why the Pan-African movement was not active in Africa before 1945.(5mks)
      1. Poor African representation.
      2. Lack of good communication between different African countries.
      3. Africans in Europe were not in good contact.
      4. The movement was discouraged by the colonialists.
      5. Africans lacked suitable venues to hold Pan-African meetings.
      6. Countries that were not colonized like Liberia and Ethiopia paid little attention to the movement.
        (Any 1 x 5= 5mks)
    2. Explain five reasons for the early achievement of independence in Ghana. (10 mks)
      1. Availability of stable money economy due to the introduction of Cocoa farming.
      2. Presence of large class of elites, Ghana was the first African country to receive Western education.
      3. The characteristics and strong leadership provided by Kwame Nkurumah created unity among the Ghananians.
      4. Ghana had relatively better developed transport and communication network. This facilitated efficient movement of nationalist information
      5. The participation of Kwame Nkurumah in the 1945 Pan-African conference that articulated for self-governance in Africa.
        (Any 5 x 2= 10mks)
  22.           
    1.    
      1. Give three reasons why British used direct rule in Zimbabwe. (3mks)
      2. There were many European settlers in the colony. They could be used to fill the various administrative posts.
      3. The British wanted to control mining and prospecting operations directly to avoid losses.
      4. The 1896 – 1897 Ndebele –Shona wars had shaken the European confidence in African leadership. They could not be trusted and thus the need to use European officials to administer the colony.
        (Any 1 x 3= 3mks)
    2. Explain why the use of indirect rule in Southern Nigeria was unsuccessful. (12 mks)
      1. Southern Nigeria did not have centralized indigenous system of government that was necessary for the application of indirect rule.
      2. Lack of homogeneity in the South as there were many ethnic groups, languages and customs to be understood.
      3. The British introduced new ideas such as forced labour and direct taxes which infuriated the people.
      4. The educated people in Southern Nigeria resented the chiefs appointed by the British because they were illiterate.
      5. Communication barrier between the British supervisors the warrant chief and the people often led to misinterpretation and misunderstanding.
      6. Use of excessive force to suppress any form of resistance provoked resentment e.g the shooting down of women during demonstration against the British.
      7. The failure of the British administrators to fully understand the social, economic and political system of Southern Nigeria made them give up easily.
        (Any 6 x 2= 12 mks)
  23.          
    1. State five objectives of the economic organization of West African States . (5mks)
      1. To improve relations between the member states
      2. To liberalize trade between member states
      3. To improve the lining standards of people in the member states
      4. To create a customs union in the region
      5. To promote industrial development among member states
      6. To promote cultural interaction among member state
      7. To foster cooperation
        (Any 5 x 1= 5mks)
    2. Discuss five factors that led to the collapse of East Africa community in 1977. (10 mks)
      1. Tanzania and Uganda perceived that Kenya used to gain more than them from the organisation.
      2. Personality differences between president Nyerere of Tanzania and Idi Amin of Uganda contributed to the collapse of EAC.
      3. Political instability in Uganda that paralyzed her economically made her not to honour her financial obligation to EAC.
      4. National interests were prioritized first by the members’ countries at the expense of regional interests.
      5. Tension between the member states led to boundary closure between Uganda and Tanzania and between Tanzania and Kenya
        (Any 5 x 2= 10mks)
  24.         
    1. State three ways through which one can become a member of parliament in Britain.(3mks)
      1. Elections
      2. Appointment
      3. Inheritance to the House of Lords.
      4. By virtue of office for instance the members of royalty.
        (Any 1 x 3= (3mks)
    2. Explain six roles of the British Prime Minister. (12 mks)
      1. He/she chairs cabinet meetings.
      2. He/she appoints and dismisses ministers.
      3. He/she is the executive head of the British government.
      4. He/she represents the government in international forums such as UN.
      5. He/she is the leader of the House of Commons.
      6. Settling disputes between various departments.
      7. He/she is the leader of the party nominates him/her.
      8. Recommending to the monarchy the names of candidates for appointment of senior judicial officers.
        (Any 6 x 2= 5mks)

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